Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil

  • Smita Srivastava (a1) (a2), Madhulika Singh (a1), Jasmine George (a1), Kulpreet Bhui (a1), Anand Murari Saxena (a2) and Yogeshwer Shukla (a1)...
Abstract

Repeated heating of vegetable oils at high temperatures during cooking is a very common cooking practice. Repeated heating of edible oils can generate a number of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which have been reported to have carcinogenic potential. Consumption of these repeatedly heated oils can pose a serious health hazard. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil (RCO), which is one of the commonly consumed cooking and frying medium. The PAH were analysed using HPLC in fresh CO, single-heated CO (SCO) and RCO. Results revealed the presence of certain PAH, known to possess carcinogenic potential, in RCO when compared with SCO. Oral intake of RCO in Wistar rats resulted in a significant induction of aberrant cells (P < 0·05) and micronuclei (P < 0·05) in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidative stress analysis showed a significant (P < 0·05) decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase with a concurrent increase in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the liver. In addition, RCO given alone and along with diethylnitrosamine for 12 weeks induced altered hepatic foci as noticed by alteration in positive (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and negative (adenosine triphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase) hepatospecific biomarkers. A significant decrease in the relative and absolute hepatic weight of RCO-supplemented rats was recorded (P < 0·05). In conclusion, dietary consumption of RCO can cause a genotoxic and preneoplastic change in the liver.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Y. Shukla, fax +91 522 2628227, email yogeshwer_shukla@hotmail.com
References
Hide All
1 Granados, S, Quiles, JL, Gil, A, et al. (2006) Dietary lipids and cancer. Nutr Hosp 2, 4252, 44–54.
2 Ichinose, T, Nobuyuki, S, Takano, H, et al. (2004) Liver carcinogenesis and formation of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in C3H/HeN mice by oxidized dietary oils containing carcinogenic dicarbonyl compounds. Food Chem Toxicol 42, 17951803.
3 Taghavi, N & Yazdi, I (2007) Type of food and risk of oral cancer. Arch Iran Med 10, 227232.
4 Woutersen, RA, Appel, MJ, van Garderen-Hoetmer, A, et al. (1999) Dietary fat and carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 443, 111127.
5 Ima-Nirwana, S, Ahmad, SN, Yee, LJ, et al. (2007) Reheating of soy oil is detrimental to bone metabolism in oestrogen deficient rats. Singapore Med J 48, 200206.
6 Sinha, R, Chow, WH, Kulldorff, M, et al. (1999) Well-done, grilled red meat increases the risk of colorectal adenomas. Cancer Res 59, 43204324.
7 Li, S, Wang, Y, Zhang, J, et al. (1999) Study on the chemical components of edible oil fume in kitchen and its genotoxity on Drosophila. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 28, 1517.
8 Dung, CH, Wu, SC & Yen, GC (2006) Genotoxicity and oxidative stress of the mutagenic compounds formed in fumes of heated soybean oil, sunflower oil and lard. Toxicol In Vitro 20, 439447.
9 Hageman, G, Kikken, R, Ten Hoor, F, et al. (1988) Assessment of mutagenic activity of repeatedly used deep-frying fats. Mutat Res 204, 593604.
10 Chen, YC, Chiu, CP & Chen, BH (2003) Mutagenicity of fumes from fried chicken legs. J Food Prot 66, 12691276.
11 Chiang, TA, Pei-Fen, W, Ying, LS, et al. (1999) Mutagenicity and aromatic amine content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan. Food Chem Toxicol 37, 125134.
12 Wu, PF, Chiang, TA, Wang, LF, et al. (1998) Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contents of fumes from heated cooking oils and prevention of mutagenicity by catechin. Mutat Res 403, 2934.
13 Wu, SC & Yen, GC (2004) Effects of cooking oil fumes on the genotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung carcinoma (A-549) cells. Toxicol In Vitro 18, 571580.
14 Ramesh, SA, Walker, DB, Hood, MD, et al. (2004) Bioavailability and risk assessment of orally ingested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Int J Toxicol 23, 301333.
15 Pandey, MK, Dhawan, A & Das, M (2006) Induction of p53, p21waf1, orinithine decorboxylase activity, and DNA damage leading to cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis following topical application of repeated fish fried oil extract to mice. Mol Carcinog 45, 805813.
16 Lopez-Abente, G, Sanz-Anquela, JM & Gonzalez, CA (2001) Consumption of wine stored in leather wine bottles and incidence of gastric cancer. Arch Environ Health 56, 559561.
17 Lodovici, M, Dolara, P, Casalini, C, et al. (1995) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in the Italian diet. Food Addit Contam 12, 703713.
18 Ibáñez, R, Agudo, A, Berenguer, A, et al. (2005) Dietary intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Spanish population. J Food Prot 68, 21902195.
19 Caygill, CP, Charlett, A & Hill, MJ (1996) Fat, fish, fish oil and cancer. Br J Cancer 74, 159164.
20 Alexaki, A, Wilson, TA, Atallah, MT, et al. (2004) Hamsters fed diets high in saturated fat have increased cholesterol accumulation and cytokine production in the aortic arch compared with cholesterol-fed hamsters with moderately elevated plasma non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. J Nutr 134, 410415.
21 Augusti, KT, Chackery, J, Jacob, J, et al. (2005) Beneficial effects of a polar fraction of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) oil in rats fed with two different high fat diets. Indian J Exp Biol 43, 7683.
22 Appel, MJ, nan Garderen-Hoetmer, A & Woutersen, RA (1990) Azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats: promotion by a diet rich in saturated fat and inhibition by a standard laboratory chow. Cancer Lett 55, 239248.
23 Shukla, Y, Arora, A & Taneja, P (2003) Antigenotoxic potential of certain dietary constituents. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 1, 323335.
24 Lowry, OH, Rosebrough, NJ, Farr, AL, et al. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193, 265275.
25 Kakkar, P, Das, B & Viswanathan, PN (1984) A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys 21, 130132.
26 Sinha, AK (1972) Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem 47, 389394.
27 Ohkawa, H, Ohisi, N & Yagi, K (1979) Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbutric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95, 351358.
28 Esposti, DM & McLennan, H (1998) Mitochondria and cells produce reactive oxygen species in virtual anaerobiosis: relevance to ceramide-induced apaotosis. Febs Lett 430, 338342.
29 Tatematsu, M, Mera, Y, Inoue, T, et al. (1988) Stable phenotypic expression of glutathione-S-transferase placental type and unstable phenotypic expression of γ-glutamyl transferase in rat liver preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Carcinogenesis 9, 215220.
30 Shukla, Y & Arora, A (2003) Enhancing effects of mustard oil on preneoplastic hepatic foci development in Wistar rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 22, 5155.
31 Moret, S, Purcaro, G & Conte, LS (2007) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of soil and olives collected in areas contaminated with creosote released from old railway ties. Sci Total Environ 386, 18.
32 Uauy, R & Solomons, N (2005) Diet, nutrition, and the life-course approach to cancer prevention. J Nutr 135, 2934S2945S.
33 Sauer, LA, Blask, DE & Dauchy, RT (2007) Dietary factors and growth and metabolism in experimental tumors. J Nutr Biochem 18, 637649.
34 Schaffer, EM & Milner, JA (1996) Impact of dietary fatty acids on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary DNA adducts. Cancer Lett 106, 177183.
35 Marsili, L, Caruso, A, Fossi, MC, et al. (2001) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in subcutaneous biopsies of Mediterranean cetaceans. Chemosphere 44, 147154.
36 Isidori, M & Parrella, A (2009) Genotoxicity of aqueous extract from heated cooking oils and its suppression by lactobacilli. Food Sci Technol Int (Epublication ahead of print version 1 June 2009).
37 Mates, JM (2000) Effects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species toxicology. Toxicology 153, 83104.
38 Narchonai, E, Shila, S & Panneerselvam, C (2006) Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status in stage (III) human oral squamous cell carcinoma and treated with radical radio therapy: influence of selenium supplementation. Clin Chim Acta 373, 9298.
39 Camus, L, Birkely, SR, Jones, MB, et al. (2003) Biomarker responses and PAH uptake in Mya truncata following exposure to oil-contaminated sediment in an Arctic fjord (Svalbard). Sci Total Environ 308, 221234.
40 Narasimhamurthy, K & Raina, PL (1999) Long-term feeding effect of thermally oxidised oils on antioxidant enzymes in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 37, 10421045.
41 Ip, C & Sinha, D (1981) Anticarcinogenic effect of selenium in rats treated with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and fed different levels and types of fat. Carcinogenesis 2, 435438.
42 Udilova, N, Jurek, D, Marian, B, et al. (2003) Induction of lipid peroxidation in biomembranes by dietary oil components. Food Chem Toxicol 41, 14811489.
43 Eder, E, Wacker, M, Lutz, U, et al. (2006) Oxidative stress related DNA adducts in the liver of female rats fed with sunflower-, rapeseed-, olive- or coconut oil supplemented diets. Chem Biol Interact 159, 8189.
44 Yusof, YA, Yan, KL & Hussain, SN (2003) Immunohistochemical expression of pi class glutathione-S-transferase and alpha-fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 25, 332338.
45 Glauert, HP, Beer, D, Rao, MS, et al. (1986) Induction of altered hepatic foci in rats by the administration of hypolipidemic peroxisome proliferators alone or following a single dose of diethylnitrosamine. Cancer Res 46, 46014606.
46 Aruna, K, Rukkumani, R, Varma, SP, et al. (2005) Therapeutic role of Cuminum cyminum on ethanol and thermally oxidized sunflower oil induced toxicity. Phytother Res 19, 416442.
47 Hageman, G, Verhagen, H, Schutte, B, et al. (1991) Biological effects of short-term feeding to rats of repeatedly used deep-frying fats in relation to fat mutagen content. Food Chem Toxicol 29, 689698.
48 Arbillaga, L, Azqueta, A, van Delft, JH, et al. (2007) In vitro gene expression data supporting a DNA non-reactive genotoxic mechanism for ochratoxin A. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 15, 216224.
49 Kimihiko, S & Ichiro, H (2002) Anomalous elevation of glutathione-S-transferase P-form (GST-P) in the elementary process of epigenetic initiation of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 23, 11931198.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed