Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 12
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Eyres, Laurence Eyres, Michael F. Chisholm, Alexandra and Brown, Rachel C. 2016. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 74, Issue. 4, p. 267.

    Perumalla Venkata, Rekhadevi and Subramanyam, Rajagopal 2016. Evaluation of the deleterious health effects of consumption of repeatedly heated vegetable oil. Toxicology Reports, Vol. 3, p. 636.

    Yang, Xiangkun and Bartlett, Michael G. 2016. Identification of protein adduction using mass spectrometry: Protein adducts as biomarkers and predictors of toxicity mechanisms. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 30, Issue. 5, p. 652.

    Singh, Lochan Varshney, Jay G. and Agarwal, Tripti 2016. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons’ formation and occurrence in processed food. Food Chemistry, Vol. 199, p. 768.

    Mocek, Kamila and Ciemniak, Artur 2016. Influence of physical factors on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in vegetable oils. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, Vol. 51, Issue. 2, p. 96.

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Ahamioje, Derek and Pohjanvirta, Raimo 2014. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 11, Issue. 8, p. 8347.

    Kamisah, Yusof Periyah, Vengadesh Lee, Kee Tat Noor-Izwan, Norrashid Nurul-Hamizah, Amran Nurul-Iman, Badlishah Sham Subermaniam, Kogilavani Jaarin, Kamsiah Azman, Abdullah Faizah, Othman and Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad 2015. Cardioprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, Vol. 53, Issue. 9, p. 1243.

    Zhang, Qing Qin, Wen Li, Meiliang Shen, Qun and Saleh, Ahmed S.M. 2015. Application of Chromatographic Techniques in the Detection and Identification of Constituents Formed during Food Frying: A Review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol. 14, Issue. 5, p. 601.

    Ng, Chun-Yi Leong, Xin-Fang Masbah, Norliana Adam, Siti Khadijah Kamisah, Yusof and Jaarin, Kamsiah 2014. Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Vascular Pharmacology, Vol. 61, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Serini, Simona Fasano, Elena Piccioni, Elisabetta Cittadini, Achille R. M. and Calviello, Gabriella 2011. Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Paradox of Their Health Benefits and Potential Harmful Effects. Chemical Research in Toxicology, Vol. 24, Issue. 12, p. 2093.

    Dixit, Ruhi Srivastava, Piyush Basu, Somprakas Srivastava, Pradeep Mishra, Pradeep Kumar and Shukla, Vijay Kumar 2013. Association of Mustard Oil as Cooking Media with Carcinoma of the Gallbladder. Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Vol. 44, Issue. 2, p. 177.

    Ng, Chun-Yi Leong, Xin-Fang Masbah, Norliana Adam, Siti Khadijah Kamisah, Yusof and Jaarin, Kamsiah 2014. Reprint of “Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors”. Vascular Pharmacology, Vol. 62, Issue. 1, p. 38.


Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil

  • Smita Srivastava (a1) (a2), Madhulika Singh (a1), Jasmine George (a1), Kulpreet Bhui (a1), Anand Murari Saxena (a2) and Yogeshwer Shukla (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 06 August 2010

Repeated heating of vegetable oils at high temperatures during cooking is a very common cooking practice. Repeated heating of edible oils can generate a number of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), some of which have been reported to have carcinogenic potential. Consumption of these repeatedly heated oils can pose a serious health hazard. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil (RCO), which is one of the commonly consumed cooking and frying medium. The PAH were analysed using HPLC in fresh CO, single-heated CO (SCO) and RCO. Results revealed the presence of certain PAH, known to possess carcinogenic potential, in RCO when compared with SCO. Oral intake of RCO in Wistar rats resulted in a significant induction of aberrant cells (P < 0·05) and micronuclei (P < 0·05) in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidative stress analysis showed a significant (P < 0·05) decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase with a concurrent increase in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the liver. In addition, RCO given alone and along with diethylnitrosamine for 12 weeks induced altered hepatic foci as noticed by alteration in positive (γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and glutathione-S-transferase) and negative (adenosine triphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase) hepatospecific biomarkers. A significant decrease in the relative and absolute hepatic weight of RCO-supplemented rats was recorded (P < 0·05). In conclusion, dietary consumption of RCO can cause a genotoxic and preneoplastic change in the liver.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Genotoxic and carcinogenic risks associated with the dietary consumption of repeatedly heated coconut oil
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Y. Shukla, fax +91 522 2628227, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2T Ichinose , S Nobuyuki , H Takano , (2004) Liver carcinogenesis and formation of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in C3H/HeN mice by oxidized dietary oils containing carcinogenic dicarbonyl compounds. Food Chem Toxicol 42, 17951803.

4RA Woutersen , MJ Appel , A van Garderen-Hoetmer , (1999) Dietary fat and carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 443, 111127.

8CH Dung , SC Wu & GC Yen (2006) Genotoxicity and oxidative stress of the mutagenic compounds formed in fumes of heated soybean oil, sunflower oil and lard. Toxicol In Vitro 20, 439447.

9G Hageman , R Kikken , F Ten Hoor , (1988) Assessment of mutagenic activity of repeatedly used deep-frying fats. Mutat Res 204, 593604.

11TA Chiang , W Pei-Fen , LS Ying , (1999) Mutagenicity and aromatic amine content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan. Food Chem Toxicol 37, 125134.

12PF Wu , TA Chiang , LF Wang , (1998) Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contents of fumes from heated cooking oils and prevention of mutagenicity by catechin. Mutat Res 403, 2934.

13SC Wu & GC Yen (2004) Effects of cooking oil fumes on the genotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung carcinoma (A-549) cells. Toxicol In Vitro 18, 571580.

14SA Ramesh , DB Walker , MD Hood , (2004) Bioavailability and risk assessment of orally ingested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Int J Toxicol 23, 301333.

15MK Pandey , A Dhawan & M Das (2006) Induction of p53, p21waf1, orinithine decorboxylase activity, and DNA damage leading to cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis following topical application of repeated fish fried oil extract to mice. Mol Carcinog 45, 805813.

16G Lopez-Abente , JM Sanz-Anquela & CA Gonzalez (2001) Consumption of wine stored in leather wine bottles and incidence of gastric cancer. Arch Environ Health 56, 559561.

17M Lodovici , P Dolara , C Casalini , (1995) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in the Italian diet. Food Addit Contam 12, 703713.

19CP Caygill , A Charlett & MJ Hill (1996) Fat, fish, fish oil and cancer. Br J Cancer 74, 159164.

22MJ Appel , A nan Garderen-Hoetmer & RA Woutersen (1990) Azaserine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in rats: promotion by a diet rich in saturated fat and inhibition by a standard laboratory chow. Cancer Lett 55, 239248.

26AK Sinha (1972) Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem 47, 389394.

27H Ohkawa , N Ohisi & K Yagi (1979) Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbutric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95, 351358.

28DM Esposti & H McLennan (1998) Mitochondria and cells produce reactive oxygen species in virtual anaerobiosis: relevance to ceramide-induced apaotosis. Febs Lett 430, 338342.

29M Tatematsu , Y Mera , T Inoue , (1988) Stable phenotypic expression of glutathione-S-transferase placental type and unstable phenotypic expression of γ-glutamyl transferase in rat liver preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Carcinogenesis 9, 215220.

30Y Shukla & A Arora (2003) Enhancing effects of mustard oil on preneoplastic hepatic foci development in Wistar rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 22, 5155.

31S Moret , G Purcaro & LS Conte (2007) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of soil and olives collected in areas contaminated with creosote released from old railway ties. Sci Total Environ 386, 18.

33LA Sauer , DE Blask & RT Dauchy (2007) Dietary factors and growth and metabolism in experimental tumors. J Nutr Biochem 18, 637649.

34EM Schaffer & JA Milner (1996) Impact of dietary fatty acids on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary DNA adducts. Cancer Lett 106, 177183.

35L Marsili , A Caruso , MC Fossi , (2001) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in subcutaneous biopsies of Mediterranean cetaceans. Chemosphere 44, 147154.

36M Isidori & A Parrella (2009) Genotoxicity of aqueous extract from heated cooking oils and its suppression by lactobacilli. Food Sci Technol Int (Epublication ahead of print version 1 June 2009).

37JM Mates (2000) Effects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species toxicology. Toxicology 153, 83104.

39L Camus , SR Birkely , MB Jones , (2003) Biomarker responses and PAH uptake in Mya truncata following exposure to oil-contaminated sediment in an Arctic fjord (Svalbard). Sci Total Environ 308, 221234.

41C Ip & D Sinha (1981) Anticarcinogenic effect of selenium in rats treated with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and fed different levels and types of fat. Carcinogenesis 2, 435438.

42N Udilova , D Jurek , B Marian , (2003) Induction of lipid peroxidation in biomembranes by dietary oil components. Food Chem Toxicol 41, 14811489.

43E Eder , M Wacker , U Lutz , (2006) Oxidative stress related DNA adducts in the liver of female rats fed with sunflower-, rapeseed-, olive- or coconut oil supplemented diets. Chem Biol Interact 159, 8189.

46K Aruna , R Rukkumani , SP Varma , (2005) Therapeutic role of Cuminum cyminum on ethanol and thermally oxidized sunflower oil induced toxicity. Phytother Res 19, 416442.

47G Hageman , H Verhagen , B Schutte , (1991) Biological effects of short-term feeding to rats of repeatedly used deep-frying fats in relation to fat mutagen content. Food Chem Toxicol 29, 689698.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *