1 American Diabetes Association (2010) Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 33, Suppl. 1, S62–S69.
2 Corrigan N, Brazil DP & McAuliffe F (2009) Fetal cardiac effects of maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 85, 523–530.
3 Correa A, Gilboa SM, Besser LM, et al. (2008) Diabetes mellitus and birth defects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199, 237.e1–237.e9.
4 International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Consensus Panel (2010) International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care 33, 676–682.
5 Bellamy L, Casas JP, Hingorani AD, et al. (2009) Type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 373, 1773–1779.
6 Buchanan TA, Xiang A, Kjos SL, et al. (2007) What is gestational diabetes? Diabetes Care 30, Suppl. 2, S105–S111.
7 Lauenborg J, Grarup N, Damm P, et al. (2009) Common type 2 diabetes risk gene variants associate with gestational diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 145–150.
8 Robitaille J & Grant AM (2008) The genetics of gestational diabetes mellitus: evidence for relationship with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genet Med 10, 240–250.
9 Lapolla A, Dalfrá MG & Fedele D (2009) Diabetes related autoimmunity in gestational diabetes mellitus: is it important? Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19, 674–682.
10 Hunt KJ & Schuller KL (2007) The increasing prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 34, 173–199.
11 Pedersen J (1952)
12 Gilmartin AB, Ural SH & Repke JT (2008) Gestational diabetes mellitus. Rev Obstet Gynecol 1, 129–134.
13 Kapoor N, Sankaran S, Hyer S, et al. (2007) Diabetes in pregnancy: a review of current evidence. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 19, 586–590.
14 Gunderson EP, Lewis CE, Tsai AL, et al. (2007) A 20-year prospective study of childbearing and incidence of diabetes in young women, controlling for glycemia before conception: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Diabetes 56, 2990–2996.
15 Hillier TA, Pedula KL, Schmidt MM, et al. (2007) Childhood obesity and metabolic imprinting: the ongoing effects of maternal hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 30, 2287–2292.
16 Dabelea D, Mayer-Davis EJ, Lamichhane AP, et al. (2008) Association of intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and obesity with type 2 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH Case–Control Study. Diabetes Care 31, 1422–1426.
17 Malcolm JC, Lawson ML, Gaboury I, et al. (2006) Glucose tolerance of offspring of mother with gestational diabetes mellitus in a low-risk population. Diabet Med 23, 565–570.
18 Boney CM, Verma A, Tucker R, et al. (2005) Metabolic syndrome in childhood: association with birth weight, maternal obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics 115, e290–e296.
19 Clausen TD, Mathiesen ER, Hansen T, et al. (2008) High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes: the role of intrauterine hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 31, 340–346.
20 McLean M, Chipps D & Cheung NW (2006) Mother to child transmission of diabetes mellitus: does gestational diabetes program type 2 diabetes in the next generation? Diabet Med 23, 1213–1215.
21 Pettitt DJ, Lawrence JM, Beyer J, et al. (2008) Association between maternal diabetes in utero and age at offspring's diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 31, 2126–2130.
22 Claesson R, Aberg A & Marsál K (2007) Abnormal fetal growth is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus later in life: population-based register study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86, 652–656.
23 Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, et al. (2004) Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 27, 1047–1053.
24 Barbour LA, McCurdy CE, Hernandez TL, et al. (2007) Cellular mechanisms for insulin resistance in normal pregnancy and gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care 30, Suppl. 2, S112–S119.
25 Ben-Haroush A, Yogev Y & Hod M (2004) Epidemiology of gestational diabetes mellitus and its association with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 21, 103–113.
26 Innes KE, Byers TE, Marshall JA, et al. (2002) Association of a woman's own birth weight with subsequent risk for gestational diabetes. JAMA 287, 2534–2544.
27 Norwitz ER, Edusa V & Park JS (2005) Maternal physiology and complications of multiple pregnancy. Semin Perinatol 29, 338–348.
28 Moses RG & Mackay MT (2004) Gestational diabetes: is there a relationship between leg length and glucose tolerance? Diabetes Care 27, 1033–1035.
29 Cheng YW & Caughey AB (2008) Gestational diabetes: diagnosis and management. J Perinatol 28, 657–664.
30 Reece EA, Leguizamón G & Wiznitzer A (2009) Gestational diabetes: the need for a common ground. Lancet 373, 1789–1797.
31 Hod M, Jovanovic L, Di Renzo GC, et al. (2008) Textbook of Diabetes and Pregnancy, 2nd ed. London: Informa Healthcare.
32 Sobngwi E, Boudou P, Mauvais-Jarvis F, et al. (2003) Effect of a diabetic environment in utero on predisposition to type 2 diabetes. Lancet 361, 1861–1865.
33 Dunger DB, Petry CJ & Ong KK (2007) Genetics of size at birth. Diabetes Care 30, Suppl. 2, S150–S155.
34 Frayling TM (2007) Genome-wide association studies provide new insights into type 2 diabetes aetiology. Nat Rev Genet 8, 657–662.
35 Weedon MN, McCarthy MI, Hitman G, et al. (2006) Combining information from common type 2 diabetes risk polymorphisms improves disease prediction. PLoS Med 3, e374.
36 Pascoe L, Frayling TM, Weedon MN, et al. (2008) β Cell glucose sensitivity is decreased by 39 % in non-diabetic individuals carrying multiple diabetes-risk alleles compared with those with no risk alleles. Diabetologia 51, 1989–1992.
37 Doria A, Patti ME & Kahn CR (2008) The emerging genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes. Cell Metab 8, 186–200.
38 Zeggini E, Scott LJ, Saxena R, et al. (2008) Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data and large-scale replication identifies additional susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet 40, 638–645.
39 Unoki H, Takahashi A, Kawaguchi T, et al. (2008) SNPs in KCNQ1 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in East Asian and European populations. Nat Genet 40, 1098–1102.
40 Yasuda K, Miyake K, Horikawa Y, et al. (2008) Variants in KCNQ1 are associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Genet 40, 1092–1097.
41 Shaat N, Ekelund M, Lernmark A, et al. (2005) Association of the E23K polymorphism in the KCNJ11 gene with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 48, 2544–2551.
42 Watanabe RM, Allayee H, Xiang AH, et al. (2007) Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus and interacts with adiposity to alter insulin secretion in Mexican Americans. Diabetes 56, 1481–1485.
43 Shaat N, Lernmark A, Karlsson E, et al. (2007) A variant in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 50, 972–979.
44 Cho YM, Kim TH, Lim S, et al. (2009) Type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants discovered in the recent genome-wide association studies are related to gestational diabetes mellitus in the Korean population. Diabetologia 52, 253–261.
45 Zhou Q, Zhang K, Li W, et al. (2009) Association of KCNQ1 gene polymorphism with gestational diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population. Diabetologia 52, 2466–2468.
46 Shin HD, Lae Park B, Shin HJ, et al. (2010) Association of KCNQ1 polymorphisms with the gestational diabetes mellitus in Korean women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 445–449.
47 Litou H, Anastasiou E, Thalassinou L, et al. (2007) Increased prevalence of VNTR III of the insulin gene in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Diabetes Res Clin Pract 76, 223–228.
48 Fallucca F, Dalfra MG, Sciullo E, et al. (2006) Polymorphisms of insulin receptor substrate 1 and β3-adrenergic receptor genes in gestational diabetes and normal pregnancy. Metabolism 55, 1451–1456.
49 Festa A, Krugluger W, Shnawa N, et al. (1999) Trp64Arg polymorphism of the β3-adrenergic receptor gene in pregnancy: association with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 1695–1699.
50 Megia A, Gallart L, Fernandez-Real JM, et al. (2004) Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 5081–5087.
51 Leipold H, Knofler M, Gruber C, et al. (2004) Calpain-10 haplotype combination and association with gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol 103, 1235–1240.
52 Leipold H, Knoefler M, Gruber C, et al. (2006) Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene polymorphism and gestational diabetes mellitus. Obstet Gynecol 107, 651–656.
53 Ober C, Xiang KS, Thisted RA, et al. (1989) Increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus associated with insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor II restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Genet Epidemiol 6, 559–569.
54 Rissanen J, Markkanen A, Karkkainen P, et al. (2000) Sulfonylurea receptor 1 gene variants are associated with gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes but not with altered secretion of insulin. Diabetes Care 23, 70–73.
55 Chen Y, Liao WX, Roy AC, et al. (2000) Mitochondrial gene mutations in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 48, 29–35.
56 Shaat N, Karlsson E, Lernmark A et al. , (2006) Common variants in MODY genes increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 49, 1545–1551.
57 Lango H, UK Type 2 Diabetes Genetics Consortium, Palmer CN, et al. (2008) Assessing the combined impact of 18 common genetic variants of modest effect sizes on type 2 diabetes risk. Diabetes 57, 3129–3135.
58 van Hoek M, Dehghan A, Witteman JC, et al. (2008) Predicting type 2 diabetes based on polymorphisms from genome-wide association studies: a population-based study. Diabetes 57, 3122–3128.
59 Dörner G, Plagemann A & Reinagel H (1987) Familial diabetes aggregation in type I diabetics: gestational diabetes an apparent risk factor for increased diabetes susceptibility in the offspring. Exp Clin Endocrinol 89, 84–90.
60 Bell DS, Barger BO & Go RC (1990) Risk factors for gestational diabetes in black population. Diabetes Care 13, 1196–1201.
61 Stangenberg M, Agarwal N & Rahman F (1990) Frequency of HLA genes and islet cell antibodies (ICA) and result of postpartum oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in Saudi Arabian women with abnormal OGTT during pregnancy. Diabetes Res 14, 9–13.
62 Vambergue A, Fajardy I & Bianchi F (1997) Gestational diabetes mellitus and HLA class II (-DQ, -DR) association: The Digest Study. Eur J Immunogenet 24, 385–394.
63 Shaat N, Ekelund M & Lernmark A (2004) Genotypic and phenotypic differences between Arabian and Scandinavian women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 47, 878–884.
64 Rubinstein P, Walker M & Krassner J (1981) HLA antigens and islet cell antibodies in gestational diabetes. Hum Immunol 3, 271–275.
65 Freinkel N, Metzger BE & Phelps RL (1985) Gestational diabetes mellitus. Heterogeneity of maternal age, weight, insulin secretion, HLA antigens, and islet cell antibodies and the impact of maternal metabolism on pancreatic B-cell and somatic development in the offspring. Diabetes 34, Suppl. 2, 1–7.
66 Ferber KM, Keller E & Albert ED (1999) Predictive value of human leukocyte antigen class II typing for the development of islet autoantibodies and insulin-dependent diabetes postpartum in women with gestational diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 2342–2348.
67 Lapolla A, Betterle C & Sanzari M (1996) An immunological and genetic study of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Diabetol 33, 139–144.
68 Törn C, Gupta M & Sanjeevi CB (2004) Different HLA-DR-DQ and MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA) genotypes in autoimmune and nonautoimmune gestational diabetes in a Swedish population. Hum Immunol 65, 1443–1450.
69 Papadopoulou A, Lynch KF, Shaat N, et al. (2009) The type 1 diabetes protective HLA DQB1*0602 allele is less frequent in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 52, 1339–1342.
70 Hales CN, Barker DJ, Clark PM, et al. (1991) Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. BMJ 303, 1019–1022.
71 Freathy RM, Bennett AJ, Ring SM, et al. (2009) Type 2 diabetes risk alleles are associated with reduced size at birth. Diabetes 58, 1428–1433.
72 Haig D (1996) Placental hormones, genomic imprinting, and maternal–fetal communication. J Evol Biol 9, 357–380.
73 Petry CJ, Ong KK & Dunger DB (2007) Does the fetal genotype affect maternal physiology during pregnancy? Trends Mol Med 13, 414–421.
74 Haig D & Westoby M (1989) Parent-specific gene expression and the triploid endosperm. Am Nat 134, 147–155.
75 White DJ, Wolff JN, Pierson M, et al. (2008) Revealing the hidden complexities of mtDNA inheritance. Mol Ecol 17, 4925–4942.
76 Reik W, Constância M, Fowden A, et al. (2003) Regulation of supply and demand for maternal nutrients in mammals by imprinted genes. J Physiol 547, 35–44.
77 Sheiner E, Levy A, Katz M, et al. (2004) Gender does matter in perinatal medicine. Fetal Diagn Ther 19, 366–369.
78 Tamimi RM, Lagiou P, Mucci LA, et al. (2003) Average energy intake among pregnant women carrying a boy compared with a girl. BMJ 326, 1245–1246.
79 Schwartz DB, Daoud Y, Zazula P, et al. (1999) Gestational diabetes mellitus: metabolic and blood glucose parameters in singleton versus twin pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 181, 912–914.
80 Wangler MF, Chang AS, Moley KH, et al. (2005) Factors associated with preterm delivery in mothers of children with Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome: a case cohort study from the BWS registry. Am J Med Genet A 134A, 187–191.
81 Petry CJ, Ong KK, Barratt BJ, et al. (2005) Common polymorphism in H19 associated with birthweight and cord blood IGF-II levels in humans. BMC Genet 6, 22.
82 Petry CJ, Evans ML, Wingate DL, et al. (2010) Raised late pregnancy glucose concentrations in mice carrying pups with targeted disruption of H19Δ13. Diabetes 59, 282–286.
83 Leighton PA, Ingram RS, Eggenschwiler J, et al. (1995) Disruption of imprinting caused by deletion of the H19 gene region in mice. Nature 375, 34–39.
84 Chiao E, Fisher P, Crisponi L, et al. (2002) Overgrowth of a mouse model of the Simpson–Golabi–Behmel syndrome is independent of IGF signaling. Dev Biol 243, 185–206.
85 Seshiah V, Balaji V, Balaji MS, et al. (2007) Gestational diabetes mellitus manifests in all trimesters of pregnancy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 77, 482–484.
86 Haig D (1993) Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Q Rev Biol 68, 495–532.
87 Shaat N & Groop L (2007) Genetics of gestational diabetes mellitus. Curr Med Chem 14, 569–583.
88 Watanabe RM, Black MH, Xiang AH, et al. (2007) Genetics of gestational diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 30, Suppl. 2, S134–S140.
89 HAPO Study Cooperative Research Group, Metzger BE, Lowe LP, et al. (2008) Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med 358, 1991–2002.
90 HAPO Study Cooperative Research Group (2009) Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study: associations with neonatal anthropometrics. Diabetes 58, 453–459.
91 Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Moss JR, et al. (2005) Effect of treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus on pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med 352, 2477–2486.
93 Metzger BE, Buchanan TA, Coustan DR, et al. (2007) Summary and recommendations of the Fifth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 30, Suppl. 2, S251–S260.
94 Carroll MA & Yeomans ER (2005) Diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy. Crit Care Med 33, Suppl., S347–S353.
95 Kamalakannan D, Baskar V, Barton DM, et al. (2003) Diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy. Postgrad Med J 79, 454–457.
96 Bedalov A & Balasubramanyam A (1997) Glucocorticoid-induced ketoacidosis in gestational diabetes: sequela of the acute treatment of preterm labor. A case report. Diabetes Care 20, 922–924.
97 Abell DA (1979) The significance of abnormal glucose tolerance (hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia) in pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 86, 214–221.
98 Hill A (2007) Encouraging healthier lifestyles – 4. Dietary advice for diabetes in pregnancy. J Fam Health Care 17, 117–119.
99 Dornhorst A & Frost G (2002) The principles of dietary management of gestational diabetes: reflection on current evidence. J Hum Nutr Diet 15, 145–156.
100 Amann-Gassner U & Hauner H (2008) Nutrition therapy for gestational diabetes (article in German). Dtsch Med Wochenschr 133, 893–898.
101 Gunderson EP (2004) Gestational diabetes and nutritional recommendations. Curr Diab Rep 4, 377–386.
102 Chew I, Brand JC, Thorburn AW, et al. (1988) Application of glycemic index to mixed meals. Am J Clin Nutr 47, 53–56.
103 Gillen L, Tapsell LC, Martin GS, et al. (2002) The type and frequency of consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods may play a role in the clinical expression of insulin resistance during pregnancy. Nutr Diet 59, 135–143.
104 Fraser RB (1981) The effect of pregnancy on the normal range of the oral glucose tolerance in Africans. East Afr Med J 58, 90–94.
105 Oladunni-Taylor G, Modie JA & Adeshina HA (1981) Oral glucose tolerance test and insulin levels in pregnant and post-partum women. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol 2, 39–46.
106 Swai AB, Kitange HM & McLarty DG (1991) No deterioration of oral glucose tolerance during pregnancy in rural Tanzania. Diabet Med 8, 254–257.
108 Fraser RB, Ford FA & Milner RDG (1983) A controlled trial of a high dietary fibre intake in pregnancy – effects on plasma glucose and insulin levels. Diabetologia 25, 238–241.
109 Clapp JF III (2002) Maternal carbohydrate intake and pregnancy outcome. Proc Nutr Soc 61, 45–50.
110 Clapp JF (2006) Influence of endurance exercise and diet on human placental development and fetal growth. Placenta 27, 527–534.
111 Clapp JF III (1997) Diet, exercise, and feto-placental growth. Arch Gyn Obstet 260, 101–108.
112 Clapp JF III (1998) Effect of dietary carbohydrate on the glucose and insulin response to mixed caloric intake and exercise in both nonpregnant and pregnant women. Diabetes Care 21, Suppl. 2, B107–B112.
113 Moses RG, Luebcke M, Davis WS, et al. (2006) Effect of a low-glycemic-index diet during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 807–812.
114 Moses RG, Luebke M, Petocz P, et al. (2007) Maternal diet and infant size 2 y after the completion of a study of a low-glycemic-index diet in pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1806.
115 Moses RG, Barker M, Winter M, et al. (2009) Can a low-glycemic index diet reduce the need for insulin in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized trial. Diabetes Care 32, 996–1000.
116 Zhang C, Liu S, Solomon CG, et al. (2006) Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic load, and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 29, 2223–2230.
117 Huncharek M & Kupelnick B (2004) A meta-analysis of maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and the risk of childhood brain tumors. Neuroepidemiology 23, 78–84.
118 Yu Z, Mahadevan B, Löhr CV, et al. (2006) Indole-3-carbinol in the maternal diet provides chemoprotection for the fetus against transplacental carcinogenesis by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzo[a, l]pyrene. Carcinogenesis 27, 2116–2123.
119 Chen L, Hu FB, Yeung E, et al. (2009) Prospective study of pre-gravid sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 32, 2236–2241.
120 Zhang C, Schulze MB, Solomon CG, et al. (2006) A prospective study of dietary patterns, meat intake and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 49, 2604–2613.
121 Radesky JS, Oken E, Rifas-Shiman SL, et al. (2008) Diet during early pregnancy and development of gestational diabetes. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 22, 47–59.
122 Clapp JF (2006) Effects of diet and exercise on insulin resistance during pregnancy. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 4, 84–90.
124 Chasan-Taber L, Marcus BH, Stanek E III, et al. (2009) A randomized controlled trial of prenatal physical activity to prevent gestational diabetes: design and methods. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 18, 851–859.
125 Chasan-Taber L, Schmidt MD, Pekow P, et al. (2008) Physical activity and gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 17, 999–1008.
126 Snapp CA & Donaldson SK (2008) Gestational diabetes mellitus: physical exercise and health outcomes. Biol Res Nurs 10, 145–155.
127 Liu J, Laditka JN, Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. (2008) Does physical activity during pregnancy reduce the risk of gestational diabetes among previously inactive women? Birth 35, 188–195.
128 Artal R, Catanzaro RB & Gavard JA (2007) A lifestyle intervention of weight-gain restriction: diet and exercise in obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 32, 596–601.
129 Retnakaran R, Qi Y, Sermer M, et al. (2009) Pre-gravid physical activity and reduced risk of glucose intolerance in pregnancy: the role of insulin sensitivity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70, 615–622.
130 Iqbal R, Rafique G, Badruddin S, et al. (2007) Increased body fat percentage and physical inactivity are independent predictors of gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asian women. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 736–742.
131 Davenport MH, Mottola MF, McManus R, et al. (2008) A walking intervention improves capillary glucose control in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a pilot study. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33, 511–517.
132 Metzger BE (2007) Long-term outcomes in mothers diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and their offspring. Clin Obstet Gynecol 50, 972–979.
133 Mathiesen ER, Kinsley B, Amiel SA, et al. (2007) Maternal glycemic control and hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetic pregnancy: a randomized trial of insulin aspart versus human insulin in 322 pregnant women. Diabetes Care 30, 771–776.
134 Pettitt DJ, Ospina P, Howard C, et al. (2007) Efficacy, safety and lack of immunogenicity of insulin aspart compared with regular human insulin for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 24, 1129–1135.
135 Boskovic R, Feig DS, Derewlany L, et al. (2003) Transfer of insulin lispro across the human placenta: in vitro perfusion studies. Diabetes Care 26, 1390–1394.
136 Persson B, Swahn ML, Hjertberg R, et al. (2002) Insulin lispro therapy in pregnancies complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 58, 115–121.
137 Mecacci F, Carignani L, Cioni R, et al. (2003) Maternal metabolic control and perinatal outcome in women with gestational diabetes treated with regular or lispro insulin: comparison with non-diabetic pregnant women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 111, 19–24.
138 Durnwald CP & Landon MB (2008) A comparison of lispro and regular insulin for the management of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 21, 309–313.
139 Aydin Y, Berker D, Direktör N, et al. (2008) Is insulin lispro safe in pregnant women: does it cause any adverse outcomes on infants or mothers? Diabetes Res Clin Pract 80, 444–448.
140 Smith JG, Manuck TA, White J, et al. (2009) Insulin glargine versus neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin for treatment of diabetes in pregnancy. Am J Perinatol 26, 57–62.
141 Henderson CE, Machupalli S, Marcano-Vasquez H, et al. (2009) A retrospective review of glargine use in pregnancy. J Reprod Med 54, 208–210.
142 Egerman RS, Ramsey RD, Kao LW, et al. (2009) Perinatal outcomes in pregnancies managed with antenatal insulin glargine. Am J Perinatol 26, 591–595.
143 Fang YM, MacKeen D, Egan JF, et al. (2009) Insulin glargine compared with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin in the treatment of pregnant diabetics. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 22, 249–253.
144 Imbergamo MP, Amato MC, Sciortino G, et al. (2008) Use of glargine in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a case–control study. Clin Ther 30, 1476–1484.
145 Smith U & Gale EA (2009) Does diabetes therapy influence the risk of cancer? Diabetologia 52, 1699–1708.
146 Hemkens LG, Grouven U, Bender R, et al. (2009) Risk of malignancies in patients with diabetes treated with human insulin or insulin analogues: a cohort study. Diabetologia 52, 1732–1744.
147 Jonasson JM, Ljung R, Talbäck M et al. , (2009) Insulin glargine use and short-term incidence of malignancies – a population-based follow-up study in Sweden. Diabetologia 52, 1745–1754.
148 Colhoun HM & SDRN Epidemiology Group (2009) Use of insulin glargine and cancer incidence in Scotland: a study from the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group. Diabetologia 52, 1755–1765.
149 Kurtzhals P, Schäffer L, Sørensen A, et al. (2000) Correlations of receptor binding and metabolic and mitogenic potencies of insulin analogs designed for clinical use. Diabetes 49, 999–1005.
150 Cheung NW (2009) The management of gestational diabetes. Vasc Health Risk Manag 5, 153–164.
151 Rowan JA, Hague WM, Gao W, et al. (2008) Metformin versus insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes. N Engl J Med 358, 2003–2015.
152 Kovo M, Haroutiunian S, Feldman N, et al. (2008) Determination of metformin transfer across the human placenta using a dually perfused ex vivo placental cotyledon model. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 136, 29–33.
153 Nicholson W, Bolen S, Witkop CT, et al. (2009) Benefits and risks of oral diabetes agents compared with insulin in women with gestational diabetes: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 113, 193–205.
154 Elliott BD, Langer O, Schenker S, et al. (1991) Insignificant transfer of glyburide occurs across the human placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165, 807–812.
155 Langer O, Conway DL, Berkus MD, et al. (2000) A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 343, 1134–1138.
156 Ma RC & Chan JC (2009) Pregnancy and diabetes scenario around the world: China. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 104, Suppl. 1, S42–S45.
157 Chitayat L, Jovanovic L & Hod M (2009) New modalities in the treatment of pregnancies complicated by diabetes: drugs and devices. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 14, 72–76.
158 Weinzimer SA, Steil GM, Swan KL, et al. (2008) Fully automated closed-loop insulin delivery versus semiautomated hybrid control in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes using an artificial pancreas. Diabetes Care 31, 934–939.