Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-hb754 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-26T13:52:47.199Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

J. F. Young
Affiliation:
Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark
L. O. Dragsted*
Affiliation:
Institute of Food Safety and Toxicology, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Søborg, Denmark
J. Haraldsdóttir
Affiliation:
Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark
B. Daneshvar
Affiliation:
Institute of Food Safety and Toxicology, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Søborg, Denmark
M. A. Kall
Affiliation:
Institute of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Søborg, Denmark
S. Loft
Affiliation:
Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
L. Nilsson
Affiliation:
Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark
S. E. Nielsen
Affiliation:
Institute of Food Safety and Toxicology, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Søborg, Denmark
B. Mayer
Affiliation:
Institute of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, Technical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
L. H. Skibsted
Affiliation:
Food Chemistry, Department of Dairy and Food Science, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark
T. Huynh-Ba
Affiliation:
Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
A. Hermetter
Affiliation:
Nestlé Research Centre, Nestec Ltd., 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
B. Sandström
Affiliation:
Research Department of Human Nutrition, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark
*
Corresponding author: L. O. Dragsted, present address Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860, Søborg, Denmark, fax +45 33 95 60 01, email lod@fdir.dk
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]

Abstract

Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Epidemiological studies suggest that foods rich in flavonoids might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) used as a food antioxidant on markers of oxidative status after dietary depletion of flavonoids and catechins. The study was designed as a 2×3 weeks blinded human cross-over intervention study (eight smokers, eight non-smokers) with GTE corresponding to a daily intake of 18·6 mg catechins/d. The GTE was incorporated into meat patties and consumed with a strictly controlled diet otherwise low in flavonoids. GTE intervention increased plasma antioxidant capacity from 1·35 to 1·56 (P<0·02) in postprandially collected plasma, most prominently in smokers. The intervention did not significantly affect markers in fasting blood samples, including plasma or haemoglobin protein oxidation, plasma oxidation lagtime, or activities of the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase. Neither were fasting plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, α-tocopherol, retinol, β-carotene, or ascorbic acid affected by intervention. Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine excretion was also unaffected. Catechins from the extract were excreted into urine with a half-life of less than 2 h in accordance with the short-term effects on plasma antioxidant capacity. Since no long-term effects of GTE were observed, the study essentially served as a fruit and vegetables depletion study. The overall effect of the 10-week period without dietary fruits and vegetables was a decrease in oxidative damage to DNA, blood proteins, and plasma lipids, concomitantly with marked changes in antioxidative defence.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2002

Footnotes

*

The study has been carried out with financial support in part from a Danish Food Technology grant (FØTEK2, 'Antioxidants from plants') and in part from the Commission of the European Communities, Agriculture and Fisheries (FAIR) specific RTD programme, CT 95-0158 'Natural Antioxidants from Foods'. It does not necessarily reflect its views and in no way anticipates the Commission's future policy in this area.

References

Aeschbach, R & Rossi, P (1994) Alkylene glycol extraction of antioxidants from vegetable matter. Nestec Ltd. (US patent US5795609).Google Scholar
Anderson, D, Phillips, BJ, Yu, TW, Edwards, AJ, Ayesh, R & Butterworth, KR (1997) The effects of vitamin C supplementation on biomarkers of oxygen radical generated damage in human volunteers with low or high cholesterol levels. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 30, 161174.Google Scholar
Benzie, IFF, Szeto, YT, Strain, JJ & Tomlinson, B (1999) Consumption of green tea causes rapid increase in plasma antioxidant power in humans. Nutrition and Cancer 34, 8387.Google Scholar
Bowen, PE, Garg, V, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M, Yelton, L & Schreiner, RS (1993) Variability of serum carotenoids in response to controlled diets containing six servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 691, 241243.Google Scholar
Castenmiller, JJM, Lauridsen, ST, Dragsted, LO, van het Hof, KH, Linssen, JPH & West, CE (1999) Beta-carotene does not change markers of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activity in human blood. Journal of Nutrition 129, 21622169.Google Scholar
Cherubini, A, Beal, MF & Frei, B (1999) Black tea increases the resistance of human plasma to lipid peroxidation in vitro, but not ex vivo. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 27, 381387.Google Scholar
Daneshvar, B, Frandsen, H, Autrup, H & Dragsted, LO (1997) Gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde and 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde: biomarkers of oxidative damage to proteins. Biomarkers 2, 117123.Google Scholar
Das, NP (1971) Studies of flavonoid metabolism. Absorption and metabolism of (+)-catechin in man. Biochemical Pharmacology 20, 34353445.Google Scholar
Djuric, Z, Depper, JB, Uhley, V, Smith, D, Lababidi, S, Martino, S & Heilbrun, LK (1998) Oxidative DNA damage levels in blood from women at high risk for breast cancer are associated with dietary intakes of meats, vegetables, and fruits. Journal of the American Dietetics Association 98, 524528.Google Scholar
Dragsted, LO, Strube, M & Leth, T (1997) Dietary levels of plant phenols and other non-nutritive components: could they prevent cancer? European Journal of Cancer Prevention 6, 522528.Google Scholar
Fuller, CJ, Grundy, SM, Norkus, EP & Jialal, I (1996) Effect of ascorbate supplementation on low density lipoprotein oxidation in smokers. Atherosclerosis 119, 139150.Google Scholar
Gardner, PT, McPhail, DB & Duthie, GC (1998) Electron spin resonance spectroscopic assessment of the antioxidant potential of teas in aqueous and organic media. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 76, 257262.Google Scholar
Goldbohm, RA, Hertog, MGL, Brants, HAM, van Poppel, G & van den Brandt, PA (1996) Consumption of black tea and cancer risk: A prospective cohort study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88, 93100.Google Scholar
Hart, DJ & Scott, KJ (1995) Development and evaluation of an HPLC method for the analysis of carotenoids in foods, and the measurement of the carotenoid content of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in the UK. Food Chemistry 54, 101111.Google Scholar
Hertog, MGL, de Vries, A, Ocké, MC, Schouten, A, Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB & Verhagen, H (1997) Oxidative DNA damage in humans: comparison between high and low habitual fruit and vegetable consumption. Biomarkers 2, 259262.Google Scholar
Hertog, MGL, Feskens, EJM, Hollman, PCH, Katan, MB & Kromhout, D (1993 a) Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of cornary heart disease: the Zutphen elderly study. Lancet 342, 10071011.Google Scholar
Hertog, MGL, Feskens, EJM, Hollman, PCH, Katan, MB & Kromhout, D (1994) Dietary flavonoids and cancer risk in the Zutphen elderly study. Nutrition and Cancer 22, 175184.Google Scholar
Hertog, MGL, Hollman, PCH, Katan, MB & Kromhout, D (1993 b) Estimation of daily intake of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids and their determinats in adults in The Netherlands. Nutrition and Cancer 20, 2129.Google Scholar
Hertog, MGL, Kromhout, D, Aravanis, C, Blackburn, H, Buzina, R, Fidanza, F, Giampaoli, S, Jansen, A, Menotti, A, Nedeljkovic, S, Pekkarinen, M, Simic, BS, Toshima, H, Feskens, EJM, Hollman, PCH & Katan, MB (1995) Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in The Seven Countries Study. Archives of Internal Medicine 155, 381386.Google Scholar
Hofer, G, Lichtenberg, D & Hermetter, A (1995) A new fluorescence method for the continuous determination of surface lipid oxidation in lipoproteins and plasma. Free Radical Research 23, 317327.Google Scholar
Hollman, PC, Tijburg, LB & Yang, CS (1997) Bioavailability of flavonoids from tea. Critical Reviews of Food Science and Nutrition 37, 719738.Google Scholar
Imai, K & Nakachi, K (1995) Cross sectional study of effects of drinking green tea on cardiovascular and liver diseases. British Medical Journal 310, 693696.Google Scholar
Ishikawa, T, Suzukawa, M, Ito, T, Yoshida, H, Ayaori, M, Nishiwaki, M, Yonemura, A, Hara, Y & Nakamura, H (1997) Effect of tea flavonoid supplementation on the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidative modification. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66, 261266.Google Scholar
Jørgensen, K & Skibsted, L (1993) Carotenoid scavenging of radicals. Effects of carotenoid structure and oxygen partial pressure on antioxidative activity. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel Untersuchung und Forschung 196, 423429.Google Scholar
Kall, M & Andersen, C (1999) Improved method for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and dehydroisoascorbic acid in food and biological samples. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications 730, 101111.Google Scholar
Katan, MB (1997) Flavonoids and heart disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 15421543.Google Scholar
Klaunig, JE, Xu, Y, Han, C, Kamendulis, LM, Chen, J, Heiser, C, Gordon, MS & Mohler, ER III (1999) The effect of tea consumption on oxidative stress in smokers and nonsmokers. Proceedings of the Society Experimental Biology and Medicine 220, 249254.Google Scholar
Kohlmeier, L, Weterings, KG, Steck, S & Kok, FJ (1997) Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature. Nutrition and Cancer 27, 113.Google Scholar
Lin, J-K, Lin, C-L, Liang, Y-C, Lin-Shiau, S-Y & Juan, I-M (1998) Survey of catechins, gallic acid, and methylxanthines in green, oolong, pu-erh, and black teas. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 46, 36353642.Google Scholar
Loft, S & Poulsen, HE (1999) Markers of oxidative damage to DNA: antioxidants and molecular damage. Methods in Enzymology 300, 166184.Google Scholar
Loft, S & Poulsen, HE (2000) Antioxidant intervention studies related to DNA damage, DNA repair and gene expression. Free Radical Research 33, S67S83.Google Scholar
Lotito, SB & Fraga, CG (1998) (+)-Catechin prevents human plasma oxidation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 24, 435441.Google Scholar
Maskarinec, G, Chan, CL, Meng, L, Franke, AA & Cooney, RV (1999) Exploring the feasibility and effects of a high-fruit and -vegetable diet in healthy women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 8, 919924.Google Scholar
Miller, ER III, Appel, LJ & Risby, TH (1998) Effect of dietary patterns on measures of lipid peroxidation: results from a randomized clinical trial. Circulation 98, 23902395.Google Scholar
Møller, A (1989) Food Composition tables. Copenhagen: National Food Agency.Google Scholar
Nakagawa, K & Miyazawa, T (1997) Absorption and distribution of tea catechin, (-)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate, in the rat. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 43, 679684.Google Scholar
Nakagawa, K, Okuda, S & Miyazawa, T (1997) Dose-dependent incorporation of tea catechins, (-)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin, into human plasma. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry 61, 19811985.Google Scholar
Nielsen, SE & Dragsted, LO (1998 a) Column-switching high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the determination of quercetin in human urine with ultraviolet absorbance detection. Journal of Chromatography 707B, 8189.Google Scholar
Nielsen, SE & Dragsted, LO (1998 b) Column-switching high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for determination of apigenin and acacetin in human urine with ultraviolet absorbance detection. Journal of Chromatography 713B, 379386.Google Scholar
Nielsen, SE, Young, JF, Daneshvar, B, Lauridsen, ST, Knuthsen, P, Sandström, B & Dragsted, LO (1999) Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) intake on urinary apigenin excretion, blood antioxidant enzymes and biomarkers for oxidative stress in human subjects [see comments]. British Journal of Nutrition 81, 447455.Google Scholar
Nissen, LR, Mansson, L, Bertelsen, G, Huynh-Ba, T & Skibsted, LH (2000) Protection of dehydrated chicken meat by natural antioxidants as evaluated by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48, 55485556.Google Scholar
Omaye, ST, Burri, BJ, Swendseid, ME, Henning, SM, Briggs, LA, Bowen, HT & Ota, RB (1996) Blood antioxidants changes in young women following beta-carotene depletion and repletion. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 15, 469474.Google Scholar
Parker, RS (1996) Absorption, metabolism, and transport of carotenoids. FASEB Journal 10, 542551.Google Scholar
Pietta, P, Simonetti, P, Gardana, C, Brusamolino, A, Morazzoni, P & Bombardelli, E (1998) Relationship between rate and extent of catechin absorption and plasma antioxidant status. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International 46, 895903.Google Scholar
Pocock, SJ (1998) Clinical Trials. A Practical Approach. Chichester, UK: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Poulsen, HE, Prieme, H & Loft, S (1998) Role of oxidative DNA damage in cancer initiation and promotion. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 7, 916.Google Scholar
Priemé, H, Loft, S, Nyyssönen, K, Salonen, JT & Poulsen, HE (1997) No effect of supplementation with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or coenzyme Q10 on oxidative DNA damage estimated by 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine excretion in smokers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 503507.Google Scholar
Princen, HM, van Duyvenvoorde, W, Buytenhek, R, Blonk, C, Tijburg, LB, Langius, JA, Meinders, AE & Pijl, H (1998) No effect of consumption of green and black tea on plasma lipid and antioxidant levels and on LDL oxidation in smokers. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 18, 833841.Google Scholar
Serafini, M, Ghiselli, A & Ferro, LA (1996) In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 2832.Google Scholar
Sung, H, Nah, J, Chun, S, Park, H, Yang, SE & Min, WK (2000) In vivo antioxidant effect of green tea (In Process Citation). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 527529.Google Scholar
Thurnham, DI, Smith, E & Flora, PS (1988) Concurrent liquid-chromatographic assay of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma, with tocopherol acetate as internal standard. Clinical Chemistry 34, 377381.Google Scholar
van het Hof, KH, de Boer, HSM, Wiseman, SA, Lien, N, Weststrate, JA & Tijburg, LBM (1997) Consumption of green or black tea does not increase resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66, 11251132.Google Scholar
van Poppel, G, Poulsen, H, Loft, S & Verhagen, H (1995) No influence of beta-carotene on oxidative DNA damage in male smokers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, 310311.Google Scholar
Velthuis-te Wierik, EJ, van Leeuwen, RE, Hendriks, HF, Verhagen, H, Loft, S, Poulsen, HE & van den, BH (1995) Short-term moderate energy restriction does not affect indicators of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in humans. Journal of Nutrition 125, 26312639.Google Scholar
Yen, G & Chen, H (1995) Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43, 2732.Google Scholar
Young, JF, Dragsted, LO, Daneshvar, B, Lauridsen, ST, Hansen, M & Sandström, B (2000) The effect of grape skin extract on oxidative status. British Journal of Nutrition 84, 505513.Google Scholar
Young, JF, Nielsen, SE, Haraldsdóttir, J, Daneshvar, B, Lauridsen, ST, Knuthsen, P, Crozier, A, Sandström, B & Dragsted, LO (1999) Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 8794.Google Scholar
Zhang, A, Chan, PT, Luk, YS, Ho, WKK & Chen, ZY (1997) Inhibitory effect of jasmine green tea epicatechin isomers on LDL-oxidation. Nutritional Biochemistry 8, 334340.Google Scholar