Agostoni C, Trojan S, Bellu R, Riva E & Giovannini M (1995) Neurodevelopmental quotient of healthy term infants at 4 months and feeding practice: the role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Pediatric Research 38, 262–266.
Al MDM, van Houwelingen AC, Kester ADM, Hasaart THM, de Jong AEP & Hornstra G (1995) Maternal essential fatty acid patterns during normal pregnancy and their relationship with the neonatal essential fatty acid status. British Journal of Nutrition 74, 55–68.
Allen LH (1986) Trace minerals and outcome of human pregnancy. Clinical Nutrition 5, 72–77
Ambrosius KD (1966) Comportamiento del peso de algunos organos en niñoscon desnutición de tercer grado. Boletin Medico – Hospital Infantil de Mexico 28, 47.
Anderson B, Porras O, Hanson LA, Lagergård T & Svanborg-Edén C (1986) Inhibition of attachment of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Hemophilus influenzae by human milk and receptor oligo-saccharides. Journal of Infectious Diseases 153, 232–237.
Anderson JJB (1996 a) Introduction (symposium: nutritional advances in human bone metabolism). Journal of Nutrition 126, 1150S–1152S.
Anderson JJB (1996 b) Calcium, phosporus and human body development. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1153S–1158S.
Andon MB, Lloyd T & Matkovic V (1994) Supplementation trials with calcium citrate malate: evidence in favor of increasing the calcium RDA during childhood and adolescence. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1412S–1417S.
Antras-Feny J, Robin P, Robin D & Forest C (1995) Fatty acids and fibrates are potent inducers of transcription of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene in adipocytes. European Journal of Biochemistry 234, 390–396.
Baldwin HS (1996) Early embryonic vascular development. Cardiovascular Research 31, E34–E45.
Ballou LR, Laulederkind SJ, Rosloniec EF & Raghow R (1996) Ceramide signalling and the immune response. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1301, 273–287.
Banks VF & Beutler E (1988) Iron. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 7th ed., pp. 193–226 [Shills ME and Young VR, editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger.
Barbul A. (1990) Arginine and immune function. Nutrition 6, 53–58.
Barker DJP (1994) Mothers, Babies and Disease in Later Life. London: BMJ Publishing.
Barnett AA, Weis AP, Sotillo MV, Skurovich M & Cravioto J (1978) Abnormal auditory evoked potentials in early human malnutrition. Science 201, 450–452.
Bartel PR, Robinson E, Conradie JM & Prinsloo JG (1986) Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in severely malnourished children with kwashiorkor. Neuropediatrics 17, 178–182.
Beard JL, Connor JR & Jones BC (1993) Iron in the brain. Nutrition Reviews 51, 157–170.
Beauchamp GK, Cowart BJ & Schmidt HJ (1991) Development of chemosensory sensitivity and preference. In Smell and Taste in Health and Disease, pp. 405–416 [Getchell TV, Doty RL, Bartoshuk LM and Sow JB, editors]. New York, NY: Raven Press.
Beauchamp GK & Mennella JA (1980) Early feeding and the acquisition of flavor preferences. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 2202.
Bendich A (1995) Immunology: functions to assess nutrient requirements. Journal of Nutritional Immunology 3, 47–56.
Bhatia J, Rassin DK, Cerreto MC & Bee DE (1991) Effect of protein–energy ratio on growth and behaviour of premature infants: preliminary findings. Journal of Pediatrics 119, 103–110.
Bishop NJ, Dahlenburg SL, Fewtrell MS, Morley R & Lucas A (1995) Early diet of preterm infants and bone mineralization at age five years. Acta Pediatricia 85, 230–236.
Boivin G, Dupuis J & Meunier PJ (1993) Fluoride and osteoporosis. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 73, 80–103.
Bothwell TH, Charlton RW & Cook JD (1979) Iron Metabolism in Man. Oxford: Blackwell.
Braga M, Vignali A, Gianotti L, Cestari A, Profili M & Carlo VD (1996) Immune and nutritional effects of early enteral nutrition after major abdominal operations. European Journal of Surgery 162, 105–112.
Brem G, Hartl P, Besenfelder U, Wolf E, Zinovieva N & Pfaller R (1994) Expression of synthetic cDNA sequences encoding human insulin like growth factor-q (IGF1) in the mammary gland of transgenic rabbits. Gene 149, 351–355.
Bryan CF and Stone MJ (1993) In Nutrient Modulation of the Immune Response, pp. 105–126 [Cunningham-Ruddles S, editor]. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker.
Buddington RK, Chen JW & Diamond JM (1991) Intestinal regulation of intestinal brush-border sugar and amino acid transport in carnivores. American Journal of Physiology 261, R793–R801.
Buddington RK & Diamond JM (1989) Ontogenetic development of intestinal nutrient transporters. Annual Review of Physiology 51, 601–619.
Bucno JD, Torres M, Almendros A, Carmona R, Núñiez MC, Ríos A & Gil A (1994) Effect of dietary nucleotides on small-intestinal repair after diarrhoea. Histological and ultrastructural changes. Gut 35, 926–933.
Bung P, Stein C, Prinz R, Pietrzik K, Schlebusch H, Bauer O & Krebs D (1993) Folsäureversorgung in der Schwangerschaft–Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Longitudinalstudie (Folic acid provision in pregnancy: results of a prospective longitudinal study). Geburtsh u Frauenheilk 53, 92–99.
Bung P, Prietl G, Willrodt A, Krebs D, Prinz-Langenohl R & Pietrzik K (1995) Idiopathische Infertilität und Sterilität spielt Folsäure eine Schlüsselrolle? (Idiopathic infertility and sterility: does folic acid play a key role?). Journal für Fertilität und Reproduktion 2, 21–24.
Burke BS, Harding VV & Stuart HC (1943) Nutrition upon the condition of the infant at birth. Journal of Nutrition 26, 569.
Buts JP & Nyakabasa M (1985) Role of dietary protein to adaptation at weaning in the development of the rat gastro-intestinal tract. Pediatric Research 19, 857–862.
Butterworth CE & Bendich A (1996) Folic acid and the prevention of birth defects. Annual Review of Nutrition 16, 73–97.
Buxton DB, Robertson SM & Olson MS (1986) Stimulation of glycogenolysis by adenine nucleotides in the perfused rat liver. Biochemical Journal 237, 773–780.
Calvo MS & Park YK (1996) Changing phosphorus content of the US diet: potential for adverse effects on bone. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1168S–1180S.
Carlson SE, Cooke RJ, Rhodes PG, Werkman SH, Peeples JM & Tolley EA (1991) Long term feeding of formulas high in linolenic acid and marine oil to very low birth weight infantsd: phospholipids fatty acids. Pediatric Researvh 30, 404–412.
Carlson SE, Cooke RJ, Werkman SH & Peeples JM (1992) First year growth of preterm infants fed standard compared to marine oil n−3 supplemented formula. Lipids 27, 901–907.
Carlson SE & Werkman SH (1996) A randomized trial of visual attention of preterm infants fed docosahexaenoic acid until two months. Lipids 31, 85–90.
Carlson SE, Werkman SH, Peeples JM, Cooke RJ & Tolley EA (1993) Arachidonic acid status correlates with first year growth in preterm infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90, 1073–1077.
Carver JD (1994) Dietary nucleotides: cellular immune, intestinal and hepatic system effects. Journal of Nutrition 124, 144S–148S.
Carver JD, Pimentel B, Cox W & Barness L (1991) Dietary nucleotides effects upon immune function in infants. Pediatrics 88, 359–363.
Cerra FB, Lehmann S, Konstantinides N, Dzik J, Fish J, Konstantinides F, LiCari JJ & Holman RT (1991) Improvement in immune function in ICU patients by enteral nutrition supplemented with arginine, RNA, and menhaden oil is independent of nitrogen balance. Nutrition 7, 193–199.
Chan GM, Hoffman K & McMurry M (1995) Effects of dairy products on bone and body composition in pubertal girls. Journal of Pediatrics 126, 551–556.
Chandra RK (1991) Interactions between early nutrition and the immune system. Ciba Foundation Symposium 156, 77–89.
Chandra RK, Puri S & Hamed A (1989 a) Influence of maternal diet during lactation and use of formula feeds on development of atopic eczema in high risk infants. British Medical Journal 299, 228–230 (published erratum appears in British Medical Journal 299, 896).
Chandra RK, Puri S, Suraiya C & Cheema PS (1986) Influence of maternal food antigen avoidance during pregnancy and lactation on incidence of atopic eczema in infants. Clinical Allergy 16, 563–569.
Chandra RK, Singh G & Shridhara B (1989 b) Effect of feeding whey hydrolysate, soy and conventional cow milk formulas on incidence of atopic disease in high risk infants. Annals of Allergy 63, 102–106.
Chavance M, Herbeth B, Fournier C, Janot C & Vernhes G (1989) Vitamin status, immunity and infections in an elderly population. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 43, 827–835.
Cheung R, Karjalainen J, Vandermeulen J, Singal DP & Dosch HM (1994) T cells from children with IDDM are sensitized to bovine serum albumin. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 40, 623–628.
Chew BP (1995) Antioxidant vitamins affect food animal immunity and health. Journal of Nutrition 125, 1804S–1808S.
Chirico G, Marconi M, Colombo A, Chiara A, Rondini G & Ugazio AG (1983) Deficiency of neutrophil phagocytosis in premature infants: effects of vitamin E supplementation. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavia 72, 521–524.
Cidlowski JA, King KL, Evans-Storms RB, Montague JW, Bortner CD & Hughes FM (1996) The biochemistry and molecular biology of glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in the immune system. Recent Progress in Hormone Research 51, 457–490.
Clarke SD (1994) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription. Annual Review of Nutrition 14, 83–98.
Clarke SD & Abraham S (1992) Gene expression: nutrient control of pre- and post-transcriptional events. FASEB Journal 6, 3146–3152.
Cohen A, Barankiewicz J & Gelfand EW (1984) Roles of alternative synthetic and catabolic purine pathways in T lymphocyte differentiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 81, 26–33.
Cole DE, Gundberg CM, Stirk LJ, Atkinson SA, Hanley DA, Ayer LM & Baldwin LS (1987) Changing osteocalcin concentration during pregnancy and lactation: implications for maternal mineral metabolism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 65, 290.
Cosman D (1994) A family of ligands for the TNF receptor superfamily. Stem Cells 12, 440–455.
Coutsoudis A, Bobat RA, Coovadia HM, Kuhn L, Tsai WY & Stein ZA (1995) The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. American Journal of Public Health 85, 1076–1081.
Coutsoudis A, Kiepiela P, Coovadia HM & Broughton M (1992) Vitamin A supplementation enhances specific IgG antibody levels and total lymphocyte numbers while improving morbidity in measles. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 11, 203–209.
Cowell CT, Lu PW, Lloyd-Jones SA, Briody JN, Allen JR, Humphries IR, Reed E, Knight J, Howman-Giles R & Gaskin K (1995) Volumetric bone mineral density – a potential role in paediatrics. Acta Paediatrica 411, Suppl., 12–16.
Crane R (1975) The physiology of intestinal absorption of sugars. In Physiological Effects of Food Carbohydrates, pp. 1–19 [James A and Hodges J, editors]. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Cravioto A, Tello A, Villafán H, Ruiz J, Del Vedovo S & Neeser JR (1991) Inhibition of localized adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to Hep-2 cells by immunoglobulin and oligosaccharide fractions of human colostrum and breast milk. Journal of Infectious Diseases 163, 1247–1255.
Cravioto J & Cravioto P (1996) Mental development and malnutrition. In Long-term Consequences of Early Feeding, pp. 35–56 [Boulton J, Laron Z and Rey J, editors]. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.
Cynober L (1994) Can arginine and ornithine support gut functions? Gut 35, Suppl. 1, S42–S45.
Dahlqvist A & Lindberg T (1965) Fetal development of the small-intestinal disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase in the human. Biology of the Neonate 9, 24–32.
Dahlqvist A & Lindberg T (1966) Development of the intestinal disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase activities in the human fetus. Clinical Science 30, 517–528.
Dallman PR & Spirito RA (1977) Brain iron in the rat: extremely slow turnover in normal rat may explain the long-lasting effects of early iron deficiency. Journal of Nutrition 107, 1075–1081.
Daly JM, Reynolds J, Sigal RK, Shou J & Liberman MD (1990) Effect of dietary protein and amino acids on immune function. Critical Care Medicine 18, S86–S93.
Danielsen EM, Skovberg H, Norén O & Sjöström H (1984) Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Intracellular processing of lactase–phlorizin hydrolase. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 122, 82–90.
Danielsen EM, Skovbjerg H, Noré O & Sjöström H (1981) Biosynthesis of intestinal proteins. Nature of precursor forms of microvillar enzymes from Ca2+ -precipitated enterocyte membranes. FEBS Letters 132, 197–200.
Davidson NO, Hausman AML, Ifkovits CA, Buse JB, Gould GW, Burant CF & Bell GI (1992) Human intestinal transporter expression and localization of GLUT 5. American Journal of Physiology 262, C795–C800.
Davis RL, Hargen SM, Yeomans FM & Chow BF (1973) Long term effects of alterations of maternal diet in mice. Nutrition Reports International 7, 463–473.
De Luca LM (1991) Retinoids and their receptors in differentiation, embryogenesis and neoplasia. FASEB Journal 5, 2924–2933.
de Snoo K (1937) Das trinkende Kind im Uterus (The drinking child in utero). Monatsschrift für Geburtshilfe und Gynäkologie 105, 88–97.
Decsi T & Koletzko B (1995) Growth, fatty acid composition of plasma lipid classes, and plasma retinol and α-tocopherol concentrations in full-term infants fed formula enriched with ω-6 and ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Acta Paediatrica 84, 725–732.
De-Lucchi C, Pita ML, Faus MJ, Molina JA, Uauy R & Gil A (1987) Effects of dietary nucleotides on the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membrane lipids in term infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 6, 568–574.
Demirini S & Tsang RC (1995) Calcium and phosphorus nutrition in infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 21, 367–373.
Demmelmair H, von Schenck U, Behrendt E, Sauerwald T & Koletzko B. (1995) Estimation of arachidonic acid synthesis in fullterm neonates using natural variation of 13C-abundance. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 21, 31–36.
Deurenberg P (1992) Methods for determining fat mass and fat distribution. Acta Paediatrica Suppl. 383, 53–57.
Docherty K & Clark AR (1994) Nutrient regulation of insulin gene expression. FASEB Journal 8, 20–27.
Dragunow M & Preston K (1995) The role of inducible transcription factors in apoptotic nerve cell death. Brain Research Reviews 21, 1–28.
Dubois S, Dougherty C, DuQuetette M, Hanley JA & Montgin JM (1991) Twin pregnancy: the impact of the Higgins Nutrition Intervention Program on maternal and neonatal outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 1397.
Duggin GG, Dale NE, Lyneham RC, Evans RA & Tiller DJ (1974) Calcium balance in pregnancy. Lancet 2, 926–927.
Egge H, Dell A & von Nicolai H (1983) Fucose containing oligosaccharides from human milk. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 224, 235–253.
Endres S (1996) n−3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and human cytokine synthesis. Lipids 31, S239–S242.
Evans-Storms RB & Cidlowski JA (1995) Regulation of apoptosis by steroid hormones. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 53, 1–8.
Fälth-Magnusson K & Kjellman NI (1992) Allergy prevention by maternal elimination diet during late pregnancy – a 5-year follow-up of a randomized study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 89, 709–713.
Fälth-Magnusson K, Oman H & Kjellman NI (1987) Maternal abstention from cow milk and egg in allergy risk pregnancies. Effect on antibody production in the mother and the newborn. Allergy 42, 64–73.
Farquharson J, Cockburn F, Patrick WA, Jamieson EC & Logan RW (1992) Infant cerebral cortex phospholipid fatty–acid composition and diet. Lancet 340, 810–813.
Fernandes G, Venkatraman J, Khare A, Horbach GJ & Friedrichs W (1990) Modulation of gene expression in autoimmune disease and aging by food restriction and dietary lipids. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 193, 16–22.
Fievre S, Wieruszeski JM, Michalski JC, Lemoine J, Montreuil J & Strecker G (1991) Primary structure of trisialylated oligosaccharide from human milk. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 177, 720–724.
Finch JM & Turner RJ (1996) Effects of selenium and vitamin E on the immune responses of domestic animals. Research in Veterinary Science 60, 97–106.
Finstad HS, Kolset SO, Holme JA, Wiger R, Farrants AK, Blomhoff R & Drevon CA (1994) Effect of n−3 and n−6 fatty acids on proliferation and differentiation of promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. Blood 84, 3799–3809.
Fleming TR & DeMets DL (1996) Surrogate endpoints in clinical trials: are we being misled? Annuls of Internal Medicine 125, 605–613.
Folkers K, Morita M & McRee J Jr (1993) The activities of coenzyme QlO and vitamin B6 for immune responses. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 193, 88–92.
Fomon SJ & Nelson SE (1994) Size and growth. In Nutrition of the Infant, pp. 36–83 [Fomon SJ, editor]. St Louis, MO: Mosby.
Fomon SJ (1991) Reference data for assessing growth of infants. Journal of Pediatrics 119, 415–416.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985) Energy and Protein Requirements. WHO Technical Report Series no. 724. Geneva: WHO.
Forbes GB (1987) Human Body Composition, Growth, Aging, Nutrition and Activity. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Formica JV & Regelson W (1995) Review of the biology of quercetin and related bioflavonoids. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33, 1061–1080.
Forni G, Cerruti Sola S, Giovarelli M, Santoni A, Martinetto P & Vietti D (1986) Effect of prolonged administration of low doses of dietary retinoids on cell-mediated immunity and the growth of transplantable tumors in mice. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 76, 527–533.
Foufelle F, Girard J & Ferré P (1996) Regulation of lipogenic enzyme expression by glucose in liver and adipose tissue: a review of the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms. Advances in Enzyme Regulation 36, 199–226.
Foufelle F, Gouhot B, Pégorier J-P, Perdereau D, Girard J & Ferré P (1992) Glucose stimulation of lipogenic enzyme gene expression in white adipose tissue. Journal of Biological Chemistry 267, 20543–20546.
Friel JK, Andrews WL, Matthew JD, Long DR, Cornel AM, Cox M, McKim E & Zerbe GO (1993) Zinc supplementation in very low birth weight infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 17, 97–104.
Fujisawa T, Riby J & Kretchmer N (1991) Intestinal absorption of fructose in the rat. Gastroenterology 101, 360–367.
Garlick PJ & McNurlan MA (1994) Protein metabolism in the cancer patient. Biochimie 76, 713–717.
Gaull GE, Rassin DK, Raiha NCR & Heinonen K (1977) Milk protein quantity and quality in low-birth weight infants: III. Effects on sulfur amino acids in plasma and urine. Journal of Pediatrics 90, 348–355.
Gebhard KJ, Gridley DS, Stickney DR & Shulz TD (1990) Enhancement of immune status by high levels of dietary vitamin B-6 without growth inhibition of human malignant melanoma in athymic nude mice. Nutrition and Cancer 14, 15–26.
Gerrard JW & Shenassa M (1983) Sensitization to substances in breast milk: recognition, management and significance. Annals of Allergy 51, 300–302.
Gerstein HC (1994) Cow's milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. A critical overview of the clinical literature. Diabetes Care 17, 13–19.
Gerster H & Moser U (1988) Is high-dose vitamin C intake associated with systemic conditioning? Nutrition Research 8, 1327–1332.
Ghersa P, Huber P, Semenza G & Wacker H (1986) Cell-free synthesis, membrane integration and glycosylation of prosucrase-isomaltase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 261, 7969–7974.
Ghigo E, Arvat E, Gianotti L, Nicolosi M, Valetto MR, Avagnina S, Bellitti D, Rolla M, Muller EE & Camanni F (1994) Arginine but not pyridostigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor, enhances the GHRH-induced GH rise in patients with anorexia nervosa. Biological Psychiatry 36, 689–695.
Gil A, Corral E, Martínez A & Molina JA (1986 a) Effects of dietary nucleotides on the microbial pattern of feces of at term newborn infants. Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Gastroenterology 1, 34–38.
Gil A & Lozano E, De-Lucchi C, Maldonado J, Molina JA & Pita M (1988) Changes in the fatty acid profiles of plasma lipid fractions induced by dietary nucleotides in infants born at term. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42, 473–481.
Gil A, Pita M, Martínez A, Molina JA & Sánchez-Medina F (1986 b) Effect of dietary nucleotides on the plasma fatty acids in at-term neonates. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition 40 C, 185–195.
Gil A & Sánchez-Medina F (1981) Acid-soluble nucleotides of cow's, goat's and sheep's milk at different stages of lactation. Journal of Dairy Research 48, 35–44.
Gil A & Sánchez-Medina F (1982) Acid-soluble nucleotides of human milk at different stages of lactation. Journal of Dairy Research 49, 301–307.
Gil A & Uauy R (1989) Dietary nucleotides in infant nutrition. Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Gastroenterology 4, 145–153.
Gil A & Uauy R (1995 a) Nucleotides and related compounds in human and bovine milks. In Handbook of Milk Composition, pp. 436–464 [Jensen RG, editor]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Gil A & Uauy R (1995 b) Nutritional and Biological Significance of Dietary Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids. Barcelona: Limpergraf.
Gilsanz V, Roe TF, Mora S, Costin G & Goodman WG (1991) Changes in vertebral bone density in black girls and white girls during childhood and puberty. New England Journal of Medicine 325, 1597–1600.
Girard J, Ferré P, Pégorier JP & Duée PH (1992) Adaptations of glucose and fatty acid metabolism during perinatal period and suckling–weaning transition. Physiological Reviews 72, 507–562.
Gray GM (1967) Malabsorption of carbohydrates. Federation Proceedings 26, 1415–1419.
Grimaldi PA, Knobel SM, Whitesell RR & Abumrad NA (1992) Induction of aP2 gene expression by nonmetabolized long-chain fatty acids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 89, 10930–10934.
Gunnes M & Lehman EH (1995) Dietary calcium, saturated fat, fiber and vitamin C as predictors of forearm cortical and trabecular bone density in healthy children and adolescents. Acta Paeditrica 84, 388–392.
Güttler F (1984) Phenylketonuria: 50 years since Follings discovery and still expanding our clinical and biochemical knowledge. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavia 73, 705–716.
Güttler F & Guldberg P (1996) The influence of mutations of enzyme activity and phenylalanine tolerance in phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. European Journal of Pediatrics 155, Suppl. 1, S6–S10.
Hachey DL (1994) Benefits and risks of modifying maternal fat intake in pregnancy and lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, Suppl., 454S–464S.
Hadsell DL, Greenberg NM, Fligger JM, Baumrucker CR & Rosen JM (1996) Targeted expression of des(1–3) human insulin-like growth factor I in transgenic mice influences mammary gland development and IGF-binding protein expression. Endocrinology 137, 321–330.
Hakomori S & Igarashi Y (1995) Functional role of glycosphin-golipids in cell recognition and signaling. Journal of Biochemistry, Tokyo 118, 1091–1103.
Halas ES, Sanstead HH (1975) Some effects of prenatal zinc deficiency on behavior of the adult rat. Pediatric Research 9, 94–97.
Halas ES & Sanstead HH (1980) Malnutrition and behavior: the performance versus learning problem revisited. Journal of Nutrition 110, 1858–1864.
Hale AJ, Smith CA, Sutherland LC, Stoneman VE, Longthorne VL, Culhane AC & Williams GT (1996) Apoptosis: molecular regulation of cell death. European Journal of Biochemistry 236, 1–26.
Halken S, Host A, Hansen LG & Osterballe O (1993 a) Preventive effect of feeding high-risk infants a casein hydrolysate formula or an ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate formula. A prospective, randomized, comparative clinical study. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 4, 173–181.
Halken S, Host A, Hansen LG & Osterballe O (1993 b) Safety of a new, ultrafiltrated whey hydrolysate formula in children with cow milk allergy: a clinical investigation. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 4, 53–59.
Hall L, Emery DC, Davies MS, Parker D & Craig RK (1987) Organization and sequence of the human α-lactalbumin gene. Biochemical Journal 242, 735–742.
Hallberg L (1988) Iron balance in pregnancy. In Vitamins and Minerals in Pregnancy and Lactation. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series, pp. 115–127 [Berger H, editor]. New York, NY: Raven Press.
Harris WS, Connor WE & Lindsey S. (1984) Will dietary ω-3 fatty acids change the composition of human milk? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 40, 780.
Hauri HP (1986) Use of monoclonal antibodies to investigate the intracellular transport and biogenesis of intestinal brush border proteins. Biochemical Society Transactions 161, 161–163.
Hauri HP, Quaroni A & Isselbacher KJ (1980) Monoclonal antibodies to sucrase–isomaltase: probes for the study of postnatal development and biogenesis of the intestinal microvillus membrane. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 77, 6629–6633.
Hauri HP, Sterchi EE, Bienz D, Fransen JAW & Marxer A (1986) Expression and intracellular transport of microvillus membrane hydrolases in human intestinal epithelial cell. Journal of Cellular Biology 101, 838–851.
Hauri HP, Wacker H, Rickli EE, Bigler–Meier B, Quaroni A & Semenza G (1982) Biosynthesis of sucrase–isomaltase. Purification and NHz–terminal amino acid sequence of the rat sucrase–isomaltase precursor (pro-sucrase-isomaltase) from fetal intestinal transplants. Journal of Biological Chemistry 257, 4522–4528.
He Y, Chu SW & Walker WA (1993) Nucleotide supplements alter proliferation and differentiation of cultured human (CaCo-2) and rat (IEC-6) intestinal epithelial cells. Journal of Nutrition 123, 1017–1027.
Hellerstein MK, Wu K, McGrath M, Faix D, George D, Shackleton CH, Horn W, Hoh R & Neese RA (1996) Effects of dietary n−3 fatty acid supplementation in men with weight loss associated with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: relation to indices of cytokine production. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: Human Retrovirology 11, 258–270.
Hemila H (1996) Vitamin C and common cold incidence: a review of studies with subjects under heavy physical stress. Interna– tional Journal of Sports Medicine 17, 379–383.
Henderson RC & Hayes PRL (1994) Bone mineralisation in children and adolescents with a milk allergy. Bone and Mineral 27, 1–12.
Hernández M & Argente J (1992) Human Growth: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica.
Hernández-Muñoz R, Díaz-Muñoz M, Suárez J & Chagoya de Sánchez V (1990) Adenosine partially prevents cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Hepatology 12, 242–248.
Herskovics A, Quaroni A, Bugge B & Kirsch K (1981) Partial characterization of the carbohydrate units of rat intestinal sucrase–isomaltase. Biochemical Journal 197, 511–514.
Houscham KC & Devilliers JFK (1987) Computed tomography in severe protein–energy malnutrition. Archives of Disease in Childhood 62, 589–592.
Houtkooper LB, Going SB, Lohman TG, Roche AF & Van Loan M (1992) Bioelectrical impedance estimation of fat free body mass in children and youth: a cross–validation study. Journal of Applied Physiology 72, 366–373.
Hughes DA, Wright AJA, Finglas PM, Peerless ACJ, Bailey AL, Astley SB, Pinder AC & Southon S (1996) Beta-carotene supplementation enhances the expression of functionally associated molecules on human monocytes. Biochemical Society Transactions 24, 388S.
Hurle JM, Ros MA, Garcia-Martinez V, Macias D & Ganan Y (1995) Cell death in the embryonic developing limb. Scanning Microscopy 9, 519–533.
Huttenlocher PR, de Courten C, Garey LJ & van der Loos H (1982) Synaptogenesis in the human visual cortex–evidence for synapse elimination during normal development. Neuroscience Letters 33, 247–252.
Hytten FE & Leitch I (1971) The Physiology of Human Pregnancy, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Igarashi P (1994) Transcription factors and apoptosis in kidney development. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 3, 308–317.
Innis SM, Nelson CM, Lwanga D, Rioux EM & Waslen P (1996) Formula feeding without arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid has no effect on preferential looking acuity or recognition memory in healthy full-term infants at 9 mo of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 40–46.
Institute of Medicine (1990) Nutrition During Pregnancy: Weight Gain and Nutrient Supplements. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Isolauri E, Juntunen M, Rautanen T, Sillanaukee P & Koivula T (1991) A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus casei sp strain GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children. Pediatrics 88, 90–97.
Isolauri E, Kaila M, Mykkanen H, Ling WH & Salminen S (1994) Oral bacteriotherapy for viral gastroenteritis. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 39, 2595–2600.
Jacobson M (1991) Developmental Neurobiology. New York: Plenum Press.
James TN (1993) Normal and abnormal consequences of apoptosis in the human heart: from postnatal morphogenesis to paroxysmal arrhythmias. Transactions – American Clinical and Climatological Association 105, 145–177
Jirsova V, Koldovsky O, Heringova A, Hoskova J, Jirasek J & Uher J (1965–1966) The development of the functions of the small intestine of the human fetus. Biology of the Neonate 9, 44–49.
Johnston CC, Miller JZ, Slemenda CW, Reister TK, Hui S, Christian JC & Peacock M (1992) Calcium supplementation and increase in bone mineral density in children. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 82–87.
Jørgensen HL, Schøller J, Sand JC, Bjuring M, Hassager C & Christiansen C (1996) Relation of common allelic variation at vitamin D receptor locus to bone mineral density and postmenopausal bone loss: cross sectional and longitudinal population study. British Medical Journal 313, 586–590.
Kaila M, Isolauri E, Soppi E, Virtanen E, Laine S & Arvilommi H (1992) Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human Lactobacillus strain. Pediatric Research 32, 141–144.
Kandel ER, Schwartz JH & Jessell TM (1991) Principles of Neural Science. East Nonvalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Kandel ER, Schwartz JH & Jessell TM (1995) Essentials of Neural Science. East Nonvalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Karasov WH, Pond RS III, Solberg DH & Diamond JM (1983) Regulation of proline and glucose transport in mouse intestine by dietary substrate levels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 80, 7674–7678.
Kashfi K, Yang E, Chowdbury J, Chowdbury N & Dannenberg A (1994) Regulation of UDPGT expression by phenolic antioxidants. Cancer Research 54, 5856–5859.
Kawata M (1995) Roles of steroid hormones and their receptors in structural organization in the nervous system. Neuroscience Research 24, 1–46.
Kember NF (1993) Cell kinetics and the control of bone growth. Acta Paeditrica Suppl. 391, 61–65.
Kemen M, Senkal M, Homann HH, Mumme A, Dauphin AK, Baier J, Windeler J, Neumann H & Zumtobel V (1995) Early postoperative enteral nutrition with arginine- omega-3 fatty acids and ribonucleic acid-supplemented diet versus placebo in cancer patients: An immunologic evaluation of Impact(R). Critical Care Medicine 23, 652–659.
Kerstetter JE (1995) Do dairy products improve bone density in adolescent girls? Nutrition Reviews 53, 328–332.
Keusch GT (1996) Symposium on vitamin A and immunity: salient points and directions for future research. Journal of Nutritional Immunology 4, 133–143.
Kilberg MS, Hutson RG & Laine RO (1994) Amino acid–regulated gene expression in eukaryotic cells. FASEB Journal 18, 13–19.
Kilshaw PJ & Cant AJ (1984) The passage of maternal dietary proteins into human breast milk. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 75, 8–15.
Kim SJ, Cho YK, Lee KW (1994) Expression of human lactoferrin in milk of transgenic mice using bovine β-casein/human Iactoferrin cDNA fusion gene. Korean Society for Molecular Biology 4, 355–360.
Kiremidjian Schumacher L & Stotzky G (1987) Selenium and immune responses. Environmental Research 42, 277–303.
Kitagawa H, Nakada H, Fukui S, Funakoshi I, Kawasaki T & Yamashira I (1991) Novel oligosaccharides with the sialyl- Le structure in human milk. Biochemistry 30, 2869–2876.
Kitajima H, Sumida Y, Tanaka R, Yuki N, Takayama H & Fujimura M (1997) Early administration of bifidobacterium breve to preterm infants: randomised controlled trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 76, F101–F107.
Knip M (1992) [Can type-1 diabetes in children be prevented?]. Nordisk Medicin, 107, 207–210.
Koldovsky O & Strbak V (1995) Hormones and growth factors in human milk. In Handbook of Milk Composition, pp. 428–436 [Jensen RG, editor]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Koldovsky O & Thornburg W (1987) Hormones in human milk: a review. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 6, 172–196.
Koletzko B (1992) Fats for brains. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, Suppl. 1, S51–S62.
Koletzko B & Braun M (1991) Arachidonic acid and early human growth: is there a relation? Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 35, 128–131.
Koletzko B & Müller J (1990) Cis- and trans-isomeric fatty acids in plasma lipids of newborn infants and their mothers. Biology of the Neonate 57, 172–178.
Koletzko B, Thiel I & Abiodun PO (1992) The fatty acid composition of human milk in Europe and Africa. Journal of Pediatrics 120, S62–S70.
Kramer TR (1996) Relationship between vitamin A status and T-lymphocyte responsiveness. Journal of Nutritional Immunology 4, 77–85.
Krammer PH, Behrmann I, Daniel P, Dhein J & Debatin KM (1994) Regulation of apoptosis in the immune system. Current Opinion in Immunology 6, 279–289.
Krenger W, Falzarano G, Delmonte J Jr, Snyder KM, Byon JC & Ferrara JL (1996) Interferon-gamma suppresses T-cell proliferation to mitogen via the nitric oxide pathway during experimental acute graft-versus-host disease. Blood 88, 1113–1121.
Kretchmer N, Beard JL & Carlson SE (1996) The role of nutrition in the development of normal cognition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 997S–1001S.
Kroemer G, Petit P, Zamzami N, Vayssiere JL & Mignotte B (1995) The biochemistry of programmed cell death. FASEB Journal 9, 1277–1287.
Kudsk KA, Minard G, Croce MA, Brown RO, Lowrey TS, Pritchard FE, Dickerson RN & Fabian TC (1996) A randomized trial of isonitrogenous enteral diets after severe trauma. An immune-enhancing diet reduces septic complications. Annals of Surgery 531–540; discussion 540–543.
Kulkarni AD, Fanslow WC, Rudolph FB & Van Buren CT (1992) Immunohemopoietic effects of dietary nucleotide restriction in mice. Transplantation 53, 467–472.
Kulkarni AD, Rudolph FB & Van Buren CT (1994) The role of dietary sources of nucleotides in immune function: a review. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1442S–1446S.
Lacey JM & Wilmore DW (1990) Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid? Nutrition Reviews 48, 297–309.
Laegrid A, Otnaess ABK & Fugelsang J. (1986) Human and bovine milks: comparison of ganglioside compositions and enterotoxin inhibitory activity. Pediatric Research 20, 416–420.
Lanting CI, Fidler V, Huisman M, Touwen BCL & Boersma ER (1994) Neurological differences between 9-year-old children fed breast-milk or formula-milk as babies. Lancet 344, 1319–1322.
Lechting A, Habicht JP, Delgado H, Klein RE, Yarbrough C & Martorell R (1975) Effect of food supplementation during pregnancy on birth-weight. Pediatrics 56, 508.
Leclercq I, Horsmans Y, Desager JP, Pauwels S & Geubel AP (1996) Influence of diet on liver volume and CYP activities in human non alcoholic fatty liver. Hepatology 24, 311A.
Lee WTK, Leung SSF, Wang SH, Xu YC, Zeng WP, Lau J, Oppenheimer SJ & Cheng JC (1994) Double-blind controlled calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in children accustomed to a low-calcium diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 744–750.
LeLeiko NS, Bronstein AD, Baliga S & Muno HN (1983) De novo purine nucleotide synthesis in the rat small and large intestine: effect of dietary protein and purines. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2, 313–319.
LeLeiko NS, Martin BA, Walsh MJ, Kazlow P, Rabinowitz S & Sterling K (1987) Tissue specific gene expression results from a purine and pyrimidine -free diet and 6-mercaptopurine in the rat small intestine and colon. Gastroenterology 93, 1014–1020.
LeLeiko NS, Walsh MJ & Abraham S (1995) Gene expression in the intestine: the effect of dietary nucleotides. Advances in Pediatrics 42, 145–169.
Lentze MJ (1986) Die Ernährung von Frühgeborenen unter 1500 g-enterale Voraussetzungen (Feeding of premature infants below 1500 g: enteral preconditions). Monatsschrift für Kinderheilkunde 134, 502–507.
Levy Marchal C, Karjalainen J, Dubois F, Karges W, Czernichow P & Dosch HM (1995) Antibodies against bovine albumin and other diabetes markers in French children. Diabetes Care 18, 1089–1094.
Lewis DS, Bertrand HA, McMahan CA, McGill HC, Carey KD & Masaro EJ (1986) Preweaning food intake influences the adiposity of young adult baboons. Journal of Clinical Investigation 78, 899–905.
Liang B, Lane L & Watson RR (1995) Vitamin E stimulation of disease resistance and immune function. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 4, 201–211.
Liang B & Watson RR (1996) Vitamin E and immunomodulation for cancer and AIDS resistance. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 5, 1221–1225.
Liang Q & Richardson T (1993) Expression and characterization of human lactofemn in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 41, 1800–1807.
Licata AA (1993) Monitoring calcium intake and absorption. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 73, 27–52.
Liley AW (1972) Disorders of the amniotic fluid. In Pathophysiology of Gestation: Fetal Placental Disorders, vol. 2 [Assali NS, editor]. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Lilja G, Dannaeus A, Foucard T, Graff LV, Johansson SG & Oman H (1989) Effects of maternal diet during late pregnancy and lactation on the development of atopic diseases in infants up to 18 months of age – in-vivo results. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 19, 473–479.
Limonta JM, Castro FO, Martinez R, Puentes P, Ramos B, Aguilar A, Lleonart RL & delaFuente J (1995) Transgenic rabbits as bioreactors for the production of human growth hormone. Journal of Biotechnology 40, 49–58.
Lindfors A & Enocksson E (1988) Development of atopic disease after early administration of cow milk formula. Allergy 43, 11–16.
Llewellyn-Jones D (1965) Severe anaemia in pregnancy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 5, 191–197.
Lloyd T, Andon MB, Rollings N, Martel JK, Landis JR, Demers LM, Eggli DF, Kieselhorst K & Kulin HE (1993) Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. Journal of the American Medical Association 270, 841–844.
Loche S, Carta D, Muntoni AC, Corda R & Pintor C (1993) Oral administration of arginine enhances the growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone in short children. Acta Paediatrica 82, 883–884.
Lodish H, Baltimore D, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P & Darnell J (1995) Molecular Cell Biology. New York, NY: Scientific American Books, WH Freeman.
Lönnerdal B (1996) Recombinant human milk proteins – an opportunity and a challenge. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 622S–626S.
López-Navarro AT, Gil A & Sánchez-Pozo A (1995) Deprivation of dietary nucleotides results in a transient decrease in acid soluble nucleotides and RNA content in rat liver. Journal of Nutrition 125, 2090–2095.
López-Navarro AT, Ortega MA, Peragon J, Bueno JD, Gil A & Sanchez-Pozo A (1996) Deprivation of dietary nucleotides decreases protein synthesis in the liver and small intestine in rats. Gastroenterology 110, 1760–1769.
Lozoff B & Brittenham GM (1986) Behavioural aspects of iron deficiency. Progress in Hematology 14, 23–53.
Lozoff B, Wolf AW & Jiminez E (1996) Iron-deficiency anemia and infant development: effects of extended oral iron therapy. Journal of Pediatrics 129, 382–389.
Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ, Lister G & Leeson-Payne C (1992) Breast milk and subsequent intelligence quotient in children born preterm. Lancet 339, 261–264.
Luke B & Petrie RH (1980) Intrauterine growth: correlation of infant birth weight and maternal postpartum weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 2311.
Mackinnon AM & Deller DJ (1973) Purine nucleotides biosynthesis in gastrointestinal mucosa. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 319, 1–4.
Maga EA, Anderson GB, Mei CH & Murray JD (1994) Expression of human lysozyme mRNA in the mammary gland of transgenic mice. Transgenic Research 3, 36–42.
Majamaa H & Isolauri E (1997) Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 99, 179–185.
Makrides M, Neumann MA, Byard RW, Simmer K & Gibson RA (1994) Fatty acid composition of brain, retina, and erythrocytes in breast- and formula-fed infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 189–194.
Makrides M, Neumann M, Simmer K, Pater J & Gibson R (1995) Are long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy? Lancet 345, 1463–1468.
Makrides M, Simmer K, Goggin M & Gibson RA (1993) Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid correlates with the visual response of healthy, term infants. Pediatric Research 34, 425–427.
Mandl J, Banhegy G, Kapalos M, Garzo T (1995) Increased oxidation and decreased conjugation of drugs in the liver caused by starvation, altered metabolism of certain aromatic compounds and acetone. Chemicobiological Interactions 96, 87–101.
Mantei N, Villa M, Enzler T, Wacker H, Boll W, James P, Hunziger W & Semenza G (1988) Complete primary structure of human and rabbit lactase-phlorizin hydrolase: implications for biosynthesis, membrane anchoring and evolution of the enzyme. EMBO Journal 7, 2705–2713.
Marcinkiewicz J, Grabowska A & Chain BM (1996) Is there a role for nitric oxide in regulation of T cell secretion of IL-2? Journal of Immunology 156, 4617–4621.
Mastrmatteo E & Sullivan F (1994) Summary: international symposium on the health effects of boron and its compounds. Environmental Health Perspectives 102, Suppl. 7, 139–141.
Mathieu C, Waer M, Laureys J, Rutgeerts O & Bouillon R (1994) Prevention of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3. Diabetologia 37, 552–558.
Mayfield R, Yarbrough C & Lechtig A (1991) Body composition of low-birth weight infants determined by using bioelectrical resistance and reactance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 296–303.
Meikrantz W & Schlegel R (1995) Apoptosis and the cell cycle. Journal of Cell Biochemistry 58, 160–174.
Melnik B, Plewig G & Tschung T (1991) Are deficiencies of prostaglandin-E-mediated immunoregulation involved in increased IgE synthesis of atopic mononuclear cells in vitro? Allergy 46, 502–506.
Mennella JA & Beauchamp GK (1991) The transfer of alcohol to human milk effects on flavor and the infant's behavior. New England Journal of Medicine 325, 981–985.
Mennella JA & Beauchamp GK (1993) The effects of repeated exposure to garlic-flavored milk on the nursling's behavior. Pediatric Research 34, 805–808.
Messer M & Keny KR (1967) Intestinal digestion of maltotriose in man. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 132, 432–443.
Messina M & Messina V (1996) Nutritional implications of dietary phytochemicals. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 401, 207–212.
Millar MR, Bacon C, Smith SL, Walker V & Hall MA (1993) Enteral feeding of premature infants with Lactobacillus GG. Archives of Disease in Childhood 69, 483–487.
Miller JB, Bull S, Miller J & McVeagh P (1994) The oligosaccharide composition of human milk: temporal and individual variations in the monosaccharide components. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 19, 371–376.
Miller LT & Kerkvliet NI (1990) Effect of vitamin B6 on immunocompetence in the elderly. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 587, 49–54.
Milner JA (1990) Trace minerals in the nutrition of children. Journal of Pediatrics 117, S147–S155.
Morillas J, Moltó L, Robles R, Gil A & Sánchez-Pozo A (1994) Lipoprotein changes in small-for-gestational-age infants fed nucleotide-supplemented milk formula. Acta Paediatrica 83, 481–485.
Morley R & Lucas A (1993) Early diet and outcome in prematurely born children. Clinical Nutrition 12, Suppl., 6–11.
Naeye RL, Diener MM & Dellinger WS (1989) Urban poverty: effects on prenatal nutritition. Science 166, 1026.
Nagata S (1997) Apoptosis by death factor. Cell 88, 355–365.
Naim HY, Roth J, Sterchi EE, Lentze MJ, Milla PJ, Schmitz J & Hauri HP (1988) Sucrase–isomaltase deficiency in humans. Different mutations disrupt intracellular transport, processing and function of an intestinal brush border enzyme. Journal of Clinical Investigation 82, 667–679.
Naim HY, Niermann T, Kleinhans U, Hollenberg CP & Strasser AWM (1991) Strikung structural and functional similarities suggest that intestinal sucrase–isomaltase, human lysosomal α-glucosidase, and Schwanniomyces occidentalis glucoamylase are derived from common ancestral gene. FEBS Letters 294, 109–112.
Naim HY, Sterchi EE & Lentze MJ (1989) Structure, biosynthesis and glycosylation of human small intestinal maltase–gluco-amylase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 263, 19709–19717.
National Research Council (1989) Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Navarro J, RuizBravo A, JimenezValera M & Gil A (1996) Modulation of antibody-forming cell and mitogen-driven lym-phoproliferative responses by dietary nucleotides in mice. Immunology Letters 53, 141–145.
Neggers YH, Cutter GR, Alvarez JO, Goldenberg RL, Acton R, Go RC & Roseman JM (1991) The relationship between maternal serum zinc levels during pregnancy and birthweight. Early Human Development 25, 75–85.
Neuringer M (1993) The relationship of fatty acid composition to function in the retina and visual system. In Lipids, Learning and the Brain: Fats in Infant Formulas. Report of the 103rd Ross Conference on Pediatric Research, pp. 69–101 [Dobbing J, editor]. Columbus, OH: Ross Laboratories.
Newburg DS & Neubauer SH (1995) Carbohydrates in milks: analysis, quantities and significance. In Handbook of Milk Composition, pp. 273–349 [Jensen RG, editor]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Newburg DS, Pickering LK, McCluer RH & Cleary TG (1990) Fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk protect suckling mice from heat stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli. Journal of Infections and Diseases 162, 1075–1080.
Newsholme EA & Carrié AL (1994) Quantitative aspects of glucose and glutamine metabolism by intestinal cells. Gut 35, Suppl. 1, S13–S17.
Niv M, Levy W & Greenstein NM (1963) Yogurt in the treatment of infantile diarrhoea. Clinical Pediatrics 2, 407–411.
Núũez MC, Ayudarte MV, Morales D, Suárez MD & Gil A (1990) Effect of dietary nucleotides on intestinal repair in rats with experimental chronic diarrhea. Journal of Parenteral and En era1 Nutrition 14, 598–604.
Ogoshi S, Iwasa M, Kitagawa S, Ohmori Y, Mizobuchi S, Iwasa Y & Tamiya T (1988) Effects of total parenteral nutrition with nucleoside and nucleotide mixture on D -galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 12, 53–57.
Ogoshi S, Iwasa M, Yonezawa T & Tamiya T (1985) Effect of nucleotide and nucleoside mixture on rats given total parenteral nutrition after 70% hepatectomy. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 9, 339–342.
Ohyanagi H, Nishimatsu S, Kanbara Y, Usami M & Saitoh Y (1989) Effects of nucleosides and a nucleotide on DNA and RNA syntheses by the salvage and de novo pathway in primary monolayer cultures of hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 13, 51–58.
Oldaeus G, Anjou K, Björksten B, Moran JR & Kjellmann NIM (1997) Extensively and partially hydrolysed infant formulas for allergy prophylaxis. Archives of Disease in Childhood 77, 4–10.
Olsen SF, Soerensen JD, Secher NJ, Hedegaard M, Henriksen TB, Hansen HS & Grant A (1992) Randomized controlled trial of the effect of fish-oil supplementation on pregnancy duration. Lancet 339, 1003–1007.
Olsen SF, Hansen HS, Sorensen TI, Jensen B, Secher NJ, Sommer S & Knudsen LB (1986) Intake of marine fat, rich in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, may increase birth-weight by prolonging gestation. Lancet 2, 367–369.
Onwude JL, Lilford RJ, Hjartardottir H, Staines A & Tuffnell D (1995) A randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of fish oil in high risk pregnancy. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 102, 95–100.
Ortega MA, Núñez MC, Gil A & Sánchez-Pozo A (1995) Dietary nucleotides accelerate intestinal recovery after food deprivation in old rats. Journal of Nutrition, 125, 1413–1418.
Osmond C, Barker DJP, Winter PD, Fall CHD & Simmonds SJ (1993) Early growth and death from cardiovascular disease in women. British Medical Journal 307, 1519–1524.
Patton S, Gendler S & Spicer AP (1995) The epithelial mucin, MUC1, of milk mammary gland and other tissues. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1241, 407–424.
Peacock M (1991) Calcium absorption efficiency and calcium requirements in children and adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 261S–265S.
Penn ND, Purkins L, Kelleher J, Heatley RV, MascieTaylor BH & Belfield PW (1991) The effect of dietary supplementation with vitamins A, C and E on cell-mediated immune function in elderly long-stay patients: a randomized controlled trial. Age and Ageing 20, 169–174.
Perez RV & Alexander JW (1988) Immune regulation by lipids. Transplantation Proceedings 20, 1162–1165.
Peters DP (1979) Effects of prenatal malnutrition on learning and motivation in rats. Physiology and Behaviour 22, 1067–1070.
Petralanda I, Yarzabal L & Piessens WF (1988) Parasite antigens are present in breast milk of women infected with Onchocerca volvulus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 38, 372–379.
Pfeffer SR & Rothman JE (1987) Biosynthetic protein transport and sorting by the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Annual Review of Biochemistry 56, 829–852.
Philips JA III (1995) Inherited defects in growth hormone synthesis and action. In The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease, pp. 1965–1983 [Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS and Valle D, editors]. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Pietrzik K, Prinz R, Reusch K, Bung P, Mallmann P & Chronides A (1992) Folate status and pregnancy outcome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 669, 371–373.
Pita ML, Fernández MR, DeLucchi C, Medina A, Martínez-Valverde A, Uauy R & Gil A (1988) Changes in fatty acids pattern of red blood cell phospholipids induced by type of milk. Dietary nucleotide supplementation and postnatal age in preterm infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 7, 740–747.
Pizzini RP, Kumar S, Kulkarni AD, Rudolph FB & Van Buren CT (1990) Dietary nucleotides reverse malnutrition and starvation-induced immunosuppression. Archives of Surgery 125, 86–90.
Pocock NA, Eisman JA, Hopper JL, Yeates MG, Sambrook PN & Eberl S (1987) Genetic determinants of bone mass in adults: a twin study. Journal of Clinical Investigation 80, 706–710.
Politt E (1993) Iron deficiency and cognitive function. Annual Review of Nutrition 13, 521–537.
Prasad AS (1995) Zinc: an overview. Nutrition 11, 93–99.
Prentice AM, Cole TJ, Foord FA, Lamb WH & Whitehead RG (1987) Increased birth weight after prenatal supplementation of rural African women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46, 912–925.
Price JS, Oyajobi BO & Russell RGG (1994) The cell biology of bone growth. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, Suppl. 1, S131–S149.
Prieto PA, Mukerji P, Kelder B, Erney R, Gonzales D, Yun JS, Smith DF, Moremen KW, Nardelli C, Pierce M, Li Y, Chen X, Wagner T, Cummings R & Kopchick JJ (1995) Remodeling of mouse milk glycoconjugates by transgenic expression of a human glycosyltransferase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270, 29516–29519.
Quan R & Gray GM (1993) Sucrase-α-dextrinase in the rat. Journal of Clinical Investigation 91, 2785–2790.
Rakic P (1995) Corticogenesis in human and nonhuman primates. In The Cognitive Neurosciences, pp. 127–145 [Gazzaniga MS, editor]. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Rall LC & Meydani SN (1993) Vitamin B6 and immune competence. Nutrition Reviews 51, 217–225.
Ramam L, Rajalakshmi K, Krishnamachari KAVR & Sastry KG (1978) Effect of calcium supplementation to undernourished mothers during pregnancy on the bone density of neonates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, 466–469.
Rasmussen KM (1992) The influence of maternal nutrition on lactation. Annual Review of Nutrition 12, 103–117.
Ravelli GP, Stein ZA & Susser MW (1976) Obesity in young men after famine exposure in utero and early infancy. New England Journal of Medicine 295, 349–353.
Reisbick S (1996) Neural development. In Assessment of Infant Visual and Cognitive Function in Relation to Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, pp. 10–18 [Carlson S, Neuringer M and Reisbick S, editors]. Basel: Editiones Roche.
Ribot C, Trémolieres F & Pouilles JM (1995) Late consequences of a low peak bone mass. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 411, 31–35.
Riby J, Fujisawa T & Kretchmer N (1993) Fructose absorption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, Suppl., 748S–753S.
Rigo J, Nyamugabo K, De Curtis M & Senterre J (1996) Bone mineralization during the first year of life. In Recent Developments of Infant Nutrition, pp. 98–111 [Bindels JG, Goedhart AC and Visser HKA, editors]. Dordrecht, Boston and London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Ripa S & Ripa R (1995) Zinc and immune function. Minerva Medica 86, 315–318.
Rodeberg DA, Chaet MS, Bass RC, Arkovitz MS & Garcia VF (1995) Nitric oxide: an overview. American Journal of Surgery 170, 292–303.
Roberts JA, Hill GW & Propelle AJ (1974) Maternal protein deprivation and toxemia of pregnancy studies in the rhesus monkey (Macacca mulatta). American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 118, 14.
Rosales FJ & Kjolhede C (1994) A single 210-mumol oral dose of retinol does not enhance the immune response in children with measles. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1604–1614.
Rosen JM, Li S, Raught B & Hadsell D (1996) The mammary gland as a bioractor: factor regulating the efficient expression of milk protein-based transgenes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 627S–632S.
Rosenzweig MR, Leiman AL & Breedlove SM (1996) Biological Psychology. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Association.
Roskelley CD, Srebrow A & Bissell MJ (1995) A hierarchy of ECM-mediated signalling regulates tissue-specific gene expression. Current Opinion in Cell Biology 7, 736–747.
Rudolph FB (1994) Symposium: dietary nucleotides: a recently demonstrated requirement for cellular development and immune function. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1431S–1432S.
Ruiz-Palacios GM, Cervantes LE, Newburg DS, López-Vidal Y & Calva JJ (1992) In vitro models for studying campilobacter infections. In Campilobacter Jejuni. Current Status and Future Trends, pp. 176–183 [Nachamkin I, Blaser MJ and Tomkins LS, editors]. Washington, DC: American Society of Microbiology.
Saavedra JM, Bauman NA, Oung I, Perman JA & Yolken RH (1994) Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 344, 1046–1049.
Sabhanval H, Sjoblad S & Lundblad A (1991) Sialylated oligo-saccharides in human milk and feces of preterm, full-term and weaning infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 12, 280–284.
Sachs L (1996) The control of hematopoiesis and leukemia: from basic biology to the clinic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 4742–4749.
Sánchez-Pozo A, Morillas J, Moltó L, Robles R & Gil A (1994) Dietary nucleotides influence lipoprotein metabolism in newborn infants. Pediatric Research 35, 112–116.
Sánchez-Pozo A, Ramirez M, Gil A, Maldonado J, Van Biervliet JP & Rosseneu M (1995) Dietary nucleotides enhance plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity and apolipoprotein A-IV concentration in preterm newborn infants. Pediatric Research 37, 328–333.
Sanders EJ & Wride MA (1995) Programmed cell death in development. International Review of Cytology 163, 105–173.
Sanderson IR & He Y (1994) Nucleotide uptake and metabolism by intestinal epithelial cells. Journal of Nutrition 124, 131S–137S.
Sato G, Pardee A & Sirbasku D (1982) Growth of cells in hormonally defined media. Cold Spring Harbor Conference on Cell Proliferation 9. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
Sauerwald TU, Hachey DL, Jensen CL & Heird WC (1997) New insights into the metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during infancy. European Journal of Medical Research 2, 88–92.
Savaiano DA & Clifford AJ (1981) Adenine, the precursor of nucleic acids in intestinal cells, is unable to synthesize purines de novo. Journal of Nutrition 111, 1816–1822.
Savilahti E, Tainio VM, Salmenperä L, Siimes MA & Perheentupa J (1987) Prolonged exclusive breast feeding and heredity as determinants in infantile atopy. Archives of Disease in Childhood 62, 269–273.
Sazawal S, Bentley M, Black RE, Dhingra P, George S & Bhan MK (1996) Effect of zinc supplementation on observed activity in low socioeconomic Indian preschool children. Pediatrics 98, 1132–1137.
Sazawal S, Black RE, Bhan MK, Jalla S, Bhandari N, Sinha A & Majumdar S (1996) Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of persistent diarrhea and dysentery among low socioeconomic children in India. Journal of Nutrition, 126, 443–450.
Schiffrin EJ, Rochat F, Link Amster H, Aeschlimann JM & Donnet Hughes A (1995) Immunomodulation of human blood cells following the ingestion of lactic acid bacteria. Journal of Dairy Science 78, 491–497.
Scholl TO & Hediger ML (1994) Anemia and iron-deficiency anemia: compilation of data on pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, Suppl., 492S–501S.
Schoonjans K, Staels B & Auwerx J (1996) Role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in mediating the effects of fibrates and fatty acids on gene expression. Journal of Lipid Research 37, 907–925.
Schroten H, Plogmann R, Hanisch FG, Hacker J, Nobis-Bosch R & Wahn V (1993) Inhibition of adhesion of S-fimbriated E. coli to buccal epithelial cells by human skim milk is predominantly mediated by mucins and depends on the period of lactation. Acta Paediatrica 82, 6–11.
Schwartz GG (1992) Multiple sclerosis and prostate cancer: what do their similar geographies suggest? Neuroepidemiology 11, 244–254.
Scientific Committee for Food with the assistance, Aggett PJ, Amal PJ, Amal M, Bender D, Buss D, Christiansen C, Garabedian M, Grossklaus R, Hallberg L, Hermus R, Koletzko B, Pitt G, Schriver J & Scott J (1993) Nutrient and Energy Intakes for the European Community. Reports of the Scientijc Committee for Food (31st series). Luxembourg: Office of Official Publications of the European Communities.
Scriver CR (1991) Phenylketonuria – genotypes and phenotypes. New England Journal of Medicine 324, 1280–1281.
Scriver CR, Byck S, Prevost L & Hoang L (1996) The phenyla-lanine hydroxylase locus: a marker for the history of phenylketonuria and human genetic diversity. PAH Mutation Analysis Consortium. Ciba Foundation Symposium 197, 73–90.
Scriver CR & Clow CL (1980) Phenylketonuria: epitome of human biochemical genetics. New England Journal of Medicine 303, 1336–1342.
Secher NJ & Olsen SF (1990) Fish oil and preeclampsia. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 97, 1077–1079.
Sei Y, Vitkovic L & Yokoyama MM (1995) Cytokines in the central nervous system: regulatory roles in neuronal function, cell death and repair. Neuroimmunomodulation 2, 121–133.
Seidman E, LeLeiko N, Ament M, Berman W, Caplan D, Evans J, Kocoshis S, Lake A, Motil K & Sutphen J (1991) Nutritional issues in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 12, 424–438.
Semba RD (1996) Linking vitamin A and childhood immunizations. Journal of Nutritional Immunology 4, 87–109.
Semba RD, Munasir Z, Beeler J, Akib A, Muhilal , Audet S & Sommer A (1995) Reduced seroconversion to measles in infants given vitamin A with measles vaccination [see comments]. Lancet 345, 1330–1332.
Senkal M, Kemen M, Homann HH, Eickhoff U, Baier J & Zumtobel V (1995) Modulation of postoperative immune response by enteral nutrition with a diet enriched with arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer. European Journal of Surgery, Acta Chirurgica 161, 115–122.
Shaw NJ & Bishop NJ (1995) Mineral accretion in growing bones - a framework for the future? Archives of Disease in Childhood 72, 177–179.
Sheard NF (1994) Iron deficiency and infant development. Nutrition Reviews 52, 137–140.
Sherman AR (1992) Zinc, copper, and iron nutriture and immunity. Journal of Nutrition 122, 604–609.
Shiner M, Nichols VN, Banish JP & Nichols BL (1990) Pathogenesis of small-intestinal mucosal lesions in chronic diarrhea of infancy: 11. An electron microscopic study. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 11, 464–480.
Shor Posner G, Miguez Burbano MJ, Lu Y, Feaster D, Fletcher M, Sauberlich H & Baum MK (1995) Elevated IgE level in relationship to nutritional status and immune parameters in early human immunodeficiency virus-1 disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 95, 886–892.
Sibai BM, Villar MA, Bray E (1989) Magnesium supplementation during pregnancy: a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 161, 115.
Sigurs N, Hattevig G & Kjellman B (1992) Maternal avoidance of eggs, cow's milk, and fish during lactation: effect on allergic manifestations, skin-prick tests, and specific IgE antibodies in children at age 4 years. Pediatrics 89, 735–739.
Sikorski R, Juszkiewicz T & Paszkowski T (1990) Zinc status in women with premature rupture of membranes at term. Obstetrics and Gynecology 76, 675.
Sjöström H, Norin O, Christiansen L, Wacker H & Semenza G (1980) A fully active, two-active site, single-chain sucrase–isomaltase from pig small intestine. Implications for the biosynthesis of a mammalian integral stalked membrane protein. Journal of Biological Chemistry 255, 11332–11338.
Sjöström H, Norin O, Danielsen EM & Skovbjerg H (1983) Structure of microvillar enzymes in different phases of their life cycles. In Brush Border Membranes, Ciba Foundation Symposium 95, pp. 50–72 [Porter R and Collins GM, editors]. London: Pitman Books.
Slosman DO, Rizzoli R & Bonjour J-Ph (1995) Bone absorp-tiometry: a critical appraisal of various methods. Acta Paediatrica 411, Suppl., 9–11.
Smart JL (1974) Activity and exploratory behavior of adult offspring of undernourished mother rats. Developmental Psychobiology 7, 315–321.
Spatling L & Spatling G (1988) Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy: a double-blind study. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 95, 120–125.
Speck R & Lauterburg B (1991) Fish oil protects mice against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in vivo. Hepatology 13, 557–561.
Spencer TD, Keen RW, Arden NK, Morrison NA, Major PJ, Nguyen TV, Kelly PJ, Baker JR, Sambrook PN & Lanchbury JS (1995) Influence of vitamin D receptor genotype on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a twin study in Britain. British Medical Journal 310, 1357–1360.
Stabell C, Bale C, Pedro Da Silva AP & Aaby P (1995) No evidence of fontanelle-bulging episodes after vitamin A supplementation of 6- and 9-month-old infants in Guinea Bissau. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 73–74.
Stanbury JB (editor) (1994) The Damaged Brain of Iodine Deficiency: Cognitive, Behavioral, Neuromotor, and Educative Aspects. Elmsford, NY: Cogniznat Communication.
Stansbridge EM, Walker V, Hall MA, Millar MR, Bacon C & Chen S (1993) Effects of feeding premature infants with Lactobacillus GG on gut fermentation. Archives of Disease in Childhood 69, 488–492.
Steegers-Theunissen RPM, Boers GHJ, Trijbels FJM & Eskes TKAB (1991) Neural tube defects and derangement of homo-cysteine metabolism. New England Journal of Medicine 324, 199–200.
Stephens S (1986) Development of secretory immunity in breast fed and bottle fed infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood 61, 263–269.
Stephens S, Brenner MK, Duffy SW, Lakhani PK, Kennedy CR & Farrant J (1986 a) The effect of breast-feeding on proliferation by infant lymphocytes in vitro. Pediatric Research 20, 227–231.
Stephens S, Duffy SW & Page C (1986 b) A longitudinal study of gamma-interferon production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from breast- and bottle-fed infants. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 65, 396–400.
Stoch MB, Smythe PM, Moodie AD & Bradshaw O (1982) Psychosocial outcome and CT findings after gross undernourishment during infancy: a 20-year developmental study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 24, 419–436.
Stowell KM, Rado TA, Funk WD & Tweedie JW (1991) Expression of cloned human lactofemn in baby hamster kidney cells. Biochemical Journal 276, 349–355.
Strbak V (1991) Hormones and bioactive substances in milk. Endocrine Regulation 25, 3–143.
Suarez A, Faus MJ & Gil A (1996 a) Dietary long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids modify heart, kidney, and lung fatty acid composition in weanling rats. Lipids 31, 345–348.
Suarez A, Faus MJ & Gil A (1996 b) Dietary supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids increases susceptibility of weanling rat tissue lipids to in vitro lipid peroxidation. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 7, 252–260.
Suzuki H, Menegazzi M, Carcereri de Prati A, Mariotto S & Armato U (1995) Nitric oxide in the liver: physiopathological roles. Advances in Neuroimmunology 5, 379–410.
Tanaka M, Lee K, Martínez-Augustin O, He Y, Sanderson IA & Walker W (1996) Exogenous nucleotides alter the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of human small intestinal epithelium. Journal of Nutrition 126, 424–433.
Taylor EM & Morgan EH (1990) Developmental changes in transferrin and iron uptake by the brain in the rat. Developmental Brain Research 55, 35–42.
Tengerdy RP (1990) The role of vitamin E in immune response and disease resistance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 587, 24–33.
Thépot D, Devinoy E, Fontaine ML, Stinnakre MG, Massoud M, Kann G & Houdébine LM (1995) Rabbit whey acidic protein gene upstream region controls high-level expression of bovine growth hormone in the mammary gland of trans-genic mice. Molecular Reproduction and Development 42, 261–267.
Thomasset M (1994) Vitamine D et système immunitaire (Vitamin D and immune system). Pathologie Biologie 42, 163–172.
Tixier-Vidal A, Picart R, Loudes C & Bauman AF (1986) Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and hormones on synaptogenesis in serum-free medium cultures of mouse fetal hypothalamic cells. Neuroscience 17, 115–132.
Torre PM, Ronnenberg AG, Hartman WJ & Prior RL (1993) Oral arginine supplementation does not affect lymphocyte proliferation during endotoxin-induced inflammation in rats. Journal of Nutrition, 123, 481–488.
Trivedi P, Risteli J, Risteli L, Hindmarsh PC, Brook CG & Mowat AP (1991) Serum concentration of the type I and III procollagen propeptides as biochemical markers of growth velocity in healthy infants and children and in children with growth disorders. Pediatric Research 30, 276–280.
Troncone R, Scarcella A, Donatiello A, Cannataro P, Tarabuson A & Auricchio S (1987) Passage of gliadin into human breast milk. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 76, 453–456.
Uauy R, Birch DG, Birch EE, Tyson JE & Hoffman DR (1990) Effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on retinal function of very-low-birth-weight neonates. Pediatric Research 28, 485–492.
Uauy R, Quan R & Gil A (1994) Role of nucleotides in intestinal development and repair: implications for infant nutrition. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1436S–1441S.
Uauy R, Stringel G, Thomas R & Quan R (1990) Effect of dietary nucleosides on growth and maturation of the developing gut in the rat. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 4, 497–503.
Vaarala O, Klemetti P, Savilahti E, Reijonen H, Ilonen J & Akerblom HK (1996) Cellular immune response to cow's milk beta-lactoglobulin in patients with newly diagnosed IDDM. Diabetes 45, 178–182.
Van Buren CT, Kulkarni AD, Fanslow WC & Rudolph FB (1985) Dietary nucleotides: a requirement for helperhnducer T lymphocytes. Transplantation 40, 694–697.
Van Buren CT, Kulkarni AD, Schandle VB & Rudolph FB (1983) The influence of dietary nucleotide on cell-mediated immunity. Transplantation 36, 350–352.
Vandenplas Y, Hauser B, Van Den Borre C, Clybouw C, Mahler T, HachimiIdrissi S, Deraeve L, Malfroot A & Dab I (1995) The long-term effect of a partial whey hydrolysate formula on the prophylaxis of atopic disease. European Journal of Pediatrics 154, 488–494.
Vandenplas Y, Hauser B, Van den Borre C, Sacre L & Dab I (1992) Effect of a whey hydrolysate on the prophylaxis of atopic disease. Annals of Allergy 68, 419–424.
Vaulont S & Kahn A (1994) Transcriptional control of metabolic regulation of genes by carbohydrates. FASEB Journal 8, 28–35.
Vaux DL & Strasser A (1996) The molecular biology of apoptosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93, 2239–2244.
Vermeer C, Gijsbers BL, Craciun AM, Groenen Van Dooren MM & Knapen MH (1996) Effects of vitamin K on bone mass and bone metabolism. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1187S–1191S.
Villar J, Repke J, Belizan JM & Pareja G (1987) Calcium supplementation reduces blood pressure during pregnancy: results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 70, 317–322.
Virtanen SM, Räsänen L, Aro A, Lindström J, Sippola H, Lounamaa R, Toivanen L, Tuomilehto J & Akerblom HK (1991) Infant feeding in Finnish children <7 yr of age with newly diagnosed IDDM. Diabetes Care 14, 415–417.
Viverge D, Grimmonprez L, Cassanas G, Bardet L & Solere M (1990) Variations in oligosaccharides and lactose in human milk during the first week of lactation. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 11, 361–364.
Wainwright PE (1993) Lipids and behaviour: the evidence from animal models. In Lipids, Learning and the Brain: Fats in Infant Formulas. Report of the 103rd Ross Conference on Pediatric Research, pp. 69–101 [Dobbing J, editor]. Columbus OH: Ross Laboratories.
Wainwright PE (1997) Essential fatty acids and behavior: is there a role for the eicosanoids. In Handbook of Essential Fatty Acid Biology. Biochemistry, Physiology and Behavioral Neurobiology, pp. 299–341 [Yehuda S and Mostofsky DI, editors]. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
Walsh MJ, Sánchez-Pozo A & LeLeiko NS (1990) A regulatory element is characterized by purine-mediated and cell type specific gene transcription. Molecular Cell Biology 10, 4356–4364.
Walsh MJ, Tsao KL & LeLeiko NS (1992) Characterization of DNA-protein interactions within a distal regulatory element upstream of a mammalian housekeeping gene promoter. Journal of Biological Chemistry 267, 7026–7035.
Walsh CT, Sandstead HH, Prasad AS, Newberne PM & Fraker PJ (1994) Zinc: health effects and research priorities for the 1990s. Environmental Health Perspectives 2, 5–46.
Wang X, Sato R, Brown MS, Hua X & Goldstein JL (1994) SREBP-1, a membrane bound transcription factor released by sterol-regulated proteolysis. Cell 77, 53–62.
Ward PP, Lo JY, Duke M, May GS, Headon DR & Conneely OM (1992 b) Production of biologically active recombinant human lactofenin in Aspergillus oryzae. BioTechnology 10, 784–789.
Ward PP, May GS, Headon DR & Conneely OM (1992 b) An inducible expression system for the production of human lactofenin in Aspergillus nidulans. Gene 122, 219–223.
Warner JO (1980) Food allergy in fully breast fed infants. Clinical Allergy 10, 133–136.
Watanabe S, Sakai N, Yasui Y, Kimura Y, Kobayashi T, Mizutani T & Okuyama H (1994) A high alpha-linolenate diet suppresses antigen-induced immunoglobulin E response and anaphylactic shock in mice. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1566–1573.
Watson JD, Hopkins NH, Roberts JW, Steitz JA & Weiner AM (1987) Molecular Biology of the Gene, 4th ed. Menlo Park, CA: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co.
Wells JL, James DK, Luxton R & Pennock CA (1987) Maternal leukocyte zinc deficiency at start of third trimester as a predictor of fetal growth retardation. British Medical Journal 294, 1054.
Welply JK, Keene JL, Schmuke JJ & Howard SC (1994) Selectins as potential targets of therapeutic intervention in inflammatory diseases. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1197, 215–226.
Welsh AO (1993) Uterine cell death during implantation and early placentation. Microscopy Research and Technique 25, 223–245.
Widdowson EM (1982) Importance of nutrition in development with special reference to feeding low-birth weight infants. In Meeting Nutritional Goals for Low Birth Weight Infants. Proceedings of the 2nd Ross Clinical Research Conference, pp. 4–11 [Sauls HS, Bachuber WL and Lewis LA, editors]. Columbus, OH: Ross Laboratories.
Williams C, Highley W, Ma EH, Lewis J, Tolbert B, Woullard D, Kirmani S & Chung RA (1981) Protein, amino acid and caloric intakes of selected pregnant women. Journal of the American Dietetics Association 78, 28–35.
Winick M (1970) Fetal malnutrition. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 13, 526.
World Health Organization (1993) Global Prevalence of Iodine Dejciency Disorders. MDIS Working Paper no. 1. Geneva: WHO.
Worthington-Roberts B (1985) Nutritional deficiencies and excesses: impact on pregnancy, part 2. Journal of Perinatology 5, 12.
Wride MA & Sanders EJ (1995) Potential roles for tumour necrosis factor alpha during embryonic development. Anatomy and Embryology, Berlin 191, 1–10.
Xue-Yi C, Xin-Min J, Zhi-Hong D, Rakeman MA, Ming-Li Z, O'Donnell K, Tai M, Amette K, DeLong N & DeLong R (1994) Timing of vulnerability of the brain to iodine deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine 331, 1739–1744.
Yetiv JZ (1988) Clinical applications of fish oils [see comments]. Journal of the American Medical Association 260, 665–670.
Zakeri Z & Lockshin RA (1994) Physiological cell death during development and its relationship to aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 719, 212–229.
Zeiger RS & Heller S (1995) The development and prediction of atopy in high-risk children: follow-up at age seven years in a prospective randomized study of combined maternal and infant food allergen avoidance. Journal of Allergy Clinical Immunology 95, 1179–1190.
Zeiger RS, Heller S, Mellon MH, Forsythe AB, O'Connor RD, Hamburger RN & Schatz M (1989) Effect of combined maternal and infant food-allergen avoidance on development of atopy in early infancy: a randomized study [published erratum appears in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (1989) 84 (5 Pt 1), 677]. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 84, 72–89.
Zeiger RS, Heller S, Mellon MH, Halsey JF, Hamburger RN & Sampson HA (1992) Genetic and environmental factors affecting the development of atopy through age 4 in children of atopic parents: a prospective, randomized study of food allergen avoidance. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 3, 110–127.