Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, improved postprandial glucose regulation and increased the n-3 PUFA content in the leucocyte membrane in healthy overweight adults: a randomised trial

  • Anita Helland (a1), Marianne Bratlie (a1), Ingrid V. Hagen (a1), Svein A. Mjøs (a2) (a3), Steinar Sørnes (a4), Alfred Ingvar Halstensen (a4), Karl A. Brokstad (a5), Harald Sveier (a6), Grethe Rosenlund (a7), Gunnar Mellgren (a4) (a8) and Oddrun A. Gudbrandsen (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is low in populations with a high fish intake; however prospective studies with fish intake have shown positive, negative or no association between fish intake and the risk for T2D. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high intake of lean or fatty fish on glucose tolerance, leucocyte membrane fatty acid composition and leucocyte function in overweight/obese adults. In this randomised clinical trial, sixty-eight healthy overweight/obese participants consumed 750 g/week of either lean or fatty fish as dinners, or were instructed to continue their normal eating habits but to avoid fish intake (control group), for 8 weeks. Energy and macronutrient intake and physical activity were not changed within the groups during the study period. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, significantly improved glucose regulation 120 min postprandially (P=0·012), but did not affect fasting glucose concentration. A smaller increase in fasting to 120 min postprandial insulin C-peptide concentration was seen after fatty fish intake (P=0·012). Lean fish increased the DHA content in leucocyte membranes (P=0·010), and fatty fish increased the total content of n-3 PUFA (P=0·00016) and reduced the content of n-6 PUFA (P=0·00057) in leucocyte membranes. Lean and fatty fish intake did not affect phagocytosis of bacteria ex vivo. The findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, beneficially affected postprandial glucose regulation in overweight/obese adults, and may therefore prevent or delay the development of T2D in this population.

Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: O. A. Gudbrandsen, fax +47 55975890, email oddrun.gudbrandsen@k1.uib.no
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1. P Trayhurn (2005) The biology of obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 64, 3138.

2. A Festa , R D’Agostino Jr, K Williams , et al. (2001) The relation of body fat mass and distribution to markers of chronic inflammation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 14071415.

3. AD Pradhan , JE Manson , N Rifai , et al. (2001) C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 286, 327334.

4. K Lolmede , C Duffaut , A Zakaroff-Girard , et al. (2011) Immune cells in adipose tissue: key players in metabolic disorders. Diabetes Metab 37, 283290.

5. PC Calder (2008) The relationship between the fatty acid composition of immune cells and their function. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 79, 101108.

6. N Kromann & A Green (1980) Epidemiological studies in the Upernavik district, Greenland. Incidence of some chronic diseases 1950–1974. Acta Med Scand 208, 401406.

7. EJ Feskens , CH Bowles & D Kromhout (1991) Inverse association between fish intake and risk of glucose intolerance in normoglycemic elderly men and women. Diabetes Care 14, 935941.

8. A Nkondjock & O Receveur (2003) Fish-seafood consumption, obesity, and risk of type 2 diabetes: an ecological study. Diabetes Metab 29, 635642.

9. M Kaushik , D Mozaffarian , D Spiegelman , et al. (2009) Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 613620.

10. L Djousse , JM Gaziano , JE Buring , et al. (2011) Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 143150.

11. GJ van Woudenbergh , AJ van Ballegooijen , A Kuijsten , et al. (2009) Eating fish and risk of type 2 diabetes: a population-based, prospective follow-up study. Diabetes Care 32, 20212026.

12. MB Schulze , JE Manson , WC Willett , et al. (2003) Processed meat intake and incidence of Type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women. Diabetologia 46, 14651473.

13. R Villegas , YB Xiang , T Elasy , et al. (2011) Fish, shellfish, and long-chain n-3 fatty acid consumption and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Chinese men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 543551.

14. A Zampelas , DB Panagiotakos , C Pitsavos , et al. (2005) Fish consumption among healthy adults is associated with decreased levels of inflammatory markers related to cardiovascular disease: the ATTICA study. J Am Coll Cardiol 46, 120124.

15. MR Flock , CJ Rogers , KS Prabhu , et al. (2013) Immunometabolic role of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in obesity-induced inflammation. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 29, 431445.

16. LH Duntas (2009) Selenium and inflammation: underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Horm Metab Res 41, 443447.

17. GB Schuller-Levis & E Park (2003) Taurine: new implications for an old amino acid. FEMS Microbiol Lett 226, 195202.

18. V Ouellet , SJ Weisnagel , J Marois , et al. (2008) Dietary cod protein reduces plasma C-reactive protein in insulin-resistant men and women. J Nutr 138, 23862391.

19. G Pilon , J Ruzzin , LE Rioux , et al. (2011) Differential effects of various fish proteins in altering body weight, adiposity, inflammatory status, and insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed rats. Metabolism 60, 11221130.

20. IV Hagen , A Helland , M Bratlie , et al. (2016) High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial. Br J Nutr 116, 648657.

23. O Grahl-Nielsen & T Barnung (1985) Variations in the fatty acid profile of marine animals caused by environmental and developmental changes. Mar Environ Res 17, 218221.

26. AK Lehmann , S Sornes & A Halstensen (2000) Phagocytosis: measurement by flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods 243, 229242.

27. S Meier , SA Mjøs , H Joensen , et al. (2006) Validation of a one-step extraction/methylation method for determination of fatty acids and cholesterol in marine tissues. J Chromatogr A 1104, 291298.

28. C Sciotto & SA Mjøs (2012) Trans isomers of EPA and DHA in omega-3 products on the European market. Lipids 47, 659667.

29. Z Wasta & SA Mjøs (2013) A database of chromatographic properties and mass spectra of fatty acid methyl esters from omega-3 products. J Chromatogr A 1299, 94102.

30. A Naess , K Stenhaug Kilhus , TW Nystad , et al. (2006) Linezolid and human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function. Chemotherapy 52, 122124.

31. LA Vikøren , OK Nygard , E Lied , et al. (2013) A randomised study on the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose tolerance, lipids and body composition in overweight adults. Br J Nutr 109, 648657.

32. DL Streiner (2015) Best (but oft-forgotten) practices: the multiple problems of multiplicity-whether and how to correct for many statistical tests. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 721728.

33. PS Patel , NG Forouhi , A Kuijsten , et al. (2012) The prospective association between total and type of fish intake and type 2 diabetes in 8 European countries: EPIC-InterAct Study. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 14451453.

35. V Ouellet , J Marois , SJ Weisnagel , et al. (2007) Dietary cod protein improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant men and women: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 30, 28162821.

39. A Drotningsvik , SA Mjøs , I Høgøy , et al. (2015) A low dietary intake of cod protein is sufficient to increase growth, improve serum and tissue fatty acid compositions, and lower serum postprandial glucose and fasting non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Eur J Nutr 54, 11511160.

40. A Drotningsvik , SA Mjøs , DM Pampanin , et al. (2016) Dietary fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive motifs affect serum and adipose tissue fatty acid compositions, serum lipids, postprandial glucose regulation and growth in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Br J Nutr 116, 13361345.

42. D Kromhout & J de Goede (2014) Update on cardiometabolic health effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Curr Opin Lipidol 25, 8590.

43. H Glauber , P Wallace , K Griver , et al. (1988) Adverse metabolic effect of omega-3 fatty acids in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 108, 663668.

45. JJ Lara , M Economou , AM Wallace , et al. (2007) Benefits of salmon eating on traditional and novel vascular risk factors in young, non-obese healthy subjects. Atherosclerosis 193, 213221.

46. PC Calder (2007) Immunomodulation by omega-3 fatty acids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 77, 327335.

47. O Lamas , A Marti & JA Martinez (2002) Obesity and immunocompetence. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, Suppl. 3, S42S45.

48. JJ Milner & MA Beck (2012) The impact of obesity on the immune response to infection. Proc Nutr Soc 71, 298306.

49. B Antuna-Puente , B Feve , S Fellahi , et al. (2008) Adipokines: the missing link between insulin resistance and obesity. Diabetes Metab 34, 211.

50. PC Calder , N Ahluwalia , R Albers , et al. (2013) A consideration of biomarkers to be used for evaluation of inflammation in human nutritional studies. Br J Nutr 109, Suppl. 1, S1S34.

51. NS Kalupahana , N Moustaid-Moussa & KJ Claycombe (2012) Immunity as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. Mol Aspects Med 33, 2634.

52. K He (2009) Fish, long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and prevention of cardiovascular disease – eat fish or take fish oil supplement? Prog Cardiovasc Dis 52, 95114.

53. BC van Bussel , RM Henry , CG Schalkwijk , et al. (2011) Fish consumption in healthy adults is associated with decreased circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation during a 6-year follow-up. J Nutr 141, 17191725.

54. GK Pot , A Geelen , G Majsak-Newman , et al. (2010) Increased consumption of fatty and lean fish reduces serum C-reactive protein concentrations but not inflammation markers in feces and in colonic biopsies. J Nutr 140, 371376.

55. KM Smith , LM Barraj , M Kantor , et al. (2009) Relationship between fish intake, n-3 fatty acids, mercury and risk markers of CHD (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002). Public Health Nutr 12, 12611269.

56. HM Lindqvist , AM Langkilde , I Undeland , et al. (2009) Herring (Clupea harengus) intake influences lipoproteins but not inflammatory and oxidation markers in overweight men. Br J Nutr 101, 383390.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Helland supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (17 KB)
17 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 63 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2032 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 13th June 2017 - 25th July 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.