Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are related to a reduced risk of depression

  • Tuija Jääskeläinen (a1), Paul Knekt (a1), Jaana Suvisaari (a1), Satu Männistö (a1), Timo Partonen (a1), Katri Sääksjärvi (a1), Niina E. Kaartinen (a1), Noora Kanerva (a1) and Olavi Lindfors (a1)...
Abstract

Vitamin D has been suggested to protect against depression, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study investigated the relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders. The study population consisted of a representative sample of Finnish men and women aged 30–79 years from the Health 2000 Survey. The sample included 5371 individuals, of which 354 were diagnosed with depressive disorder and 222 with anxiety disorder. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was determined from frozen samples. In a cross-sectional study, a total of four indicators of depression and one indicator of anxiety were used as dependent variables. Serum 25(OH)D was the risk factor of interest, and logistic models used further included sociodemographic and lifestyle variables as well as indicators of metabolic health as confounding and/or effect-modifying factors. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated. Individuals with higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations showed a reduced risk of depression. The relative odds between the highest and lowest quartiles was 0·65 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·93; P for trend = 0·006) after adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors. Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of depressive disorder especially among men, younger, divorced and those who had an unhealthy lifestyle or suffered from the metabolic syndrome. The PAF was estimated to be 19 % for depression when serum 25(OH)D concentration was at least 50 nmol/l. These results support the hypothesis that higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations protect against depression even after adjustment for a large number of sociodemographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors. Large-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are related to a reduced risk of depression
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are related to a reduced risk of depression
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are related to a reduced risk of depression
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Professor P. Knekt, email paul.knekt@thl.fi
References
Hide All
1 Wittchen, HU, Jacobi, F, Rehm, J, et al. (2011) The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21, 655679.
2 Pirkola, SP, Isometsä, E, Suvisaari, J, et al. (2005) DSM-IV mood-, anxiety- and alcohol use disorders and their comorbidity in the Finnish general population – results from the Health 2000 Study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 40, 110.
3 Belmaker, RH & Agam, G (2008) Major depressive disorder. N Engl J Med 358, 5568.
4 Kendler, KS, Gardner, CO & Prescott, CA (2006) Toward a comprehensive developmental model for major depression in men. Am J Psychiatry 163, 115124.
5 Kendler, KS, Gardner, CO & Prescott, CA (2002) Toward a comprehensive developmental model for major depression in women. Am J Psychiatry 159, 11331145.
6 Kendler, KS, Gatz, M, Gardner, CO, et al. (2006) Personality and major depression: a Swedish longitudinal, population-based twin study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63, 11131120.
7 Palazidou, E (2012) The neurobiology of depression. Br Med Bull 101, 127145.
8 Bufalino, C, Hepgul, N, Aguglia, E, et al. (2013) The role of immune genes in the association between depression and inflammation: a review of recent clinical studies. Brain Behav Immun 31, 3147.
9 Baumeister, H & Harter, M (2007) Prevalence of mental disorders based on general population surveys. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 42, 537546.
10 Kessler, RC, Berglund, P, Demler, O, et al. (2003) The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA 289, 30953105.
11 DeLuca, HF (2004) Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1689S1696S.
12 Eyles, DW, Smith, S, Kinobe, R, et al. (2005) Distribution of the vitamin D receptor and 1 alpha-hydroxylase in human brain. J Chem Neuroanat 29, 2130.
13 Eyles, DW, Burne, TH & McGrath, JJ (2013) Vitamin D, effects on brain development, adult brain function and the links between low levels of vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disease. Front Neuroendocrinol 34, 4764.
14 Kjaergaard, M, Joakimsen, R & Jorde, R (2011) Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with depression in an adult Norwegian population. Psychiatry Res 190, 221225.
15 Hoang, MT, Defina, LF, Willis, BL, et al. (2011) Association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and depression in a large sample of healthy adults: the Cooper Center longitudinal study. Mayo Clin Proc 86, 10501055.
16 Ganji, V, Milone, C, Cody, MM, et al. (2010) Serum vitamin D concentrations are related to depression in young adult US population: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Int Arch Med 3, 29.
17 Hoogendijk, WJ, Lips, P, Dik, MG, et al. (2008) Depression is associated with decreased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and increased parathyroid hormone levels in older adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65, 508512.
18 Stewart, R & Hirani, V (2010) Relationship between vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms in older residents from a national survey population. Psychosom Med 72, 608612.
19 Lee, DM, Tajar, A, O'Neill, TW, et al. (2011) Lower vitamin D levels are associated with depression among community-dwelling European men. J Psychopharmacol 25, 13201328.
20 Jääskeläinen, T, Knekt, P, Marniemi, J, et al. (2013) Vitamin D status is associated with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and metabolic health. Eur J Nutr 52, 513525.
21 Pan, A, Lu, L, Franco, OH, et al. (2009) Association between depressive symptoms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. J Affect Disord 118, 240243.
22 Zhao, G, Ford, ES, Li, C, et al. (2010) No associations between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone and depression among US adults. Br J Nutr 104, 16961702.
23 Heistaro, S (editor) (2008) Methodology Report. Health 2000 Survey. Helsinki: National Public Health Institute.
24 Beck, AT, Ward, CH, Mendelson, M, et al. (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 4, 561571.
25 Beck, AT, Steer, RA & Garbin, MG (1988) Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: twenty-five years of evaluation. Clin Psych Rev 8, 77100.
26 American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
27 Wittchen, HU, Lachner, G, Wunderlich, U, et al. (1998) Test–retest reliability of the computerized DSM-IV version of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI). Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 33, 568578.
28 Holick, MF (2007) Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med 357, 266281.
29 IOM (Institute of Medicine Committee) (2011) Dietary reference intakes for adequacy: calcium and vitamin D. In DRI Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D, pp. 345402 [Ross, AC, Taylor, CL, Yaktine, AL and Del Valle, HB, editors]. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
30 Männistö, S, Virtanen, M, Mikkonen, T, et al. (1996) Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire in a case–control study on breast cancer. J Clin Epidemiol 49, 401409.
31 Paalanen, L, Männistö, S, Virtanen, MJ, et al. (2006) Validity of a food frequency questionnaire varied by age and body mass index. J Clin Epidemiol 59, 9941001.
32 Reinivuo, H, Hirvonen, T, Ovaskainen, ML, et al. (2010) Dietary survey methodology of FINDIET 2007 with a risk assessment perspective. Public Health Nutr 13, 915919.
33 McCullough, ML, Feskanich, D, Stampfer, MJ, et al. (2002) Diet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 12611271.
34 Sääksjärvi, K, Knekt, P, Lundqvist, A, et al. (2013) A cohort study on diet and the risk of Parkinson's disease: the role of food groups and diet quality. Br J Nutr 109, 329337.
35 Hu, FB, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, et al. (2001) Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 345, 790797.
36 Laaksonen, MA, Knekt, P, Rissanen, H, et al. (2010) The relative importance of modifiable potential risk factors of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of two cohorts. Eur J Epidemiol 25, 115124.
37 Alberti, KG, Eckel, RH, Grundy, SM, et al. (2009) Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 120, 16401645.
38 Laaksonen, MA, Härkänen, T, Knekt, P, et al. (2010) Estimation of population attributable fraction (PAF) for disease occurrence in a cohort study design. Stat Med 29, 860874.
39 SAS Institute, Inc. (2008) SAS/STAT 9.2 User's Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.
40 Jorde, R, Sneve, M, Figenschau, Y, et al. (2008) Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double blind trial. J Intern Med 264, 599609.
41 Bertone-Johnson, ER, Powers, SI, Spangler, L, et al. (2012) Vitamin D supplementation and depression in the women's health initiative calcium and vitamin D trial. Am J Epidemiol 176, 113.
42 Milaneschi, Y, Shardell, M, Corsi, AM, et al. (2010) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and depressive symptoms in older women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 32253233.
43 May, HT, Bair, TL, Lappe, DL, et al. (2010) Association of vitamin D levels with incident depression among a general cardiovascular population. Am Heart J 159, 10371043.
44 Chan, R, Chan, D, Woo, J, et al. (2011) Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and psychological health in older Chinese men in a cohort study. J Affect Disord 130, 251259.
45 Milaneschi, Y, Hoogendijk, W, Lips, P, et al. (2014) The association between low vitamin D and depressive disorders. Mol Psychiatry 19, 444451.
46 Garcion, E, Wion-Barbot, N, Montero-Menei, CN, et al. (2002) New clues about vitamin D functions in the nervous system. Trends Endocrinol Metab 13, 100105.
47 Obradovic, D, Gronemeyer, H, Lutz, B, et al. (2006) Cross-talk of vitamin D and glucocorticoids in hippocampal cells. J Neurochem 96, 500509.
48 Antoniucci, DM, Black, DM & Sellmeyer, DE (2005) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is unaffected by multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Clin Chem 51, 258261.
49 Ocke, MC, Schrijver, J, Obermann-de Boer, GL, et al. (1995) Stability of blood (pro)vitamins during four years of storage at − 20 degrees C: consequences for epidemiologic research. J Clin Epidemiol 48, 10771085.
50 Perna, L, Haug, U, Schöttker, B, et al. (2012) Public health implications of standardized 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a decrease in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among older women in Germany. Prev Med 55, 228232.
51 Sillanpää, M, Andlin-Sobocki, P & Lönnqvist, J (2008) Costs of brain disorders in Finland. Acta Neurol Scand 117, 167172.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 52
Total number of PDF views: 293 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 776 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd April 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.