Ahmad, A, Widjala, L, Firmansyah, A, Gliwitzki, M & Suhardjo, H (2000) Effect of a combined probiotic, prebiotic and micronutrient supplementation in reducing duration of acute infantile diarrhoea. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 31, A984.
Balmer, SE & Wharton, BA (1989) Diet and faecal flora in the newborn: breast milk and infant formula. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 64, 1672–1677.
Biller, JA, Katz, AJ, Flores, AF, Buie, TM & Gorbach, SL (1995) Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 21, 224–226.
Bouhnik, Y, Flourie, B, D'Agay-Abensour, L, Pochart, P, Gramet, G, Durand, M & Rambaud, JC (1997) Administration of transgalacto-oligosaccharides increases fecal bifidobacteria and modifies colonic fermentation metabolism in healthy humans. Journal of Nutrition 127, 444–448.
Chiang, BL, Sheih, YH, Wang, LH, Liao, CK & Gill, HS (2000) Enhancing immunity by dietary consumption of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium (Bifidobacterium lactis HN019): optimization and definition of cellular immune responses. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 849–855.
De Simone, C, Ciardi, A, Grassi, A, Lambert, GS, Tzantzoglou, S, Trinchieri, V, Moretti, S & Jirillo, E (1992) Effect of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus on gut mucosa and peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Immunopharmacology Immunotoxicology 14, 331–340.
Drasar, B & Roberts, A (2001) Control of the large bowel microflora. In Human Microbial Ecology, pp. 87–111 [Hill, M and Marsh, P, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Duffy, LC, Zielezny, MA, Riepenhoff-Talty, M, Dryja, D, Sayahtaheri-Altaie, S, Griffiths, E, Ruffin, D, Barrett, H, Rossman, J & Ogra, PL (1994) Effectiveness of Bifidobacterium bifidum in mediating the clinical course of murine rotavirus diarrhea. Pediatric Research 35, 690–695.
Duffy, LC, Zielezny, MA, Riepenhoff-Talty, M, Dryja, D, Sayahtaheri-Altaie, S, Griffiths, E, Ruffin, D, Barrett, H, Rossman, J & Ogra, PL (1993) Effectiveness of Bifidobacterium bifidum in experimentally induced MRV infection: dietary implications in formulas for newborns. Endocrine Regulation 27, 223–229.
Elmer, GW, Surawicz, CM & McFarland, LV (1996) Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. Journal of American Medical Association 275, 870–876.
Firmansyah, A, Pramita, G, Carrie Fassler, A, Haschke, F & Link-Amster, H (2001) Improved humoral immune response to measles vaccine in infants receiving infant cereal with fructo-oligosaccharides. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 31, A521.
Fisberg, M, Maulen, I, Vasquez, E, Garcia, J, Comer, G & Alarcon, P (2000) Effect of oral supplementation with and without synbiotics on catch-up growth in preschool children. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 31, A987.
Fuller, R (1991) Probiotics in human medicine. Gut 32, 439–442.
Gibson, GR (1999) Dietary modulation of the human gut microflora using the prebiotics oligofructose and inulin. Journal of Nutrition 129, suppl, 1438S–1441S.
Gibson, GR, Beatty, ER, Wang, X & Cummings, JH (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108, 975–982.
Gorbach, SL, Chang, TW & Goldin, B (1987) Successful treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. Lancet 2, 8574, 1519.
Guarino, A, Canani, RB, Spagnuolo, MI, Albano, F & Di Benedetto, L (1997) Oral bacterial therapy reduces the duration of symptoms and of viral excretion in children with mild diarrhea. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 25, 516–519.
Hanson, L & Yolken, R (1999) Probiotics, other nutritional factors and intestinal microflora. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
Hilton, E, Kolakowski, P, Singer, C & Smith, M (1997) Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrheal preventive in travelers. Journal of Travel Medicine 4, 41–43.
Isolauri, E, Joensuu, J, Suomalainen, H, Luomala, M & Vesikari, T (1995) Improved immunogenicity of oral D × RRV reassortant rotavirus vaccine by Lactobacillus casei GG. Vaccine 13, 310–312.
Kaila, M, Isolauri, E, Soppi, E, Virtanen, E, Laine, S & Arvilommi, H (1992) Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human Lactobacillus strain. Pediatric Research 32, 141–144.
Kitazawa, H, Tomioka, Y, Matsumura, K, Aso, H, Mizugaki, M, Itoh, T & Yamaguchi, T (1994) Expression of mRNA encoding IFN alpha in macrophages stimulated with Lactobacillus gasseri. FEMS Microbiology Letters 120, 315–321.
Link-Amster, H, Rochat, F, Saudan, KY, Mignot, O & Aeschlimann, JM (1994) Modulation of a specific humoral immune response and changes in intestinal flora mediated through fermented milk intake. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 10, 55–63.
Mack, DR, Michail, S, Wei, S, McDougall, L & Hollingsworth, MA (1999) Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression. American Journal of Physiology 276, G941–G950.
Majamaa, H & Isolauri, E (1997) Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 99, 179–185.
Majamaa, H, Isolauri, E, Saxelin, M & Vesikari, T (1995) Lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 20, 333–338.
Marteau, P & Cellier, C (1999) Immunological effects of biotherapeutic agents. In Biotherapeutic Agents and Infectious Diseases, pp. 121–144 [Elmer, GW, McFarland, LV and Surawicz, CM, editors]. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
McVeagh, P & Miller, JB (1997) Human milk oligosaccharides: only the breast. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 33, 281–286.
Naidu, A, Bidlack, W & Clemens, R (1999) Probiotic spectra of lactic acid bacteria. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 39, 13–126.
Oberhelman, RA, Gilman, RH, Sheen, P, Taylor, DN, Black, RE, Cabrera, L, Lescano, AG, Meza, R & Madico, G (1999) A placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. Journal of Paediatrics 134, 15–20.
Perdigon, G, Rachid, M, De Budeguer, MV & Valdez, JC (1994) Effect of yogurt feeding on the small and large intestine associated lymphoid cells in mice. Journal of Dairy Research 61, 553–562.
Pessi, T, Sutas, Y, Hurme, M & Isolauri, E (2000) Interleukin-10 generation in atopic children following oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 30, 1804–1808.
Rao, AV (1999) Dose-response effects of inulin and oligofructose on intestinal bifidogenesis effects. Journal of Nutrition 129, suppl, 1442S–1445S.
Roberfroid, MB (1996) Functional effects of food components and the gastrointestinal system: chicory fructo-oligosaccharides. Nutrition Reviews 54, S38–S42.
Saavedra, JM & Abi-Hanna, A (1999) Clinical studies of probiotic agents. In Probiotics, Other Nutritional Factors and Intestinal Microflora, pp. 271–286 [Hanson, L and Yolken, RH, editors]. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
Saavedra, JM, Bauman, NA, Oung, I, Perman, JA & Yolken, RH (1994) Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 344, 8929, 1046–1049.
Saavedra, JM, Tschernia, A, Moore, N, Abi-Hanna, A, Coletta, F, Emenhiser, C & Yolken, R (1999 b) Gastrointestinal function in infants consuming a weaning food supplemented with oligofructose a prebiotic. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 29, A95.
Shermak, MA, Saavedra, JM, Jackson, TL, Huang, SS, Bayless, TM & Perman, JA (1995) Effect of yogurt on symptoms and kinetics of hydrogen production in lactose-malabsorbing children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1003–1006.
Solis, PB & Lemonnier, D (1991) Induction of 2′–5′ A synthetase activity and interferon in humans by bacteria used in dairy products. European Cytokine Network 2, 137–140.
Tschernia, A, Moore, N, Abi-Hanna, A, Yolken, RH, Coletta, F, Emenhiser, C & Saavedra, JM (1999) Effects of long-term consumption of a weaning food supplemented with oligofructose, a prebiotic, on general infant health status. Journal of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 29, A58.
Vanderhoof, JA, Whitney, DB, Antonson, DL, Hanner, TL, Lupo, JV & Young, RJ (1999) Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Journal of Paediatrics 135, 564–568.
Yasui, H, Kiyoshima, J & Ushijima, H (1995) Passive protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea of mouse pups born to and nursed by dams fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064. Journal of Infectious Disease 172, 403–409.
Yasui, H, Nagaoka, N & Hayakawa, K (1994) Augmentation of anti-influenza virus hemagglutinin antibody production by Peyer's patch cells with Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064. Clinical Diagnosis Laboratory Immunology 1, 244–246.
Yasui, H & Ohwaki, M (1991) Enhancement of immune response in Peyer's patch cells cultured with Bifidobacterium breve. Journal of Dairy Science 74, 1187–1195.
Yoshioka, H, Iseki, K & Fujita, K (1983) Development and differences of intestinal flora in the neonatal period in breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. Pediatrics 72, 317–321.