1O'Flaherty, S, Saulnier, DM, Pot, B, et al. (2010) How can probiotics and prebiotics impact mucosal immunity? Gut Microbes 1, 293–300.
2Ewaschuk, JB, Diaz, H, Meddings, L, et al. (2008) Secreted bioactive factors from Bifidobacterium infantis enhance epithelial cell barrier function. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 295, G1025–G1034.
3Coakley, M, Johnson, MC, McGrath, E, et al. (2006) Intestinal bifidobacteria that produce trans-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid: a fatty acid with antiproliferative activity against human colon SW480 and HT-29 cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 56, 95–102.
4Rafter, J, Bennett, M, Caderni, G, et al. (2007) Dietary synbiotics reduce cancer risk factors in polypectomized and colon cancer patients. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 488–496.
5Gibson, GR, Scott, KP, Rastall, RA, et al. (2010) Dietary prebiotics: current status and new definition. IFIS Bull 7, 1–19.
6Costabile, A, Kolida, S, Klinder, A, et al. (2010) A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects. Br J Nutr 104, 1007–1017.
7Roberfroid, M, Gibson, GR, Hoyles, L, et al. (2010) Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits. Br J Nutr 104, Suppl. 2, S1–S63.
8Divisi, D, Di Tommaso, S, Salvemini, S, et al. (2006) Diet and cancer. Acta Biomed 77, 118–123.
9Rowland, IR, Mallett, AK & Wise, A (1985) The effect of diet on the mammalian gut flora and its metabolic activities. Crit Rev Toxicol 1, 31–103.
10Hamer, HM, Jonkers, D, Venema, K, et al. (2008) Review Article: the role of butyrate on colonic function. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 27, 104–119.
11Johnson, SK, Chua, V, Hall, RS, et al. (2006) Lupin kernel fibre foods improve bowel function and beneficially modify some putative faecal risk factors for colon cancer in men. Br J Nutr 95, 372–378.
12Craig, SA, Holden, JF, Khaled, MY, et al. (2000) Determination of polydextrose as dietary fiber in foods. J AOAC Int 83, 1006–1012.
13Mäkivuokko, H, Kettunen, H, Saarinen, M, et al. (2007) The effect of cocoa and polydextrose on bacterial fermentation in gastrointestinal tract simulations. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71, 1834–1843.
14Probert, HM, Apajalahti, JH, Rautonen, N, et al. (2004) Polydextrose, lactitol, and fructo-oligosaccharide fermentation by colonic bacteria in a three-stage continuous culture system. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 4505–4511.
15Jie, Z, Bang-Yao, L, Ming-Jie, X, et al. (2000) Studies on the effects of polydextrose intake on physiologic functions in Chinese people. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 1503–1509.
16Mohan, R, Koebnick, C, Schildt, J, et al. (2006) Effects of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Supplementation on intestinal microbiota of preterm infants: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. J Clin Microbiol 44, 4025–4031.
17Wallace, JL & Devchand, PR (2005) Emerging roles for cyclooxygenase-2 in gastrointestinal mucosal defense. Br J Pharmacol 145, 275–282.
18Mäkivuokko, H, Nurmi, J, Nurminen, P, et al. (2005) In vitro effects on polydextrose by colonic bacteria and caco-2 cell cyclooxygenase gene expression. Nutr Cancer 52, 94–104.
19Fava, F, Mäkivuokko, H, Siljander-Rasi, H, et al. (2007) Effect of polydextrose on intestinal microbes and immune functions in pigs. Br J Nutr 98, 123–133.
20Peuranen, S, Tiihonen, K, Apajalahti, J, et al. (2004) Combination of polydextrose and lactitol affects microbial ecosystem and immune responses in rat gastrointestinal tract. Br J Nutr 91, 905–914.
21Wasson, GR, McKelvey-Martin, VJ & Downes, CS (2008) The use of the comet assay in the study of human nutrition and cancer. Mutagenesis 23, 153–162.
22Hengst, C, Ptok, S, Roessler, A, et al. (2009) Effects of polydextrose supplementation on different faecal parameters in healthy volunteers. Int J Food Sci Nutr 60, Suppl. 5, 96–105.
23Muyzer, G, de Waal, EC & Uitterlinden, AG (1993) Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 695–700.
24Martin-Pelaez, S, Costabile, A, Hoyles, L, et al. (2010) Evaluation of the inclusion of a mixture of organic acids or lactulose into the feed of pigs experimentally challenged with Salmonella typhimurium. Vet Microbiol 142, 337–345.
25Rinttilä, T, Kassinen, A, Malinen, E, et al. (2004) Development of an extensive set of 16S rDNA-targeted primers for quantification of pathogenic and indigenous bacteria in faecal samples by real-time PCR. J Appl Microbiol 97, 1166–1177.
26Lahtinen, SJ, Forssten, S, Aakko, J, et al. (2011) Probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® modifies subpopulations of fecal lactobacilli and Clostridium difficile in the elderly. Age .
27Matsuki, T, Watanabe, K, Fujimoto, J, et al. (2004) Use of 16S rRNA gene-targeted group-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis of predominant bacteria in human feces. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 7220–7228.
28Tiihonen, K, Suomalainen, T, Tynkkynen, S, et al. (2008) Effect of prebiotic supplementation on a probiotic bacteria mixture: comparison between a rat model and clinical trials. Br J Nutr 99, 826–831.
29Mäkivuokko, H, Forssten, S, Saarinen, M, et al. (2010) Synbiotic effects of lactitol and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in a semi-continuous colon fermentation model. Benef Microbes 1, 131–137.
30Brakstad, OG, Aasbakk, K & Maeland, JA (1992) Detection of Staphylococcus aureus by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the nuc gene. J Clin Microbiol 30, 1654–1660.
31Zhao, G, Nyman, M & Jönsson, ÅJ (2005) Rapid determination of short-chain fatty acids in colonic contents and faeces of humans and rats by acidified water-extraction and direct-injection gas chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr 20, 674–682.
32Walton, GE, Rastall, RA, Martini, M, et al. (2010) A double-blind, placebo controlled human study investigating the effects of coffee derived manno-oligosaccharides on the faecal microbiota of a healthy adult population. Int J Probiotics Prebiotics 5, 75–84.
33Kumaravel, TS, Vilhar, B, Faux, SP, et al. (2009) Comet assay measurements: a perspective. Cell Biol Toxicol 25, 53–64.
34Livak, KJ & Schmittgen, TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods 25, 402–408.
35Lahtinen, SJ, Knoblock, K, Drakoularakou, A, et al. (2010) Effect of molecule branching and glycosidic linkage on the degradation of polydextrose by gut microbiota. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74, 2016–2021.
36Mäkeläinen, H, Mäkivuokko, H, Salminen, S, et al. (2007) The effects of polydextrose and xylitol on microbial community and activity in a 4-stage colon simulator. J Food Sci 72, 153–159.
37Le Leu, RK, Brown, IL, Hu, Y, et al. (2007) Effect of dietary resistant starch and protein on colonic fermentation and intestinal tumourigenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 28, 240–245.
38Rafter, JJ, Child, P, Anderson, AM, et al. (1987) Cellular toxicity of fecal water depends on diet. Am J Clin Nutr 45, 559–563.
39Nurmi, JT, Puolakkainen, PA & Rautonen, NE (2005) Bifidobacterium lactis sp. 420 up-regulates cyclooxygenase (Cox)-1 and down-regulates Cox-2 gene expression in a Caco-2 cell culture model. Nutr Cancer 51, 83–92.
40Hughes, R, Magee, EA & Bingham, S (2000) Protein degradation in the large intestine: relevance to colorectal cancer. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol 1, 51–58.
41Fite, A, Macfarlane, GT, Cummings, JH, et al. (2004) Identification and quantitation of mucosal and faecal desulfovibrios using real time polymerase chain reaction. Gut 53, 523–529.
42Lahtinen, SJ, Gueimonde, M, Ouwehand, AC, et al. (2006) Comparison of four methods to enumerate probiotic bifidobacteria in a fermented food product. Food Microbiol 23, 571–577.
43Noble, RT, Blackwood, AD, Griffith, JF, et al. (2010) Comparison of rapid quantitative PCR-based and conventional culture-based methods for enumeration of Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli in recreational waters. Appl Environ Microbiol 76, 7437–7443.
44Scanlan, PD, Shanahan, F, Clune, Y, et al. (2008) Culture-independent analysis of the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer and polyposis. Environ Microbiol 10, 789–798.
45Tuohy, KM, Kolida, S, Lustenberger, AM, et al. (2001) The prebiotic effects of biscuits containing partially hydrolysed guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharides – a human volunteer study. Br J Nutr 86, 341–348.
46Ouwehand, AC, Tiihonen, K, Saarinen, M, et al. (2009) Influence of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and lactitol on healthy elderly: intestinal and immune parameters. Br J Nutr 101, 367–375.
47Hafer, A, Krämer, S, Duncker, S, et al. (2007) Effects of oral lactulose on clinical and immunohistochemical parameters in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. BMC Gastroenterol 7, 36.
48King, NA, Craig, SA, Pepper, T, et al. (2005) Evaluation of the independent and combined effects of xylitol and polydextrose consumed as a snack on hunger and energy intake over 10 d. Br J Nutr 93, 911–915.
49Hernot, DC, Boileau, TW, Bauer, LL, et al. (2009) In vitro fermentation profiles, gas production rates, and microbiota modulation as affected by certain fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose. J Agric Food Chem 57, 1354–1361.
50Louis, P, Young, P, Holtrop, G, et al. (2010) Diversity of human colonic butyrate-producing bacteria revealed by analysis of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene. Environ Microbiol 12, 304–314.