Auwerx J, Bouillon R & Kesteloot H (1992) Relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, apolipoprotein A-1, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 12, 671–674.
Balarajan R (1996) Ethnicity and variations in mortality from coronary heart disease. Health Trends 28, 45–51.
Balarajan R, Yuen P & Machin D (1987) Inequalities in health: Changes in RHA's in the past decade. British Medical Journal 294, 1561–1564.
Bansal S, Rizui SNA, Rao MB & Vaishana H (1975) Effect of hypocalcaemia on glucose tolerance, insulin release and free fatty acid levels in human subjects. Postgraduate Medical Journal 51, 471–475.
Barger-Lux MJ & Heaney RP (1994) The role of calcium intake in preventing bone fragility, hypertension, and certain cancers. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1406S–1411S.
Barker DJP, Hales CN, Fall CHD, Osmond C, Phipps K & Clark PMS (1993) Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia (syndrome X): relation to reduced fetal growth. Diabetologia 36, 62–67.
Barragry JM, France MW, Corless D, Gupta SP, Switala S, Boucher BJ & Cohen RD (1978) Intestinal cholecalciferol absorption in the elderly and in younger subjects. Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine 55, 213–220.
Baynes K, Boucher BJ, Feskens EJM & Kromhout D (1997) Vitamin D, glucose tolerance and insulinaemia in elderly men. Diabetologia 40, 344–347.
Beaulieu C, Kestekian R, Havrankova J & Gascon-Barre M (1993) Calcium is essential in normalizing intolerance to glucose that accompanies vitamin D depletion in vivo. Diabetes 42, 35–43.
Billaudel B, Faure A, Labriji-Mestaghanmi H & Sutter BCJ (1989) Direct in vitro effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on islet insulin secretion in vitamin deficient rats: Influence of D3 pretreatment. Diabete et Metabolisme 15, 85–87.
Boucher BJ, Ewen SW & Stowers JM (1994) Betel nut (Areca catechu) consumption and the induction of glucose intolerance in adult CD1 mice and in their Fl and F2 offspring. Diabetologia 37, 49–55.
Boucher BJ (1995) Strategies for reduction in the prevalence of NIDDM; the case for a population-based approach to the development of policies to deal with environmental factors in its development. Diabetologia 38, 1125–1129.
Boucher BJ, Mannan N, Noonan K, Hales CN & Evans SJW (1995) Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D deficiency in East London Asians. Diabetologia 38, 1239–1245.
Braun A, Bichmaier R & Cleve H (1992) Molecular analysis of the gene for the human vitamin-D-binding protein (group- specific component): allelic difference of the common genetic GC types. Human Genetics 89, 401–406.
Brommage R & De Luca HF (1984) A maternal defect is responsible for growth failure in vitamin D-deficient rat pups. American Journal of Physiology 246, E216–E220.
Brown AC & Brenton B (1994) Dietary survey of Hopi native American elementary students. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 94, 517–522.
Byrne PM, Freaney R & McKenna MJ (1995) Vitamin D supplementation in the elderly: review of safety and effectiveness of different regimes. Calcified Tissues International 56, 518–520.
Cade C & Norman AW (1986) Vitamin D3 improves impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in the vitamin D-deficient rat in vivo. Endocrinology 119, 84–90.
Cantatore FP, Loperfido MC, Magli DM, Mancini L & Carrozzo M (1991) The importance of vitamin C for hydroxylation of vitamin D3 to 1,25(OH)2D3 in man. Clinical Rheumatology 10, 162–167.
Chen LZ, Easteal S, Board PG, Summers KM, Bhatia KK & Kirk RL (1990) Albumin-vitamin-D-binding protein haplotypes in Asian-Pacific populations. Human Genetics 85, 89–97.
Chertow BS & Baker GR (1978) The effects of vitamin A on insulin release and glucose oxidation in isolated rat islets. Endocrinology 103, 1562–1572.
Chertow BS, Blaner WS, Rajan N, Primerano DA, Meda P, Cirulli V, Krozowksi Z, Smith R & Cordle MB (1993) Retinoic acid receptor, cytosolic retinol-binding and retinoic acid binding protein mRNA transcripts and proteins in rat insulin-secreting cells. Diabetes 42, 1109–1114.
Chertow BS, Driscoll HK, Goking NQ, Primerano D, Cordle MB & Mathews KA (1997) Retinoid-X receptors and the effects of 9-cis-retinoic acid on insulin secretion from RINm5F cells. Metabolism 46, 656–660.
Chertow BS, Sivitz WI, Baranetsky NG, Styer TB, Sorensen BJ, Schickman CH, Norris RM & Ozuk BA (1982) Vitamin A palmitate decreases intravenous glucose tolerance in man. Acta Vitaminologica et Enzymologica 4, 291–298.
Clark SA, Stumpfe WE & Sar M (1981) Effect of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on insulin secretion. Diabetes 30, 382–386.
Colston KW (1996) New concepts in hormone receptor action. Lancet 342, 67–68.
Constans J, Hazout S, Garruto RM, Gajdusek DC & Spees EK (1985) Population distribution of the human vitamin D binding protein: anthropological considerations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 68, 107–122.
Corless D, Boucher BJ, Cohen RD, Beer M & Gupta SP (1975) Vitamin-D status in long-stay geriatric patients. Lancet i, 1404–1406.
Cruickshank JK (1995) Challenging the orthodoxy of insulin resistance. Lancet 346, 772–773.
Dandona P, Fonseca V & Menon RK (1986) Vitamin D deficiency and the endocrine pancreas. Diabetologia 29, 468–469.
Darwish HM & DeLuca HF (1996) Recent advances in the molecular biology of vitamin D action. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology 53, 321–344.
Davies H (1989) Coronary heart disease: The significance of coronary pathology in infancy and the role of mitogens such as vitamin D. Medical Hypotheses 30, 179–185.
Department of Health (1979) Ultraviolet Light and Vitamin D Metabolism. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 15. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Desai M, Bryne J, Zhang SJ, Petry A, Lucas A & Hales CN (1997 a) Programming of hepatic insulin-sensitive enzymes in offspring of rat dams fed an isocaloric protein restricted diet. American Journal of Physiology 272, Suppl., G1083-G1090.
Desai M, Petrie CJ, Wang CL, O'Connell DA & Hales CN (1997 b) Effects of maternal and early vitamin D deficiency on glucose and lipid metabolism in rat offspring. Diabetic Medicine 14, Suppl., S38 Abstr.
Dhawan J, Bray CL, Warburton R, Ghambhir DS & Morris J (1994) Insulin resistance, high prevalence of diabetes, and cardiovascular risk in immigrant Asians. Genetic or environmental effect? British Heart Journal 72, 413–421.
Dowse GK, Zimmet PZ, Finch CF & Collins VR (1991) Decline in incidence of epidemic glucose intolerance in Nauruans: implications for the ‘thrifty genotype’ hypothesis. American Journal of Epidemiology 133, 1093–1104.
Ebeling PR, Sandgren ME, DiMagno EP, Lane AW, DeLuca HF & Riggs BL (1992) Evidence of an age-related decrease in intestinal responsiveness to vitamin D: Relationship between serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and intestinal vitamin D receptor concentrations in normal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 75, 176–182.
Fahlen M, Oden A, Bjorntorp P & Tibblin G (1971) Seasonal influence on insulin secretion in man. Clinical Science 41, 453–458.
Ferrannini E, Buzzigoli G, Bonadonna R, Giorico MA, Oleggini M, Graziadei L, Pedrinelli R, Brandi L & Bevilacqua S (1987) Insulin resistance in essential hypertension. New England Journal of Medicine 317, 350–357.
Ferrari S, Rizzoli R, Chevally T, Slosman D, Eisman JA & Bonjour J (1995) Vitamin-D-receptor-gene polymorphisms and change in lumbar-spine bone mineral density. Lancet 345, 423–424.
Feskens EJM, Bowles CH & Kromhout D (1991) Inverse association between fish intake and risk of glucose intolerance in normoglycaemic elderly men and women. Diabetes Care 14, 935–942.
Feskens EJM, Bowles CH & Kromhout D (1993) Association between fish intake and coronary heart disease mortality. Diabetes Care 16, 1021–1034.
Frankel BJ, Heldt AM & Grodsksy GM (1980) Vitamin D deficiency inhibits pancreatic secretion of insulin. Science 209, 823–825.
Fraser DR (1995) Fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin D. Lancet 345, 104–107.
Gedik O & Akalin S (1986) Effects of vitamin D deficiency and repletion on insulin and glucagon secretion in man. Diabetologia 29, 142–145.
Grimes DS, Hindle E & Dyer T (1996) Sunlight, cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 89, 579–589.
Groop L, Miettenen A, Groop PH, Meri S, Koskimies S & Bottazzo GF (1988) Organ-specific autoimmunity and HLA-DR antigens as markers for beta-cell destruction in patients with type II diabetes. Diabetes 37, 99–103.
Haddad JG (1992) Vitamin D – solar rays, the milky way, or both?. New England Journal of Medicine 326, 1213–1215.
Hales CN & Barker DJP (1992) Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 35, 595–601.
Helgasen T, Danielsen R & Thorsson AV (1992) Incidence and prevalence of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Icelandic children 1970–1989. Diabetologia 35, 880–883.
Henry RR (1994) Prospects for primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Reviews International 3, 2–5.
Hewison M (1992) Vitamin D and the immune system. Journal of Endocrinology 132, 173–175.
Hitman GA, Mannan N, McDermott MF, Aganna E, Hales CN & Boucher BJ (1998) Vitamin D polymorphisms influence insulin secretion in Bangladeshi Asians. Diabetes (In the Press).
Hjermann I (1992) The metabolic cardiovascular syndrome, syndrome X, Reavens syndrome, insulin resistance syndrome, atherothrombogenic syndrome. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 55, S5–S10.
Holick MF (1995) Noncalcaemic actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and clinical applications. Bone 17, 107S–111S.
Hutchinson HS & Shah SJ (1921) The aetiology of rickets, early and late. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 15, 167–194.
Ihde AJ (1975) Studies on the history of rickets. Pharmacy in History 17, 15–58.
Ikeda K, Matsumoto T, Morita K, Kawanobe Y, Ezawa I & Ogata E (1987) Role of insulin in the stimulation of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3−1 alpha-hydroxylase by phosphorous deprivation in rats. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 36, 555–557.
Ishida H, Cunningham NS, Henry HL & Normal AW (1988) The number of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors is decreased in both intestine and kidney of genetically diabetic db/db mice. Endocrinology 122, 2436–2443.
Iyengar S, Hamman RF, Marshall JA, Majumder PP & Ferrell RE (1989) On the role of vitamin D binding globulin in glucose homeostasis: Results from the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Genetic Epidemiology 6, 691–698.
Iyer P (1991) Rock and roll ghost town (Iceland). In Falling off the Map: Some Lonely Places in the World, pp. 77–94. Reading: Black Swan.
Johnson JA, Grande JP, Roche PC & Kumar R (1994) Immunohistochemical localization of the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor and calbindin D28k in human and rat pancreas. American Journal of Physiology 267, E356–E360.
Kadowski S & Norman AW (1984) Dietary vitamin D is essential for normal insulin secretion from the perfused rat pancreas. Journal of Clinical Investigation 73, 759–766.
Kamboh MI & Ferrell RE (1986) Ethnic variation in vitamin D-binding protein (Gc): a review of isoelectric focusing studies in human populations. Human Genetics 72, 281–293.
Kannel WB, Wilson PW & Zhang TJ (1991) The epidemiology of impaired glucose intolerance and hypertension. American Heart Journal 121, 1268–1273.
Kautsky-Willer A, Pacini G, Barnas U, Ludvik B, Streli C, Graf H & Prager R (1995) Intravenous calcitriol normalizes insulin sensitivity in uremic patients. Kidney International 47, 200–206.
Khaw KT (1994) Genetics and environment: Geoffrey Rose revisited. Lancet 343, 838–839.
Khaw KT (1995) Temperature and cardiovascular mortality. Lancet 345, 353–355.
Kishimoto H, Tsumura K, Fujioka S, Uchimoto S & Morji H (1993) Chronic parathyroid hormone administration reverses the antihypertensive effect of calcium loading in young spontaneously hypertensive rats. American Journal of Hypertension 6, 234–240.
Knox E (1973) Ischaemic-heart-disease mortality and dietary intake of calcium. Lancet i, 1465–1467.
Kocian J (1992) Diabetic osteopathy. Favourable effect of treatment of osteomalacia with vitamin D and calcium on high blood glucose levels (In Czech). Vnitrni Lekarstvi 38, 353–356.
Kromhout D, Bosschieter EB & De Lezenne Coulander C (1985) The inverse relationship between fish consumption and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 312, 1205–1209.
Kumar S, Davies M, Zakaria Y, Mawer EB, Gordon C, Olukoga AO & Boulton AJ (1994) Improvement in glucose tolerance and beta-cell function in a patient with vitamin D deficiency during treatment with vitamin D. Postgraduate Medical Journal 70, 440–443.
Kuoppala T (1988) Alterations in vitamin D metabolites and minerals in diabetic pregnancy. Gynaecology and Obstetric Investigation 25, 99–105.
Labriji-Mestaghanmi H, Billaudel B, Gamier PE & Sutter BCJ (1988) Vitamin D and pancreatic islet function. 1. Time course for changes in insulin secretion and content during vitamin D deprivation and repletion. Journal of Endocrine Investigation 11, 577–587.
LaPorte RE (1995) Patterns of disease: Diabetes mellitus and the rest. British Medical Journal 310, 545–546.
Levy J, Gavin JR & Sowers JR (1994) Diabetes mellitus: a disease of abnormal cellular calcium metabolism?. American Journal of Medicine 96, 260–263.
Lind L, Lithell H, Skarfors E, Wide L & Ljunghall S (1988) Reduction of blood pressure by treatment with alphacalcidol. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Acta Medica Scandinavica 223, 211–217.
Lind L, Pollare T, Hvarfner A, Lithell H, Sorensen OH & Ljunghall S (1989 a) Long-term treatment with active vitamin D (alphacalcidol) in middle-aged men with impaired glucose tolerance. Effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity, glucose tolerance and blood pressure. Diabetes Research 11, 141–147.
Lind L, Wengle B, Wide L & Ljunghall S (1989 b) Reduction of blood pressure during long-term treatment with active vitamin D (alphacalcidol) is dependent on plasma renin activity and calcium status. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Hypertension 2, 20–25.
Ljunghall S, Lind L, Lithell H, Skarfors E, Selinus I, Sorensen OH & Wide L (1987) Treatment with one-alpha-hydroxycholecal-ciferol in middle-aged men with impaired glucose tolerance – a prospective randomized double-blind study. Acta Medica Scandinavica 222, 361–367.
Lloyd EL (1991) The role of cold in ischaemic heart disease: a review. Public Health 105, 205–215.
McCarron DA & Morris CD (1987) The calcium deficiency theory of hypertension. Annals of Internal Medicine 107, 919–1022.
McDermott MF, Ramachandran A, Aganna E, Ogunkolade W, Curtis D, Boucher BJ, Snehalatha C & Hitman GA (1997) Allelic variation in the vitamin D receptor influences susceptibility to IDDM in Indian Asians. Diabetologia 40, 971–975.
McGrath N, Singh V & Cundy T (1993) Severe vitamin D deficiency in Auckland. New Zealand Medical Journal 106, 524–526.
McKeigue P (1994) Diets for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: can linoleic acid substitute for fish oil? Lancet 343, 1445.
McKeigue PM, Pierpoint T, Ferrie JE & Marmot MG (1992) Relationship of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinaemia to body fat pattern in South Asians and Europeans. Diabetologia 35, 785–791.
McLaughlin M, Fairney A, Lester E, Raggatt PR, Brown DJ & Wills MR (1974) Seasonal variation in serum 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol in healthy people. Lancet i, 536–537.
Mak R (1994) Renal disease, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. Diabetes Reviews 2, 19–28.
Mak RH (1992 a) Intravenous 1,25 dehydroxycholecalciferol corrects glucose intolerance in haemodialysis patients. Kidney International 41, 1049–1054.
Mak RHK (1992 b) Amelioration of hypertension and insulin resistance by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in hemodialysis patients. Pediatric Nephrology 6, 345–348.
Marya RK, Rathee V, Lata V & Mudgil S (1987) Effects of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. Gynaecological and Obstetric Investigation 12, 155–161.
Mathieu C, Waer M, Casteels K, Laureys J & Bouillon R (1995) Prevention of Type 1 diabetes in NOD mice by non hypercalcaemic doses of a new structural analogue of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, KH1060. Endocrinology 136, 866–872.
Maxwell JD (1994) Seasonal variation in vitamin D. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 53, 533–543.
Maxwell JD, Ang L & Brooke IR (1981) Vitamin D supplements enhance weight gain and nutritional status in pregnant Asians. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 88, 987–991.
Metz AL, Walser MM & Olson WG (1985) The interaction of dietary vitamin A and vitamin D related to skeletal development in the turkey poult. Journal of Nutrition 115, 929–935.
Milner RDG & Hales CN (1967) The role of calcium and magnesium in insulin secretion from rabbit pancreas studied in vitro. Diabetologia 3, 47–49.
Ministry of Food (1945) Food Facts: Welfare Foods for Children. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
Misselwitz J, Hesse V & Markestad T (1990) Nephrocalcinosis, hypercalcuria and elevated levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in children. Possible link to vitamin D toxicity. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 79, 637–643.
Moon J, Bandy B & Davison AJ (1992) Hypothesis; etiology of atherosclerosis and osteoporosis: are imbalances in the calciferol endocrine system implicated?. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 11, 567–583.
Morrison NA, Qi JC, Tokita A, Kelly PJ, Crofts L, Nguyen TV, Sambrook PNS & Eisman JAE (1994) Prediction of bone density from vitamin D receptor alleles. Nature 367, 284–287.
Motahar V & Boucher BJ (1997) Induction of hyperglycaemia in CD1 mice by the betel-nut (Areca catechu) nitrosamine MNPN, inhibition by beta-carotene and enhancement by vitamins A and E. Clinical Science 99, 14p Abstr.
Nap RC & Hazewinkel HA (1994) Growth and skeletal development in the dog in relation to nutrition; a review. Veterinary Quarterly 16, 50–59.
Neel JV (1962) Diabetes mellitus; a thrifty genotype rendered detrimental by ‘progress’?. American Journal of Human Genetics 14, 353–362.
Nyomba BL, Bouillon R & De Moor P (1984) Influence of vitamin D status on insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in the rabbit. Endocrinology 115, 191–197.
O'Hara-May J & Widdowson EM (1976) Diets and living conditions of Asian boys in Coventry with and without signs of rickets. British Journal of Nutrition 36, 23–26.
Orwoll E, Riddle M & Prince M (1994) Effects of vitamin D on insulin and glucagon secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 1083–1087.
Ozono K, Seino Y, Yano H & Yamoaka K (1990) 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances the effect of refeeding on steady state preproinsulin messenger ribonucleic acid levels in rats. Endocrinology 126, 2041–2045.
Park EA (1923) The aetiology of rickets. Physiological Reviews 3, 106–163.
Parviainen MT, Kumpusalo E, Halonen P, Neittaanmali L & Pekkarinen H (1992) Epidemiology of vitamins A, E, D and C in rural villages in Finland: biochemical, nutritional and socioeconomic aspects. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 62, 238–243.
Petri CJ, Desai M, Ozanne SE & Hales CN (1997) Early and late nutritional windows for diabetes susceptibility. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 233–242.
Phillips DI, Barker DJP, Hales CN, Hirst S & Osmond C (1994) Thinness at birth and insulin resistance in adult life. Diabetologia 37, 150–154.
Phillips DIW, Barker DJP, Fall CHD, Whorwood CB, Walker BR & Wood PJ (1997) Low birthweight and raised plasma cortisol concentrations in adult life. Diabetic Medicine 14, S11 Abstr.
Pritchard BNC, Smith CCT, Ling KL & Betteridge DJ (1995) Fish oils and cardiovascular disease. British Medical Journal 310, 819–820.
Quin ID & Gumpert JRW (1997) Remission of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus following resection of a parathyroid adenoma. Diabetic Medicine 14, 80–81.
Reaven GM (1995) The fourth Musketeer – from Alexandre Dumas to Claude Bernard. Diabetologia 38, 3–13.
Rhodes CJ & Alarcon C (1994) What beta cell defect could lead to hyperproinsulinaemia in NIDDM?; some clues from recent advances made in understanding the proinsulin-processing mechanism. Diabetes 43, 511–517.
Roth J, Bonner-Weir S, Norman AW & Orci L (1982) Immunohistochemistry of vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein in chick pancreas; exclusive localization in beta cells. Endocrinology 116, 2216–2218.
Riggs BL, Hamstra A & DeLuca HF (1981) Assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1 alpha-hydroxylase reserve in postmeno-pausal osteoporosis by administration of parathyroid extract. Endocrinology and Metabolism 53, 833–835.
Rutter GA, Pouli AE & Hutton JC (1997) A phogrin-aequorin chimera to measure free Ca2+ concentration in the vicinity of secretory granules. Diabetic Medicine 14, S34 Abstr.
Scarabin PY, Bara L, Nicaud JP, Cambou DA, Luc G, Evans AE & Cambien F (1994) Seasonal variation of plasma fibrinogen in elderly people. Lancet 343, 975–976.
Scragg R (1996) Sunlight, vitamin D, and cardiovascular disease. In Calcium Regulating Hormones and Cardiovascular Function, pp. 213–237 [Crass MF and Aviol LV, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Scragg R, Holdaway I, Jackson R & Lim T (1992) Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and its relation to physical activity and other heart disease risk factors in the general population. Annals of Epidemiology 2, 697–703.
Scragg R, Jackson R, Holdaway IM, Lim T & Beaglehole R (1995 a) Myocardial infarction is inversely associated with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels: a community-based study. International Journal of Epidemiology 19, 559–563.
Scragg R, Khaw KT & Murphy S (1995 b) Effect of winter oral vitamin D3 supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in elderly adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 640–646.
Scragg R, Khaw KT & Murphy S (1995 c) Life-style factors associated with winter serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in elderly adults. Age and Ageing 24, 271–275.
Sedrani SH (1984) Vitamin D status of Saudi men. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 36, 181–187.
Serhan E, Khokov MA & Singh BM (1997) Hypovitaminosis D in Indo-Asian patients with diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 14, S42 Abstr.
Specker BL (1994) Do North American women need supplemental vitamin D during pregnancy or lactation? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 484S–490S.
Stanbury SW & Mawer EB (1990) Metabolic disturbances in acquired osteomalacia. In The Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Acquired Disease, pp. 1717–1739 [Cohen RD, Lewis B, Alberti KGMM and Denman AM, editors]. London: Balliere Tindall.
Strachan DP, Powell ICJ, Thaker A, Millard F & Maxwell JD (1995) Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant South London Asians. Thorax 50, 175–180.
Szathmary EJ (1987) The effect of Gc genotype on fasting insulin level in Dogrib Indians. Human Genetics 75, 368–372.
The Eurowinter Group (1997) Cold exposure and winter mortality from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and all causes in warm and cold regions of Europe. Lancet 349, 1341–1346.
The Nutrition Society (1997) Symposium on ‘Diabetes towards the year 2000’ (Nutrition Society Summer Meeting 24–26 June 1996). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 225–290.
Tremoli E, Petroni A, Socini A, Maderna P, Colli S, Paoletti R, Galli C, Ferro-Luzzi A, Strazullo P, Mancini M, Puska P, Iacono J & Daugherty R (1986) Dietary interventions in north Karelia, Finland and south Italy. Modification of thromboxane Br formation in platelets of male subjects only. Arteriosclerosis 59, 101–111.
Trowell H (1974) Diabetes mellitus death-rates in England and Wales 1920–70 and food supplies. Lancet ii, 998–1002.
van der Wielen RP, Lowik MR, van den Berg H, de Groot LC, Haller J, Moreiras O & van Staveren WA (1995) Serum vitamin D concentrations amongst elderly people in Europe. Lancet 346, 207–210.
WHO (1985) Diabetes Mellitus: report of a WHO study group on diabetes mellitus. World Health Organization Technical Report SeriesGeneva:WHO.
Widdowson EM & McCance RA (1975) A review: New thoughts on growth. Pediatric Research 9, 154–156.
Wilmshurst P (1994) Temperature and cardiovascular mortality. British Medical Journal 309, 1029–1030.
Woodhouse PR, Khaw KT & Plummer M (1993) Seasonal variation of blood pressure and its relationship to ambient temperature in an elderly population. Journal of Hypertension 11, 1267–1274.
Woodhouse PR, Khaw KT, Plummer M, Foley A & Meade TW (1994) Seasonal variations of plasma fibrinogen and factor VII activity in the elderly: winter infections and death from cardiovascular disease. Lancet 343, 435–439.