Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Increased dietary protein consumed at breakfast leads to an initial and sustained feeling of fullness during energy restriction compared to other meal times

  • Heather J. Leidy (a1) (a2), Mandi J. Bossingham (a1), Richard D. Mattes (a1) and Wayne W. Campbell (a1)
Abstract

The objective of the study was to assess whether the timing of increased dietary protein throughout the day influences the feelings of fullness during energy balance (EB) and restriction (ER). Nine men (age 48 (sem 6) years; BMI 32·7 (sem 0·7) kg/m2) randomly completed five controlled feeding trials, each consisting of 3 d of EB, followed by 3 d of ER of a 3138 kJ/d (750 kcal/d) reduction). The diet was composed of a normal amount of protein (NP) (0·8 g protein/kg per d), or an additional amount of protein (HP) (+0·6 g protein/kg per d) given at breakfast (HP-B), lunch (HP-L), dinner (HP-D) or equally divided among all meals (HP-E). Meal-related (3 h postprandial) and overall (15 h composite) feelings of fullness were assessed from thirteen-point, numbered, linear category scale questionnaires (reported as arbitrary units (au)). When comparing HP treatments, the data are presented as difference from NP. No differences in meal-related or overall fullness were observed among HP treatments during EB. During ER, the HP-B led to greater meal-related fullness (+137 (sem 44) au × 180 min) compared to HP-D ( − 1 (sem 37) au × 180 min; P = 0·003), but not for HP-L (+62 (sem 53) au × 180 min; P = 0·188) or HP-E-B (+92 (sem 85) au × 180 min; P = 0·587). HP-B also led to greater overall (15 h) fullness (+404 (sem 162) au × 900 min) v. HP-L (+33 (sem 162) au × 900 min; P = 0·009) and HP-D ( − 60 (sem 132) au × 900 min; P = 0·05), but not HP-E (+274 (sem 165) au × 900 min; P = 0·188). The initial and sustained feelings of fullness following protein consumption at breakfast suggests that the timing of protein intake differentially influences satiety during ER.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Increased dietary protein consumed at breakfast leads to an initial and sustained feeling of fullness during energy restriction compared to other meal times
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Increased dietary protein consumed at breakfast leads to an initial and sustained feeling of fullness during energy restriction compared to other meal times
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Increased dietary protein consumed at breakfast leads to an initial and sustained feeling of fullness during energy restriction compared to other meal times
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Heather J. Leidy, The University of Kansas Medical Center, fax +1 913 588 8946, email hleidy@kumc.edu
References
Hide All
1Keski-Rahkonen A, Kaprio J, Rissanen A, Virkkunen M & Rose RJ (2003) Breakfast skipping and health-compromising behaviors in adolescents and adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 842853.
2de Castro JM (2004) The time of day of food intake influences overall intake in humans. J Nutr 134, 104111.
3van der Heijden AAWA, Hu FB, Rim EB & van Dam RM (2007) A prospective study of breakfast consumption and weight gain among U.S. men. Obesity 15, 24632469.
4Purslow LR, Sandhu MS, Forouhi N, Young EH, Luben RN, Welch AA, Khaw K-T, Bingham SA & Wareham NJ (2008) Energy intake at breakfast and weight change: prospective study of 6764 middle-aged men and women. Am J Epidemiol 167, 188192.
5Song WO, Chun OK, Obayashi S, Cho S & Chung CE (2005) Is consumption of breakfast associated with body mass index in US adults? J Am Diet Assoc 105, 13731382.
6de Castro JM (2008) The time of day and the proportions of macronutrients eaten are related to total daily food intake. Br J Nutr 98, 10771083.
7Halton TL & Hu FB (2004) The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 373385.
8Leidy HJ, Mattes RD & Campbell WW (2007) Effects of acute and chronic protein intake on metabolism, appetite, and ghrelin during weight loss. Obesity 15, 12151225.
9Harris JA & Benedict FG (1919) A Biometric Study of Basal Metabolism in Man. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington.
10Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Jenkins AL & Josse RG (1991) The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 846854.
11Latner JD & Schwartz M (1999) The effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-protein or balanced lunch upon later food intake and hunger ratings. Appetite 33, 119128.
12Parker BA, Sturm K, MacIntosh CG, Feinle C, Horowitz M & Chapman IM (2004) Relation between food intake and visual analogue scale ratings of appetite and other sensations in healthy older and young subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 212218.
13Raben A, Tagliabue A & Astrup A (1995) The reproducibility of subjective appetite scores. Br J Nutr 73, 517530.
14Moshfegh A, Goldman J & Cleveland L (2005) What We Eat in America, NHANES 2001–2002: Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food Compared to Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
15Long SJ, Jeffcoat AR & Millward DJ (2000) Effect of habitual dietary-protein intake on appetite and satiety. Appetite 35, 7988.
16Moran LJ, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Noakes M, Wittert GA, Keogh JB & Clifton PM (2005) The satiating effect of dietary protein is unrelated to postprandial ghrelin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 52055211.
17Lejeune MPGM, Westerterp KR, Adam TCM, Luscombe-Marsh ND & Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2006) Ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations, 24-h satiety, and energy and substrate metabolism during a high-protein diet and measured in a respiration chamber. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 8994.
18Flint A, Raben A, Blundell JE & Astrup A (2000) Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 3848.
19Lang V, Bellisle F, Oppert JM, Craplet C, Bornet FR, Slama G & Guy-Grand B (1998) Satiating effect of proteins in healthy subjects: a comparison of egg albumin, casein, gelatin, soy protein, pea protein, and wheat gluten. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 11971204.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 30
Total number of PDF views: 336 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 757 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.