1Gluckman PD, Hanson MA, Cooper C, et al. (2008) Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease. N Engl J Med 359, 61–73.
2Roseboom T, de RS & Painter R (2006) The Dutch famine and its long-term consequences for adult health. Early Hum Dev 82, 485–491.
3Erhuma A, Salter AM, Sculley DV, et al. (2007) Prenatal exposure to a low-protein diet programs disordered regulation of lipid metabolism in the aging rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292, E1702–E1714.
4Burdge GC & Lillycrop KA (2010) Nutrition, epigenetics, and developmental plasticity: implications for understanding human disease. Annu Rev Nutr 30, 315–339.
5Lillycrop KA, Phillips ES, Jackson AA, et al. (2005) Dietary protein restriction of pregnant rats induces and folic acid supplementation prevents epigenetic modification of hepatic gene expression in the offspring. J Nutr 135, 1382–1386.
6Lillycrop KA, Phillips ES, Torrens C, et al. (2008) Feeding pregnant rats a protein-restricted diet persistently alters the methylation of specific cytosines in the hepatic PPARalpha promoter of the offspring. Br J Nutr 100, 278–282.
7Wolff GL, Kodell RL, Moore SR, et al. (1998) Maternal epigenetics and methyl supplements affect agouti gene expression in Avy/a mice. FASEB J 12, 949–957.
8Plagemann A, Harder T, Brunn M, et al. (2009) Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin promoter methylation becomes altered by early overfeeding: an epigenetic model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. J Physiol 587, 4963–4976.
9Plagemann A, Roepke K, Harder T, et al. (2010) Epigenetic malprogramming of the insulin receptor promoter due to developmental overfeeding. J Perinat Med 38, 393–400.
10Szyf M (2007) The dynamic epigenome and its implications in toxicology. Toxicol Sci 100, 7–23.
11Richardson B (2003) Impact of aging on DNA methylation. Ageing Res Rev 2, 245–261.
12Sanders VM (2006) Epigenetic regulation of Th1 and Th2 cell development. Brain Behav Immun 20, 317–324.
13Burdge GC, Lillycrop KA & Jackson AA (2009) Nutrition in early life, and risk of cancer and metabolic disease: alternative endings in an epigenetic tale? Br J Nutr 101, 619–630.
14Burdge GC, Lillycrop KA, Phillips ES, et al. (2009) Folic acid supplementation during the juvenile–pubertal period in rats modifies the phenotype and epigenotype induced by prenatal nutrition. J Nutr 139, 1054–1060.
15Burdge GC, Lillycrop KA, Jackson AA, et al. (2008) The nature of the growth pattern and of the metabolic response to fasting in the rat are dependent upon the dietary protein and folic acid intakes of their pregnant dams and post-weaning fat consumption. Br J Nutr 99, 540–549.
16Burdge GC, Powell J & Calder PC (2006) Lack of effect of meal fatty acid composition on postprandial lipid, glucose and insulin responses in men and women aged 50–65 years consuming their habitual diets. Br J Nutr 96, 489–500.
17Hoile SP, Lillycrop KA, Thomas NA, et al. (2011) Dietary protein restriction during F0 pregnancy in rats induces transgenerational changes in the hepatic transcriptome in female offspring. PLoS ONE 6, e21668.
18Beale EG, Chrapkiewicz NB, Scoble HA, et al. (1985) Rat hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP). Structures of the protein, messenger RNA, and gene. J Biol Chem 260, 10748–10760.
19Yang J, Reshef L, Cassuto H, et al. (2009) Aspects of the control of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene transcription. J Biol Chem 284, 27031–27035.
20Harris RG, White E, Phillips ES, et al. (2002) The expression of the developmentally regulated proto-oncogene Pax-3 is modulated by N-Myc. J Biol Chem 277, 34815–34825.
21Dignam JD, Lebovitz RM & Roeder RG (1983) Accurate transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II in a soluble extract from isolated mammalian nuclei. Nucleic Acids Res 11, 1475–1489.
22Freedland RA (1967) Effect of progressive starvation on rat liver enzyme activities. J Nutr 91, 489–495.
23Gilbert JS & Nijland MJ (2008) Sex differences in the developmental origins of hypertension and cardiorenal disease. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295, R1941–R1952.
24Kautzky-Willer A & Handisurya A (2009) Metabolic diseases and associated complications: sex and gender matter! Eur J Clin Invest 39, 631–648.
25Iskandar BJ, Rizk E, Meier B, et al. (2010) Folate regulation of axonal regeneration in the rodent central nervous system through DNA methylation. J Clin Invest 120, 1603–1616.
26Kotsopoulos J, Sohn KJ & Kim YI (2008) Postweaning dietary folate deficiency provided through childhood to puberty permanently increases genomic DNA methylation in adult rat liver. J Nutr 138, 703–709.
27Ingrosso D, Cimmino A, Perna AF, et al. (2003) Folate treatment and unbalanced methylation and changes of allelic expression induced by hyperhomocysteinaemia in patients with uraemia. Lancet 361, 1693–1699.
28Ly A, Lee H, Chen J, et al. (2011) Effect of maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation on mammary tumor risk in the offspring. Cancer Res 71, 988–997.
29Fryer AA, Emes RD, Ismail KM, et al. (2011) Quantitative, high-resolution epigenetic profiling of CpG loci identifies associations with cord blood plasma homocysteine and birth weight in humans. Epigenetics 6, 86–94.
30Ghoshal K, Li X, Datta J, et al. (2006) A folate- and methyl-deficient diet alters the expression of DNA methyltransferases and methyl CpG binding proteins involved in epigenetic gene silencing in livers of F344 rats. J Nutr 136, 1522–1527.
31Robertson KD, it-Si-Ali S, Yokochi T, et al. (2000) DNMT1 forms a complex with Rb, E2F1 and HDAC1 and represses transcription from E2F-responsive promoters. Nat Genet 25, 338–342.
32Srivastava RA (2009) Fenofibrate ameliorates diabetic and dyslipidemic profiles in KKAy mice partly via down-regulation of 11β-HSD1, PEPCK and DGAT2. Comparison of PPARα, PPARγ, and liver × receptor agonists. Eur J Pharmacol 607, 258–263.
33Thonpho A, Sereeruk C, Rojvirat P, et al. (2010) Identification of the cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE) that mediates transcriptional regulation of the pyruvate carboxylase gene in HepG2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 393, 714–719.
34Burda P, Curik N, Kokavec J, et al. (2009) PU.1 activation relieves GATA-1-mediated repression of Cebpa and Cbfb during leukemia differentiation. Mol Cancer Res 7, 1693–1703.
35Waterland RA, Dolinoy DC, Lin JR, et al. (2006) Maternal methyl supplements increase offspring DNA methylation at axin fused. Genesis 44, 401–406.
36Vallee M, Guay F, Beaudry D, et al. (2002) Effects of breed, parity, and folic acid supplement on the expression of folate metabolism genes in endometrial and embryonic tissues from sows in early pregnancy. Biol Reprod 67, 1259–1267.
37Caldwell PT, Manziello A, Howard J, et al. (2010) Gene expression profiling in the fetal cardiac tissue after folate and low-dose trichloroethylene exposure. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 88, 111–127.