This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1 D Rieger , NM Loskutoff & KJ Betteridge (1992) Developmentally related changes in the uptake and metabolism of glucose, glutamine and pyruvate by cattle embryos produced in vitro. Reprod Fertil Dev 4, 547–557.
4 P Felig , YJ Kim , V Lynch , et al. (1972) Amino acid metabolism during starvation in human pregnancy. J Clin Invest 51, 1195–1202.
5 RK Kalkhoff , E Kandaraki , PG Morrow , et al. (1988) Relationship between neonatal birth weight and maternal plasma amino acid profiles in lean and obese nondiabetic women and in type I diabetic pregnant women. Metabolism 37, 234–239.
6 A Snoeck , C Remacle , B Reusens , et al. (1990) Effect of a low protein diet during pregnancy on the fetal rat endocrine pancreas. Biol Neonate 57, 107–118.
7 MS Kilberg , J Shan & N Su (2009) ATF4-dependent transcription mediates signaling of amino acid limitation. Trends Endocrinol Metab 20, 436–443.
10 SF Abcouwer , C Schwarz & RA Meguid (1999) Glutamine deprivation induces the expression of GADD45 and GADD153 primarily by mRNA stabilization. J Biol Chem 274, 28645–28651.
11 A Bruhat , C Jousse , XZ Wang , et al. (1997) Amino acid limitation induces expression of CHOP, a CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-related gene, at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. J Biol Chem 272, 17588–17593.
12 PD Lu , HP Harding & D Ron (2004) Translation reinitiation at alternative open reading frames regulates gene expression in an integrated stress response. J Cell Biol 167, 27–33.
14 KM Vattem & RC Wek (2004) Reinitiation involving upstream ORFs regulates ATF4 mRNA translation in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 11269–11274.
15 HP Harding , Y Zhang , H Zeng , et al. (2003) An integrated stress response regulates amino acid metabolism and resistance to oxidative stress. Mol Cell 11, 619–633.
17 YX Pan , H Chen , MM Thiaville , et al. (2007) Activation of the ATF3 gene through a co-ordinated amino acid-sensing response programme that controls transcriptional regulation of responsive genes following amino acid limitation. Biochem J 401, 299–307.
19 I Nishino (2003) Autophagic vacuolar myopathies. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 3, 64–69.
20 N Mizushima , B Levine , AM Cuervo , et al. (2008) Autophagy fights disease through cellular self-digestion. Nature 451, 1069–1075.
21 C Mammucari , G Milan , V Romanello , et al. (2007) FoxO3 controls autophagy in skeletal muscle in vivo. Cell Metab 6, 458–471.
22 SM Ebert , MC Dyle , SD Kunkel , et al. (2012) Stress-induced skeletal muscle Gadd45a expression reprograms myonuclei and causes muscle atrophy. J Biol Chem 287, 27290–27301.
23 SM Ebert , AM Monteys , DK Fox , et al. (2010) The transcription factor ATF4 promotes skeletal myofiber atrophy during fasting. Mol Endocrinol 24, 790–799.
24 W B'Chir , AC Maurin , V Carraro , et al. (2013) The eIF2alpha/ATF4 pathway is essential for stress-induced autophagy gene expression. Nucleic Acids Res 41, 7683–7699.
25 RS Strakovsky , D Zhou & YX Pan (2010) A low-protein diet during gestation in rats activates the placental mammalian amino acid response pathway and programs the growth capacity of offspring. J Nutr 140, 2116–2120.
29 M Reverter , T Lundh & JE Lindberg (1997) Determination of free amino acids in pig plasma by precolumn derivatization with 6-N-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate and high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 696, 1–8.
31 U Kintscher , M Hartge , K Hess , et al. (2008) T-lymphocyte infiltration in visceral adipose tissue: a primary event in adipose tissue inflammation and the development of obesity-mediated insulin resistance. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28, 1304–1310.
32 T Heinemeyer , E Wingender , I Reuter , et al. (1998) Databases on transcriptional regulation: TRANSFAC, TRRD and COMPEL. Nucleic Acids Res 26, 362–367.
34 AE Toscano , R Manhaes-de-Castro & F Canon (2008) Effect of a low-protein diet during pregnancy on skeletal muscle mechanical properties of offspring rats. Nutrition 24, 270–278.
35 DK Fox , SM Ebert , KS Bongers , et al. (2014) p53 and ATF4 mediate distinct and additive pathways to skeletal muscle atrophy during limb immobilization. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 307, E245–E261.
36 E Masiero , L Agatea , C Mammucari , et al. (2009) Autophagy is required to maintain muscle mass. Cell Metab 10, 507–515.
37 A Chamson-Reig , SM Thyssen , DJ Hill , et al. (2009) Exposure of the pregnant rat to low protein diet causes impaired glucose homeostasis in the young adult offspring by different mechanisms in males and females. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 234, 1425–1436.
41 P Felig (1973) The glucose–alanine cycle. Metabolism 22, 179–207.
42 MS Kilberg , YX Pan , H Chen , et al. (2005) Nutritional control of gene expression: how mammalian cells respond to amino acid limitation. Annu Rev Nutr 25, 59–85.
44 S Hao , CM Ross-Inta & DW Gietzen (2010) The sensing of essential amino acid deficiency in the anterior piriform cortex, that requires the uncharged tRNA/GCN2 pathway, is sensitive to wortmannin but not rapamycin. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 94, 333–340.
45 S Hao , JW Sharp , CM Ross-Inta , et al. (2005) Uncharged tRNA and sensing of amino acid deficiency in mammalian piriform cortex. Science 307, 1776–1778.
47 DJ Naismith (1966) The requirement for protein, and the utilization of protein and calcium during pregnancy. Metabolism 15, 582–595.
50 M Sandri (2010) Autophagy in skeletal muscle. FEBS Lett 584, 1411–1416.
52 T van den Beucken , M Koritzinsky , H Niessen , et al. (2009) Hypoxia-induced expression of carbonic anhydrase 9 is dependent on the unfolded protein response. J Biol Chem 284, 24204–24212.
53 K Guo , G Searfoss , D Krolikowski , et al. (2001) Hypoxia induces the expression of the pro-apoptotic gene BNIP3. Cell Death Differ 8, 367–376.
56 MJ Zhu , SP Ford , PW Nathanielsz , et al. (2004) Effect of maternal nutrient restriction in sheep on the development of fetal skeletal muscle. Biol Reprod 71, 1968–1973.
60 L Gong , YX Pan & H Chen (2010) Gestational low protein diet in the rat mediates Igf2 gene expression in male offspring via altered hepatic DNA methylation. Epigenetics 5, 619–626.
61 A Gabory , TJ Roseboom , T Moore , et al. (2013) Placental contribution to the origins of sexual dimorphism in health and diseases: sex chromosomes and epigenetics. Biol Sex Differ 4, 5.
63 E Zambrano , GL Rodriguez-Gonzalez , C Guzman , et al. (2005) A maternal low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation in the rat impairs male reproductive development. J Physiol 563, 275–284.
66 TV Stephens , M Payne , RO Ball , et al. (2015) Protein requirements of healthy pregnant women during early and late gestation are higher than current recommendations. J Nutr 145, 73–78.