Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men

  • Alexandra Schmid (a1), Nicolai Petry (a1) (a2), Barbara Walther (a1), Ueli Bütikofer (a1), Werner Luginbühl (a3), Doreen Gille (a1), Magali Chollet (a1), Philip G. McTernan (a4), Martin A. M. Gijs (a5), Nathalie Vionnet (a6), François P. Pralong (a6), Kurt Laederach (a7) and Guy Vergères (a1)...

Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men
      Available formats
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: G. Vergères, fax +41 58 463 82 27, email
Hide All
1 Hotamisligil, GS (2006) Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature 444, 860867.
2 Ye, J & Keller, JN (2010) Regulation of energy metabolism by inflammation: a feedback response in obesity and calorie restriction. Aging (Albany NY) 2, 361368.
3 Klop, B, Proctor, SD, Mamo, JC, et al. (2012) Understanding postprandial inflammation and its relationship to lifestyle behaviour and metabolic diseases. Int J Vasc Med 2012, 947417.
4 Margioris, AN (2009) Fatty acids and postprandial inflammation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12, 129137.
5 Dandona, P, Ghanim, H, Chaudhuri, A, et al. (2010) Macronutrient intake induces oxidative and inflammatory stress: potential relevance to atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Exp Mol Med 42, 245253.
6 Calder, PC, Ahluwalia, N, Brouns, F, et al. (2011) Dietary factors and low-grade inflammation in relation to overweight and obesity. Br J Nutr 106, S5S78.
7 Nappo, F, Esposito, K, Cioffi, M, et al. (2002) Postprandial endothelial activation in healthy subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients: role of fat and carbohydrate meals. J Am Coll Cardiol 39, 11451150.
8 Tsai, W, Li, Y, Lin, C, et al. (2004) Effects of oxidative stress on endothelial function after a high-fat meal. Clin Sci 106, 315319.
9 Aljada, A, Mohanty, P, Ghanim, H, et al. (2004) Increase in intranuclear nuclear factor κB and decrease in inhibitor κB in mononuclear cells after a mixed meal: evidence for a proinflammatory effect. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 682690.
10 Havel, RJ (1994) Postprandial hyperlipidemia and remnant lipoproteins. Curr Opin Lipidol 5, 102109.
11 Miller, M, Zhan, M & Georgopoulos, A (2003) Effect of desirable fasting triglycerides on the postprandial response to dietary fat. J Investig Med 51, 5055.
12 Schwander, F, Kopf-Bolanz, KA, Buri, C, et al. (2014) A dose–response strategy reveals differences between normal-weight and obese men in their metabolic and inflammatory responses to a high-fat meal. J Nutr 144, 15171523.
13 Ghanim, H, Sia, CL, Upadhyay, M, et al. (2010) Orange juice neutralizes the proinflammatory effect of a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal and prevents endotoxin increase and Toll-like receptor expression. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 940949.
14 Burton-Freeman, B, Talbot, J, Park, E, et al. (2012) Protective activity of processed tomato products on postprandial oxidation and inflammation: a clinical trial in healthy weight men and women. Mol Nutr Food Res 56, 622631.
15 Panagiotakos, DB, Pitsavos, CH, Zampelas, AD, et al. (2010) Dairy products consumption is associated with decreased levels of inflammatory markers related to cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy adults: the ATTICA Study. J Am Coll Nut 29, 357364.
16 Esmaillzadeh, A & Azadbakht, L (2010) Dairy consumption and circulating levels of inflammatory markers among Iranian women. Public Health Nutr 13, 13951402.
17 Salas-Salvadó, J, Garcia-Arellano, A, Estruch, R, et al. (2008) Components of the Mediterranean-type food pattern and serum inflammatory markers among patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 651659.
18 Bordoni, A, Danesi, F, Dardevet, D, et al. (2015) Dairy products and inflammation: a review of the clinical evidence. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol (In the Press) .
19 Zemel, MB, Donnelly, JE, Smith, BK, et al. (2008) Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance. Nutr Metab 5, 2841.
20 Labonté, ME, Couture, P, Richard, C, et al. (2013) Impact of dairy products on biomarkers of inflammation: a systematic review of randomized controlled nutritional intervention studies in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 706717.
21 Nestel, PJ, Pally, S, MacIntosh, GL, et al. (2012) Circulating inflammatory and atherogenic biomarkers are not increased following single meals of dairy foods. Eur J Clin Nutr 66, 2531.
22 Creely, SJ, McTernan, PG, Kusminski, CM, et al. (2007) Lipopolysaccharide activates an innate immune system response in human adipose tissue in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292, E740E747.
23 R Core Team (2013) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
24 Jones, B & Kenward, MG (2003) Design and Analysis of Cross-Over Trials, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
25 Zemel, MB & Sun, X (2008) Dietary calcium and dairy products modulate oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice and humans. J Nutr 138, 10471052.
26 Legrand, D (2012) Lactoferrin, a key molecule in immune and inflammatory processes. Biochem Cell Biol 90, 252268.
27 Mattsby-Baltzer, I, Roseanu, A, Motas, C, et al. (1996) Lactoferrin or a fragment thereof inhibits the endotoxin-induced interleukin-6 response in human monocytic cells. Pediatr Res 40, 257262.
28 Jemima, EA, Prema, A & Thangam, EB (2014) Functional characterization of histamine H4 receptor on human mast cells. Mol Immunol 62, 1928.
29 Weiss, C (2009) Biogene amine. Ernährungs-Umschau 56, 172179.
30 Harte, AL, Varma, MC, Tripathi, G, et al. (2012) High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 35, 375382.
31 Moreira, APB, Texeira, TFS, Ferreira, AB, et al. (2012) Influence of a high-fat diet on gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. Br J Nutr 108, 801809.
32 Erridge, C, Attina, T, Spickett, CM, et al. (2007) A high-fat meal induces low-grade endotoxemia: evidence of a novel mechanism of postprandial inflammation. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 12861292.
33 van Oostrom, AJ, Rabelink, TJ, Verseyden, C, et al. (2004) Activation of leukocytes by postprandial lipemia in healthy volunteers. Atherosclerosis 177, 175182.
34 Sun, Q, Li, J & Gao, F (2014) New insights into insulin: the anti-inflammatory effect and its clinical relevance. World J Diabetes 5, 8996.
35 van Meijl, LEC & Mensink, RP (2013) Effects of milk and milk constituents on postprandial lipid and glucose metabolism in overweight and obese men. Br J Nutr 110, 413419.
36 Clemente, G, Mancini, M, Nazzaro, F, et al. (2003) Effects of different dairy products on postprandial lipemia. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 13, 377383.
37 Dubois, C, Beaumier, G, Juhel, C, et al. (1998) Effects of graded amounts (0–50 g) of dietary fat on postprandial lipemia and lipoproteins in normolipidemic adults. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 3138.
38 Lopez-Miranda, J, Williams, C & Lairon, D (2007) Dietary, physiological, genetic and pathological influences on postprandial lipid metabolism. Br J Nutr 98, 458473.
39 Zemel, MB (2009) Proposed role of calcium and dairy food components in weight management and metabolic health. Phys Sportsmed 37, 2939.
40 Denke, MA, Fox, MM & Schulte, MC (1993) Short-term dietary calcium fortification increases fecal saturated fat content and reduces serum lipids in men. J Nutr 123, 10471053.
41 Clemente-Postigo, M, Queipo-Ortuno, MI, Murri, M, et al. (2012) Endotoxin increase after fat overload is related to postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in morbidly obese patients. J Lipid Res 53, 973978.
42 Dixon, NC, Hurst, TL, Talbot, DCS, et al. (2009) Active middle-aged men have lower fasting inflammatory markers but the postprandial inflammatory response is minimal and unaffected by physical activity status. J Appl Physiol 107, 6368.
43 Seiler, W, Müller, H & Hiemke, C (1994) Interleukin-6 in plasma collected with an indwelling cannula reflects local, not systemic, concentrations. Clin Chem 40, 17781779.
44 Gudmundsson, A, Ershler, WB, Goodman, B, et al. (1997) Serum concentrations of interleukin-6 are increased when sampled through an indwelling venous catheter. Clin Chem 43, 21992201.
45 Haack, M, Kraus, T, Schuld, A, et al. (2002) Diurnal variations of inteleukin-6 plasma levels are confounded by blood drawing procedures. Psychoneuroendocrinology 27, 921931.
46 Mohamed-Ali, V, Goodrick, S, Rawesh, A, et al. (1997) Subcutaneous adipose tissue releases interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-α, in vivo . J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82, 41964200.
47 Hansen, K, Sickelmann, F, Pietrowsky, R, et al. (1997) Systemic immune changes following meal intake in humans. Am J Physiol 273, R548R553.
48 Blackburn, P, Despres, JP, Lamarche, B, et al. (2006) Postprandial variations of plasma inflammatory markers in abdominally obese men. Obesity Res 14, 17471754.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Schmid supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (34 KB)
34 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed