Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Influence of sugar type on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanols

  • Ana Rodriguez-Mateos (a1), Maria Jose Oruna-Concha (a1), Catherine Kwik-Uribe (a2), Alberto Vidal (a3) and Jeremy P. E. Spencer (a1)...
Abstract

The beneficial effects of cocoa on vascular function are mediated by the absorption of monomeric flavanols into the circulation from the small intestine. As such, an understanding of the impact of the food matrix on the delivery of flavanols to the circulation is critical in assessing the potential vascular impact of a food. In the present study, we investigated the impact of carbohydrate type on flavanol absorption and metabolism from chocolate. A randomised, double-blind, three-arm cross-over study was conducted, where fifteen volunteers were randomly assigned to either a high-flavanol (266 mg) chocolate containing maltitol, a high-flavanol (251 mg) chocolate with sucrose or a low-flavanol (48 mg) chocolate with sucrose. Test chocolates were matched for micro- and macronutrients, including the alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, and were similar in taste and appearance. Total flavanol absorption was lower after consumption of the maltitol-containing test chocolate compared with following consumption of its sucrose-containing equivalent (P = 0·002). Although the O-methylation pattern observed for absorbed flavanols was unaffected by sugar type, individual levels of unmethylated ( − )-epicatechin metabolites, 3′-O-methyl-epicatechin and 4′-O-methyl-epicatechin metabolites were lower for the maltitol-containing test chocolate compared with the sucrose-containing equivalent. Despite a reduction in the total plasma pool of flavanols, the maximum time (Tmax) was unaffected. The present data indicate that full assessment of intervention treatments is vital in future intervention trials with flavanols and that carbohydrate content is an important determinant for the optimal delivery of flavanols to the circulation.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Influence of sugar type on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanols
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Influence of sugar type on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanols
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Influence of sugar type on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanols
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr J. P. E. Spencer, email j.p.e.spencer@reading.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2 MG Hertog , EJ Feskens , PC Hollman , et al. (1993) Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 342, 10071011.

3 P Knekt , R Jarvinen , A Reunanen , et al. (1996) Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study. BMJ 312, 478481.

6 B Buijsse , EJ Feskens , FJ Kok , et al. (2006) Cocoa intake, blood pressure, and cardiovascular mortality: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Arch Intern Med 166, 411417.

7 A Cassidy , EJ O'Reilly , C Kay , et al. (2011) Habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses and incident hypertension in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 338347.

8 MG Hertog , D Kromhout , C Aravanis , et al. (1995) Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch Intern Med 155, 381386.

12 D Taubert , R Roesen , C Lehmann , et al. (2007) Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 298, 4960.

13 B Buijsse , C Weikert , D Drogan , et al. (2010) Chocolate consumption in relation to blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease in German adults. Eur Heart J 31, 16161623.

14 C Heiss & M Kelm (2010) Chocolate consumption, blood pressure, and cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J 31, 15541556.

15 K Ried , T Sullivan , P Fakler , et al. (2010) Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis. BMC Med 8, 39.

16 MB Engler , MM Engler , CY Chen , et al. (2004) Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 197204.

20 J Balzer , T Rassaf , C Heiss , et al. (2008) Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients a double-masked, randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 51, 21412149.

21 C Heiss , S Jahn , M Taylor , et al. (2010) Improvement of endothelial function with dietary flavanols is associated with mobilization of circulating angiogenic cells in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 56, 218224.

23 DA Pearson , TG Paglieroni , D Rein , et al. (2002) The effects of flavanol-rich cocoa and aspirin on ex vivo platelet function. Thromb Res 106, 191197.

24 LM Ostertag , N O'Kennedy , PA Kroon , et al. (2010) Impact of dietary polyphenols on human platelet function–a critical review of controlled dietary intervention studies. Mol Nutr Food Res 54, 6081.

26 M Monagas , N Khan , C Andres-Lacueva , et al. (2009) Effect of cocoa powder on the modulation of inflammatory biomarkers in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 11441150.

27 DL Katz , K Doughty & A Ali (2011) Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease. Antioxid Redox signal 15, 27792811.

29 DD Schramm , M Karim , HR Schrader , et al. (2003) Food effects on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of cocoa flavanols. Life Sci 73, 857869.

30 M Urpi-Sarda , M Monagas , N Khan , et al. (2009) Epicatechin, procyanidins, and phenolic microbial metabolites after cocoa intake in humans and rats. Anal Bioanal Chem 394, 15451556.

32 AP Neilson , JC George , EM Janle , et al. (2009) Influence of chocolate matrix composition on cocoa flavan-3-ol bioaccessibility in vitro and bioavailability in humans. J Agric Food Chem 57, 94189426.

35 H Schroeter , RR Holt , TJ Orozco , et al. (2003) Nutrition: milk and absorption of dietary flavanols. Nature 426, 787788, discussion 788.

38 M Serafini , R Bugianesi , G Maiani , et al. (2003) Plasma antioxidants from chocolate. Nature 424, 1013.

40 JI Ottaviani , TY Momma , C Heiss , et al. (2011) The stereochemical configuration of flavanols influences the level and metabolism of flavanols in humans and their biological activity in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med 50, 237244.

41 M Richelle , I Tavazzi , M Enslen , et al. (1999) Plasma kinetics in man of epicatechin from black chocolate. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 2226.

45 T Ooshima , A Izumitani , T Minami , et al. (1992) Noncariogenicity of maltitol in specific pathogen-free rats infected with mutans streptococci. Caries Res 26, 3337.

46 KB Miller , WJ Hurst , N Flannigan , et al. (2009) Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao. J Agric Food Chem 57, 91699180.

51 SA Riley , M Kim , F Sutcliffe , et al. (1992) Effects of a non-absorbable osmotic load on drug absorption in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 34, 4046.

53 JP Spencer , G Chowrimootoo , R Choudhury , et al. (1999) The small intestine can both absorb and glucuronidate luminal flavonoids. FEBS Lett 458, 224230.

54 XJ Tian , XW Yang , X Yang , et al. (2009) Studies of intestinal permeability of 36 flavonoids using Caco-2 cell monolayer model. Int J Pharm 367, 5864.

56 VY Njike , Z Faridi , K Shuval , et al. (2011) Effects of sugar-sweetened and sugar-free cocoa on endothelial function in overweight adults. Int J Cardiol 149, 8388.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 7
Total number of PDF views: 106 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 200 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.