1. Lewitt, M, Dent, M & Hall, K (2014) The insulin-like growth factor system in obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Med 3, 1561–1574.
2. Lewitt, MS, Hilding, A, Östenson, CG, et al. (2008) Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 in the prediction and development of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Swedish men. Diabetologia 51, 1135–1145.
3. Petersson, U, Östgren, CJ, Brudin, L, et al. (2009) Low levels of insulin-like growth-factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) are prospectively associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT): The Söderåkra Cardiovascular Risk Factor Study. Diabetes Metab 35, 198–205.
4. Rajpathak, SN, He, M, Sun, Q, et al. (2012) Insulin-like growth factor axis and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes 61, 2248–2254.
5. Drogan, D, Schulze, MB, Boeing, H, et al. (2016) Insulin-like growth factor 1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 in relation to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from the EPIC-Potsdam study. Am J Epidemiol 183, 553–560.
6. Lewitt, MS, Hilding, A, Brismar, K, et al. (2010) IGF-binding protein 1 and abdominal obesity in the development of type 2 diabetes in women. Eur J Endocrinol 163, 233–242.
7. Sandhu, MS, Heald, AH, Gibson, JM, et al. (2002) Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I and development of glucose intolerance: a prospective observational study. Lancet 359, 1740–1745.
8. Lewitt, MS (2017) The role of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor system in visceral adiposity. Biochem Insights 10, 1178626417703995.
9. Heaney, R, McCarron, DA, Dawson-Hughes, B, et al. (1999) Dietary changes favorably affect bone remodeling in older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 1228–1233.
10. Zhu, K, Meng, X, Kerr, DA, et al. (2011) The effects of a two-year randomized, controlled trial of whey protein supplementation on bone structure, IGF-1, and urinary calcium excretion in older postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 26, 2298–2306.
11. Beasley, J, Wedick, N, Rajpathak, S, et al. (2014) Circulating IGF-axis protein levels and their relation with levels of plasma adipocytokines and macronutrient consumption in women. Growth Horm IGF Res 24, 142–149.
12. Crowe, FL, Key, TJ, Allen, NE, et al. (2009) The association between diet and serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, 1333–1340.
13. Holmes, MD, Pollak, MN, Willett, WC, et al. (2002) Dietary correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 852–861.
14. Anonymous (1994) The Alpha-tocopherol, Beta-carotene Lung Cancer Prevention Study: design, methods, participant characteristics, and compliance. The ATBC Cancer Prevention Study Group. Ann Epidemiol 4, 1–10.10.1016/1047-2797(94)90036-1
15. Pietinen, P, Hartman, AM, Haapa, E, et al. (1988) Reproducibility and validity of dietary assessment instruments. I. A self-administered food use questionnaire with a portion size picture booklet. Am J Epidemiol 128, 655–666.
16. Kataja-Tuomola, M, Sundell, JR, Männistö, S, et al. (2008) Effect of α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation on the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 51, 47–53.
17. Koistinen, H, Koistinen, R, Selenius, L, et al. (1996) Effect of marathon run on serum IGF-I and IGF-binding protein 1 and 3 levels. J Appl Physiol 80, 760–764.
18. Koistinen, H, Seppälä, M & Koistinen, R (1994) Different forms of insulin-like growth factor binding-protein-3 detected in serum and seminal plasma by immunofluorometric assay with monoclonal antibodies. Clin Chem 40, 531–536.
19. R Core Team (2017) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/ (accessed January 2019).
20. Kotronen, A, Lewitt, M, Hall, K, et al. (2008) Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 as a novel specific marker of hepatic insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93, 4867–4872.
21. Fretts, AM, Follis, JL, Nettleton, JA, et al. (2015) Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 1266–1278.
22. Lau, C, Faerch, K, Glümer, C, et al. (2005) Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance: the Inter99 study. Diabetes Care 28, 1397–1403.
23. Breneman, CB & Tucker, L (2013) Dietary fibre consumption and insulin resistance – the role of body fat and physical activity. Br J Nutr 110, 375–383.
24. Larsson, SC, Männistö, S, Virtanen, MJ, et al. (2009) Dietary fiber and fiber-rich food intake in relation to risk of stroke in male smokers. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 1016–1024.10.1038/ejcn.2009.16
25. Weickert, MO & Pfeiffer, AFH (2018) Impact of dietary fiber consumption on insulin resistance and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 148, 7–12.
26. Tremblay, A & Gilbert, JA (2009) Milk products, insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 28, Suppl. 1, 91S–102S.
27. Sarem, Z, Bumke-Vogt, C, Mahmoud, AM, et al. (2017) Glucagon decreases IGF-1 bioactivity in humans, independently of insulin, by modulating its binding proteins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 102, 3480–3490.