Abreu, MT (2003) Immunologic regulation of toll-like receptors in gut epithelium. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 19, 559–564.
Abreu-Martin, MT & Targan, SR (1996) Regulation of immune responses of the intestinal mucosa. Crit Rev Immunol 16, 277–309.
Akira, Sh, Takeda, K & Kaisho, T (2001) Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity. Nat Immunol 2, 675–680.
Bach Knudsen, SE, Serena, A, Canibe, N & Juntunen, KS (2003) New insight into butyrate metabolism. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 81–86.
Bassonga, E, Forest, V, Pierre, F, Bornet, F, Perrin, P, Meflah, K & Menanteau, J (2001) Cytokine mRNA expression in mouse colon: IL-15 mRNA is overexpressed and is highly sensitive to a fibre-like dietary component (short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides) in an Apc gene manner. Cytokine 14, 243–246.
Bouhnik, Y, Vahedi, K, Achour, L, et al. (1999) Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide administration dose-dependently increases fecal bifidobacteria in healthy humans. J Nutr 129, 113–116.
Brown, AJ, Goldsworthy, SM, Barnes, AA, et al. (2003) The orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids. J Biol Chem 278, 11312–11319.
Brown, GD & Gordon, S (2001) A new receptor for β-glucans. Nature 413, 36–37.
Buddington, KK, Donahoo, JB & Buddington, RK (2002) Dietary oligofructose and inulin protect mice from enteric and systemic pathogens and tumor inducers. J Nutr 132, 472–477.
Bunout, D, Hirsch, S, de la Maza, MP, et al. (2002) Effects of prebiotics on the immune response to vaccination in the elderly. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 26, 372–376.
Calder, PC, Field, CJ & Gill, HS (2002) Nutrition and Immune Function, Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.
Cavaglieri, CR, Nishiyama, A, Fernandes, LC, Curi, R, Miles, EA & Calder, PC (2003) Differential effects of short-chain fatty acids on proliferation and production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by cultured lymphocytes. Life Sci 73, 1683–1690.
Cherayil, BJ (2003) How not to get bugged by bugs: mechanisms of cellular tolerance to microorganisms. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 19, 572–577.
Chiang, BL, Sheih, YH, Wang, LH, Liao, CK & Gill, HS (2000) Enhancing immunity by dietary consumption of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium ( Bifidobacterium lactis HN019): optimization and definition of cellular immune responses. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 849–855.
Delzenne, NM (2003) Oligosaccharides: state of the art. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 177–182.
Duggan, Ch, Penny, ME, Hibberd, P, Gil, A, Huapaya, A, Cooper, A, Coletta, F, Emenhiser, C & Kleinman, RE (2003) Oligofructose-supplemented infant cereal: 2 randomized, blinded, community-based trials in Peruvian infants. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 937–942.
Engelhardt, W, Busche, R, Gross, G & Rechkemmer, G (1991) Absorption of short chain fatty acids: mechanisms and regional differences in the large intestine. In Physiological and Clinical Aspects of Short-Chain Fatty Acids pp. 60–62 [Cummings, JH, Rombeau, JL and Sakata, T, editors]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Femia, AP, Luceri, C, Dolara, P, et al. (2002) Antitumorigenic activity of the prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Carcinogenesis 23, 1953–1960.
Field, CJ, McBurney, MI, Massimino, S, Hayek, MG & Sunvold, GD (1999) The fermentable fiber content of the diet alters the function and composition of canine gut associated lymphoid tissue. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 72, 325–341.
Flickinger, EA, Van Loo, J & Fahey, GC (2003) Nutritional responses to the presence of inulin and oligofructose in the diets of domesticated animals: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 43, 19–60.
Franck, A (2002) Technological functionality of inulin and oligofructose. Br J Nutr 87, S287–S291.
Fukushima, Y, Kawata, Y, Mizumachi, K, Kurisaki, J & Mitsuoka, T (1999) Effect of bifidobacteria feeding on fecal flora and production of immunoglobulins in lactating mouse. Int J Food Microbiol 46, 193–197.
Gaskins, HR, Mackie, RI, May, T & Garleb, KA (1996) Dietary fructo-oligosaccharide modulates large intestinal inflammatory responses to Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-compromised mice. Microb Ecol Health Dis 9, 157–166.
Gibson, GR & Roberfroid, MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125, 1401–1412.
Gibson, GR, Beatty, EB, Wang, X & Cummings, JH (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108, 975–982.
Grizard, D & Barthomeuf, Ch (1999) Non-digestible oligosaccharides used as prebiotic agents: mode of production and beneficial effects on animal and human health. Reprod Nutr Dev 39, 563–588.
Guigoz, Y, Rochat, F, Perruisseau-Carrier, G, Rochat, I & Schiffrin, EJ (2002) Effects of oligosaccharide on the faecal flora and non-specific immune system in elderly people. Nutr Res 22, 13–25.
Herich, R, Révajová, V, Levkut, M, Bomba, A, Nemcová, R, Guba, P & Gancarčiková, S (2002) The effect of Lactobacillus paracasei and Raftilose P95 upon the non-specific immune response of piglets. Food Agric Immunol 14, 171–179.
Herre, J, Gordon, S & Brown, GD (2004) Dectin-1 and its role in the recognition of β-glucans by macrophages. Mol Immunol 40, 869–876.
Hosono, A, Ozawa, A, Kato, R, Ohnishi, Y, Nakanishi, Y, Kimura, T, Nakamura, R (2003) Dietary fructooligosaccharides induce immunoregulation of intestinal IgA secretion by murine Peyer's patch cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67, 758–764.
Howard, MD, Gordon, DT, Garleb, KA & Kerley, MS (1995) Dietary fructooligosaccharide, xylooligosaccharide and gum arabic have variable effects on cecal and colonic microbiota and epithelial cell proliferation in mice and rats. J Nutr 125, 2604–2609.
Ichikawa, H, Shineha, R, Satomi, S & Sakata, T (2002) Gastric or rectal instillation of short-chain fatty acids stimulates epithelial cell proliferation of small and large intestine in rats. Dig Dis Sci 47, 1141–1146.
Iijima, H, Takahashi, I & Kiyono, H (2001) Mucosal immune network in the gut for the control of infectious diseases. Rev Med Virol 11, 117–133.
Inan, MS, Rasoulpour, RJ, Yin, L, Hubbard, RK, Rosenberg, DW & Giardina, C (2000) The luminal short-chain fatty acid butyrate modulates NF-kappaB activity in a human colonic epithelial cell line. Gastroenterology 118, 724–734.
Ishizaka, S, Kikuchi, E & Tsujii, T (1993) Effects of acetate on human immune system. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 15, 151–162.
Janeway, CA, Travers, P, Walport, W & Shlonichik, M (2001) Immunobiology. In The Immune System in Health and Disease, 5th ed. New York: Taylor & Francis Books.
Jankovic, D, Liu, Z & Gause, WC (2001) Th1- and Th2-cell commitment during infectious disease: asymmetry in divergent pathways. Trends Immunol 22, 450–457.
Kaur, N & Gupta, AK (2002) Applications of inulin and oligofructose in health and nutrition. J Biosci 27, 703–714.
Kelly-Quagliana, KA, Nelson, PD & Buddington, RK (2003) Dietary oligofructose and inulin modulate immune functions in mice. Nutr Res 23, 257–267.
Kripke, SA, Fox, AD, Berman, JM, Settle, RG & Rombeau, JL (1989) Stimulation of intestinal mucosal growth with intracolonic infusion of short-chain fatty acids. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 13, 109–116.
Kudoh, K, Shimizu, J, Wada, M, Takita, T, Kanke, Y & Innami, S (1998) Effect of indigestible saccharides on B lymphocyte response of intestinal mucosa and cecal fermentation in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 44, 103–112.
Kudoh, K, Shimizu, J, Ishiyama, A, Wada, M, Takita, T, Kanke, Y & Innami, S (1999) Secretion and excretion of immunoglobulin A to cecum and feces differ with type of indigestible saccharides. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 45, 173–181.
Kurita-Ochiai, T, Amano, S, Fukushima, K & Ochiai, K (2003) Cellular events involved in butyric acid-induced T cell apoptosis. J Immunol 171, 3576–3584.
Le Poul, E, Loison, C, Struyf, S, et al. (2003) Functional characterization of human receptors for short chain fatty acids and their role in polymorphonuclear cell activation. J Biol Chem 278, 25481–25489.
Lim, BO, Yamada, K, Nonaka, M, Kuramoto, Y, Hung, P & Sugano, M (1997) Dietary fibers modulate indices of intestinal immune function in rats. J Nutr 127, 663–667.
MacDonald, TT (2003) The mucosal immune system. Parasite Immunol 25, 235–246.
McGuirk, P & Mills, KHG (2002) Pathogen-specific regulatory T cells provoke a shift in the Th1/Th2 paradigm in immunity to infectious diseases. Trends Immunol 23, 450–455.
Manhart, N, Spittler, A, Bergmeister, H, Mittlböck, M & Roth, E (2003) Influence of fructooligosaccharides on Peyer's patch lymphocyte numbers in healthy and endotoxemic mice. Nutrition 19, 657–660.
Mowat, AMcI (2003) Anatomical basis of tolerance and immunity in intestinal antigens. Nat Rev Immunol 3, 331–341.
Mowat, AMcI & Viney, JL (1997) The anatomical basis of intestinal immunity. Immunol Rev 156, 145–166.
Murosaki, S, Muroyama, K, Yamamoto, Y, Kusaka, H, Liu, T & Yoshika, Y (1999) Immunopotentiating activity of nigerooligosaccharides for the T helper 1-like immune response in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 63, 373–378.
Nilsson, NE, Kotarsky, K, Owman, C & Olde, B (2003) Identification of a free fatty acid receptor, FFA2R, expressed on leucocytes and activated by short-chain fatty acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 303, 1047–1052.
Pierre, F, Perrin, P, Champ, M, Bornet, F, Meflah, K & Menanteau, J (1997) Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides reduce the occurrence of colon tumors and develop gut-associated lymphoid tissue in Min mice. Cancer Res 57, 225–228.
Pierre, F, Perrin, P, Bassonga, E, Bornet, F, Meflah, K & Menanteau, J (1999) T cell status influences colon tumor occurrence in Min mice fed short chain fructo-oligosaccharides as a diet supplement. Carcinogenesis 20, 1953–1956.
Pratt, VC, Tappenden, KA, McBurney, MI & Field, CJ (1996) Short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition improves nonspecific immunity after intestinal resection in rats. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 20, 264–271.
Qiao, H, Duffy, LC, Griffiths, E, Dryja, D, Leavens, A, Rossman, J, Rich, G, Riepenhoff-Talty, M & Locniskar, M (2002) Immune responses in rhesus rotavirus-challenged Balb/c mice treated with bifidobacteria and prebiotic supplements. Pediatr Res 51, 750–755.
Roller, M, Rechkemmer, G & Watzl, B (2004a) Prebiotic inulin enriched with oligofructose in combination with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis modulates intestinal immune functions in rats. J Nutr 134, 153–156.
Roller, M, Femia, AP, Caderni, G & Rechkemmer, G, Watzl, B (2004b) Intestinal immunity of rats with azoxymethane-induced colon cancer is modulated by inulim enriched with oligofructose combined with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium longis. Br J Nutr 92, 931–938.
Ross, GD & Větvička, V (1993) CR3 (CD11b, CD18): a phagocyte and NK cell membrane receptor with multiple ligand specificities and functions. Clin Exp Immunol 92, 181–184.
Säemann, MD, Böhmig, GA, Österreicher, CH, Burtscher, H, Parolini, O, Diakos, Ch, Stöckl, J, Hörl, WH & Zlabinger, GJ (2000) Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium butyrate on human monocytes: potent inhibition of IL-12 and up-regulation of IL-10 production. FASEB J 14, 2380–2382.
Schley, PD & Field, CJ (2002) The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fibres and prebiotics. Br J Nutr 87, S221–S230.
Schneeman, BO (1999) Fiber, inulin and oligofructose: similarities and differences. J Nutr 129, 1424S – 1427S.
Sehgal, G, Zhang, K, Todd, RF 3rd, Boxer, LA, Petty, HR (1993) Lectin-like inhibition of immune complex receptor-mediated stimulation of neutrophils. Effects on cytosolic calcium release and superoxide production. J Immunol 150, 4571–4580.
Sheih, YH, Chiang, BL, Wang, LH, Liao, CK & Gill, HS (2001) Systemic immunity-enhancing effects in healthy subjects following dietary consumption of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. J Am College Nutr 20, 149–156.
Spahn, TW & Kucharzik, T (2004) Modulating the intestinal immune system: the role of lymphotoxin and GALT organs. Gut 53, 456–465.
Speert, DP, Eftekhar, F & Puterman, ML (1984) Nonopsonic phagocytosis of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients. Infect Immun 43, 1006–1011.
Swanson, KS, Grieshop, ChM, Flickinger, EA, Bauer, LL, Healy, HP, Dawson, KA, Merchen, NR & Fahey, GC Jr (2002) Supplemental fructooligosaccharides and mannanoligosaccharides influence immune function, ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities, microbial populations and concentrations of protein catabolites in the large bowel of dogs. J Nutr 132, 980–989.
Takahashi, T, Nakagawa, E, Nara, T, Yajima, T & Kuwata, T (1998) Effects of orally ingested Bifidobacterium longum on the mucosal IgA response of mice to dietary antigens. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62, 10–15.
van Loo, J, Coussement, P, De Leenheer, L, Hoebregs, H & Smits, G (1995) On the presence of inulin and oligofructose as natural ingredients in the Western diet. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 35, 525–552.
van Loo, J, Cummings, J, Delzenne, N, et al. (1999) Functional food properties of non-digestible oligosaccharides: a consensus report from the ENDO project (DGXII AIRII-CT94-1095). Br J Nutr 81, 121–132.
Watzl, B, Bub, A, Blockhaus, M & Herbert, BM, Lührmann, PM, Neuhäuser-Berthold, M, Rechkemmer, G (2000) Prolonged tomato juice consumption has no effect on cell-mediated immunity of well-nourished elderly men and women. J Nutr 130, 1719–1723.
Wolever, TM, Josse, RG, Leiter, RA & Chiasson, JL (1997) Time of day and glucose tolerance status affect serum short-chain fatty acid concentrations in humans. Metabolism 46, 805–811.