Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-m42fx Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-22T08:54:50.789Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Patrice D. Cani
Unit of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Nutrition and Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium
Cédric Dewever
Unit of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Nutrition and Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium
Nathalie M. Delzenne*
Unit of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Nutrition and Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Université Catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium
Corresponding author: fax +32 2 764 73 59, Email
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]


Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

The hypothesis tested in the present study is that dietary fructans are able to modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in the control of food intake, namely glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 (7-36) amide and ghrelin. After 3 weeks of treatment with a standard diet (control) or the same diet enriched with 100 g fructans varying in their degrees of polymerization (oligofructose (OFS), Synergy 1 (Syn) or long chain inulin)/kg, male Wistar rats were deprived of food for 8 h before sample collection. Dietary energy intake throughout the experiment was significantly lower (P>0·05) in fructans-fed rats than in control rats, leading to a significant decrease (P>0·01) in epidydimal fat mass at the end of the treatment in OFS- and Syn-treated rats. GLP-1 (7-36) amide concentration in portal vein serum was higher in OFS- and Syn-fed than in control rats. Both GLP-1 (7-36) amide concentration and proglucagon mRNA concentrations were significantly greater (P>0·05) in the proximal colonic mucosa of fructans-fed rats v. controls. Normally active ghrelin concentration in plasma increases during food deprivation and rapidly falls during a meal. In the present study, after 8 h of food deprivation, active ghrelin in the plasma remained significantly lower (P>0·05) in OFS and Syn-fed than in control rats. These results are in accordance with the modifications of dietary intake and fat-mass development in short-chain fructans-treated rats and demonstrate the potential modulation of GLP-1 (7-36) amide and ghrelin by fermentable fibres such as fructans, which are rapidly and extensively fermented in the proximal part of the colon.

Research Article
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2004


American Diabetes AssociationNutrition recommendations and principles for people with diabetes mellitus Diabetes Care (2000) 23Suppl. 1 S43S46Google Scholar
Burcelin, R, Da Costa, A, Drucker, D&Thorens, BGlucose competence of the hepatoportal vein sensor requires the presence of an activated glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor Diabetes (2001) 50 17201728CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cao, X, Flock, G, Choi, C,Irwin, DM&Drucker, DJAberrant regulation of human intestinal proglucagon gene expression in the NCI-H716 cell line Endocrinology (2003) 144 20252033CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chomczynski, P&Sacchi, NSingle-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate–phenol–chloroform extraction Anal Biochem (1987) 162 156159CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cowley, MA, Smith, RG&Diano, SThe distribution and mechanism of action of ghrelin in the CNS demonstrates a novel hypothalamic circuit regulating energy homeostasis Neuron (2003) 37 649661CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daubioul, C, Rousseau, N, Demeure, R,Gallez, B, Taper, H, Declerck, B&Delzenne, NDietary fructans, but not cellulose, decrease triglyceride accumulation in the liver of obese Zucker falfa rats J Nutr (2002) 132 967973CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daubioul, CA, Taper, HS, De Wispelaere, LD&Delzenne, NMDietary oligofructose lessens hepatic steatosis, but does not prevent hypertriglyceridemia in obese zucker rats J Nutr (2000) 130 13141319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delzenne, NMOligosaccharides: state of the art Proc Nutr Soc (2003) 62 177182CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delzenne, NM&Williams, CMPrebiotics and lipid metabolism Curr Opin Lipidol (2002) 13 6167CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Djurhuus, CB, Hansen, TK, Gravholt, C, Orskov, L, Hosoda, H, Kangawa, K, Jorgensen, JO,Holst, JJ&Schmitz, OCirculating levels of ghrelin and GLP-1 are inversely related during glucose ingestion Horm Metab Res (2002) 34 411413CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flint, A, Raben, A, Astrup, A&Holst, JJGlucagon-like peptide 1 promotes satiety and suppresses energy intake in humans J Clin Invest (1998) 101 515520CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Franck, ATechnological functionality of inulin and oligofructose Br J Nutr (2002) 87 S287S291CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gee, JM, Lee-Finglas, W&Johnson, ITFermentable carbohydrate modulates postprandial enteroglucagon and gastrin release in rats Br J Nutr (1996) 75 757766CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kojima, M, Hosoda, H, Date, Y,Nakazato, M, Matsuo, H&Kangawa, KGhrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach Nature (1999) 402 656660CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kok, NN, Morgan, LM, Williams, CM, Roberfroid, MB, Thissen, JP&Delzenne, NMInsulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and insulin-like growth factor I as putative of the hypolipidemic effect of oligofructose in rats J Nutr (1998) 128 10991103CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lippl, F, Kircher, F, Erdmann, J, Allescher, HD&Schusdziarra, VEffect of GIP, GLP-1, insulin and gastrin on ghrelin release in the isolated rat stomach Regul Pept (2004) 119 9398CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Le Blay, G, Michel, C, Blottiere, HM&Cherbut, CEnhancement of butyrate production in the rat caecocolonic tract by long-term ingestion of resistant potato starch Br J Nutr (1999) 82 419426CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Massimino, SP, McBurney, MI, Field, CJ, Thomson, AB, Keelan, M, Hayek, MG&Sunvold, GDFermentable dietary fiber increases GLP-1 secretion and improves glucose homeostasis despite increased intestinal glucose transport capacity in healthy dogs J Nutr (1998) 128 17861793CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meier, JJ, Gallwitz, B, Schmidt, WE&Nauck, MAGlucagon-like peptide 1 as a regulator of food intake and body weight: therapeutic perspectives Eur J Pharmacol (2002) 440 269279CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Naslund, E, Barkeling, B, King, N, Gutniak, M, Blundell, JE, Holst, JJ, Rossner, S&Hellstrom, PMEnergy intake and appetite are suppressed by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in obese men Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord (1999) 23 304311CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nian, M, Gu, J, Irwin, DM&Drucker, DJHuman glucagon gene promoter sequences regulating tissue-specific versus nutrient-regulated gene expression Am J Physiol (2002) 282 R173R183Google ScholarPubMed
Nyman, MFermentation and bulking capacity of indigestible carbohydrates: the case of inulin and oligofructose Br J Nutr (2002) 87 S163S168CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Orskov, C, Bersani, M, Johnsen, AH, Hojrup, P&Holst, JJComplete sequences of glucagon-like peptide-1 from human and pig small intestine J Biol Chem (1989) 264 1282612829CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Philippe, J, Drucker, DJ, Chick, WL&Habener, JFTranscriptional regulation of genes encoding insulin, glucagon, and angiotensinogen by sodium butyrate in a rat islet cell line Mol Cell Biol (1987) 7 560563Google Scholar
Preitner, F, Ibberson, M&Franklin, IGluco-incretins control insulin secretion at multiple levels as revealed in mice lacking GLP-1 and GIP receptors J Clin Invest (2004) 113 635645CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reimer, RA&McBurney, MIDietary fiber modulates intestinal proglucagon messenger ribonucleic acid and postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin in rats Endocrinology (1996) 137 39483956CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Reimer, RA, Thomson, AB, Rajotte, RV, Basu, TK, Ooraikul, B&McBurney, MIA physiological level of rhubarb fiber increases proglucagon gene expression and modulates intestinal glucose uptake in rats J Nutr (1997) 127 19231928CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rocca, AS&Brubacker, PLRole of the vagus nerve in mediating proximal nutrient-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion Endocrinology (1999) 140 16871694CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tappenden, KA, Albin, DM, Bartholome, AL&Mangian, HFGlucagon-like peptide-2 and short-chain fatty acids: a new twist to an old story J Nutr (2003) 133 37173720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tappenden, KA, Drozdowski, LA, Thomson, AB&McBurney, MIShort-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition alters intestinal structure, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) mRNA and protein, and proglucagon mRNA abundance in normal rats Am J Clin Nutr (1998) 68 118125CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tschop, M, Smiley, DL&Heiman, MLGhrelin induces adiposity in rodents Nature (2000) 407 908913CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van Loo, J, Franck, A&Roberfroid, MFunctional food properties of non-digestible oligosaccharides – Reply Br J Nutr (1999) 82 32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vinik, AI&Jenkins, DJDietary fiber in management of diabetes Diabetes Care Rev (1988) 11 160173CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zander, M, Madsbad, S, Madsen, JL&Holst, JJEffect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study Lancet (2002) 359 824830CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed