Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter

  • Sarah C. Bath (a1), Michelle L. Sleeth (a1), Marianne McKenna (a1), Alan Walter (a1), Andrew Taylor (a1) and Margaret P. Rayman (a1)...

Abstract

As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid hormone production during pregnancy, women who are planning to become pregnant should ideally consume 150 μg iodine/d (US RDA). As few UK data exist for this population group, a cross-sectional study was carried out at the University of Surrey to assess the iodine intake and status of women of childbearing age. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24 h urine samples in fifty-seven women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90 % of ingested iodine was excreted. The average iodine intake was also estimated from 48 h food diaries that the participants completed. The median urinary iodine concentration value (63·1 μg/l) indicated the group to be mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24 h urinary iodine excretion value (149·8 μg/24 h) indicated a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. The median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 μg/d, whereas it was lower, at 123 μg/d, when estimated from the 48 h food diaries. Iodine intake estimated from the food diaries and 24 h urinary iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r 0·75, P< 0·001). The intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. The present study highlights the need for revised cut-off values for iodine deficiency that are method- and age group-specific.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Professor M. P. Rayman, fax +44 1483 686401, email m.rayman@surrey.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1 Zimmermann, MB (2009) Iodine deficiency. Endocr Rev 30, 376408.
2 Bath, SC, Steer, CD, Golding, J, et al. (2013) Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Lancet 382, 331337.
3 Hynes, KL, Otahal, P, Hay, I, et al. (2013) Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy is associated with reduced educational outcomes in the offspring: 9-year follow-up of the gestational iodine cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98, 19541962.
4 Glinoer, D (2007) The importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy. Public Health Nutr 10, 15421546.
5 Moleti, M, Di Bella, B, Giorgianni, G, et al. (2011) Maternal thyroid function in different conditions of iodine nutrition in pregnant women exposed to mild–moderate iodine deficiency: an observational study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 74, 762768.
6 Moleti, M, Lo Presti, VP, Campolo, MC, et al. (2008) Iodine prophylaxis using iodized salt and risk of maternal thyroid failure in conditions of mild iodine deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93, 26162621.
7 Food and Nutrition Board & Institute of Medicine (2001) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
8 Phillips, DI (1997) Iodine, milk, and the elimination of endemic goitre in Britain: the story of an accidental public health triumph. J Epidemiol Community Health 51, 391393.
9 de Benoist, B, McLean, E, Andersson, M, et al. (2008) Iodine deficiency in 2007: global progress since 2003. Food Nutr Bull 29, 195202.
10 Kibirige, MS, Hutchison, S, Owen, CJ, et al. (2004) Prevalence of maternal dietary iodine insufficiency in the north east of England: implications for the fetus. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 89, F436F439.
11 Barnett, C, Visser, T, Williams, F, et al. (2002) Inadequate iodine intake of 40 % of pregnant women from a region in Scotland. J Endocrinol Invest 25, Suppl. 7, 90.
12 Vanderpump, MP, Lazarus, JH, Smyth, PP, et al. (2011) Iodine status of UK schoolgirls: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet 377, 20072012.
13 Bath, SC, Walter, A, Taylor, A, et al. (2014) Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status. Br J Nutr 111, 16221631.
14 Pearce, EN, Lazarus, JH, Smyth, PP, et al. (2010) Perchlorate and thiocyanate exposure and thyroid function in first-trimester pregnant women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 32073215.
15 Thomson, CD, Colls, AJ, Conaglen, JV, et al. (1997) Iodine status of New Zealand residents as assessed by urinary iodide excretion and thyroid hormones. Br J Nutr 78, 901912.
16 Vejbjerg, P, Knudsen, N, Perrild, H, et al. (2009) Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies. Thyroid 19, 12811286.
17 WHO, UNICEF & ICCIDD (2007) Assessment of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Monitoring their Elimination, 3rd ed. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
18 Konig, F, Andersson, M, Hotz, K, et al. (2011) Ten repeat collections for urinary iodine from spot samples or 24-hour samples are needed to reliably estimate individual iodine status in women. J Nutr 141, 20492054.
19 Caldwell, KL, Makhmudov, A, Jones, RL, et al. (2005) EQUIP: a worldwide program to ensure the quality of urinary iodine procedures. Accred Qual Assur 10, 356361.
20 Food Standards Agency (2002) Food Portion Sizes, 3rd ed. London: The Stationary Office.
21 Als, C, Minder, C, Willems, D, et al. (2003) Quantification of urinary iodine: a need for revised thresholds. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 11811188.
22 Zimmermann, MB & Andersson, M (2012) Assessment of iodine nutrition in populations: past, present, and future. Nutr Rev 70, 553570.
23 Department of Health (1991) Report on Health and Social Subjects: Volume 41. Dietary Reference Values for Food, Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. London: The Stationery Office.
24 Beaton, GH (2006) When is an individual an individual versus a member of a group? an issue in the application of the dietary reference intakes. Nutr Rev 64, 211225.
25 Vandevijvere, S, Amsalkhir, S, Mourri, AB, et al. (2013) Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey. Br J Nutr 109, 22762284.
26 Aguayo, A, Grau, G, Vela, A, et al. (2013) Urinary iodine and thyroid function in a population of healthy pregnant women in the North of Spain. J Trace Elem Med Biol 27, 302306.
27 Raverot, V, Bournaud, C, Sassolas, G, et al. (2012) Pregnant French women in the Lyon area are iodine deficient and have elevated serum thyroglobulin concentrations. Thyroid 22, 522528.
28 NHS Choices (2011) Your health during pregnancy. Vitamins, minerals and special diets. In The Pregnancy Care Planner. http://www.nhs.uk/Planners/pregnancycareplanner/pages/Vitaminsmineralsdiets.aspx (accessed accessed 19 July 2011).
29 Crozier, SR, Robinson, SM, Godfrey, KM, et al. (2009) Women's dietary patterns change little from before to during pregnancy. J Nutr 139, 19561963.
30 Rasmussen, LB, Ovesen, L & Christiansen, E (1999) Day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 401407.
31 Rasmussen, LB, Ovesen, L, Bulow, I, et al. (2002) Dietary iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion in a Danish population: effect of geography, supplements and food choice. Br J Nutr 87, 6169.
32 Rasmussen, LB, Ovesen, L, Bulow, I, et al. (2001) Evaluation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate iodine intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 287292.
33 Bath, S, Button, S & Rayman, MP (2014) Availability of iodised table salt in the UK – is it likely to influence population iodine intake? Public Health Nutr 17, 450454.
34 Lazarus, JH & Smyth, PP (2008) Iodine deficiency in the UK and Ireland. Lancet 372, 888.
35 Livingstone, MB, Prentice, AM, Strain, JJ, et al. (1990) Accuracy of weighed dietary records in studies of diet and health. BMJ 300, 708712.
36 Henderson, L, Irving, K, Gregory, J, et al. (2003) The National Diet & Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. Volume 3: Vitamin and Mineral Intake and Urinary Analytes. London: HMSO.
37 Gunnarsdottir, I, Gustavsdottir, AG, Steingrimsdottir, L, et al. (2013) Iodine status of pregnant women in a population changing from high to lower fish and milk consumption. Public Health Nutr 16, 325329.
38 Rasmussen, LB, Carle, A, Jorgensen, T, et al. (2008) Iodine intake before and after mandatory iodization in Denmark: results from the Danish Investigation of Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases (DanThyr) study. Br J Nutr 100, 166173.
39 Soriguer, F, Garcia-Fuentes, E, Gutierrez-Repiso, C, et al. (2012) Iodine intake in the adult population. Di@bet.es study. Clin Nutr 31, 882888.
40 Datum, DC (2014) Kantar Worldpanel Liquid – Soya. http://www.dairyco.org.uk/resources-library/market-information/dairy-sales-consumption/kantar-worldpanel-liquid-milk-market/ (accessed 10 March 2014).
41 Brantsaeter, AL, Haugen, M, Thomassen, Y, et al. (2010) Exploration of biomarkers for total fish intake in pregnant Norwegian women. Public Health Nutr 13, 5462.
42 Johner, SA, Thamm, M, Nothlings, U, et al. (2013) Iodine status in preschool children and evaluation of major dietary iodine sources: a German experience. Eur J Nutr 52, 17111719.
43 Remer, T, Fonteyn, N, Alexy, U, et al. (2006) Longitudinal examination of 24-h urinary iodine excretion in schoolchildren as a sensitive, hydration status-independent research tool for studying iodine status. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 639646.
44 Bath, S & Rayman, MP (2011) Iodine deficiency in UK schoolgirls. Lancet 378, 1623, author reply 1624.
45 Charlton, KE, Batterham, MJ, Buchanan, LM, et al. (2014) Intraindividual variation in urinary iodine concentrations: effect of adjustment on population distribution using two and three repeated spot urine collections. BMJ Open 4, e003799.
46 Phillips, DI, Nelson, M, Barker, DJ, et al. (1988) Iodine in milk and the incidence of thyrotoxicosis in England. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 28, 6166.
47 Lee, SM, Lewis, J, Buss, DH, et al. (1994) Iodine in British foods and diets. Br J Nutr 72, 435446.
48 Wenlock, RW, Buss, DH, Moxon, RE, et al. (1982) Trace nutrients. 4. Iodine in British food. Br J Nutr 47, 381390.
49 Food Standards Agency (2008) Retail survey of iodine in UK produced dairy foods. FSIS 02/08. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/fsis0208.pdf (accessed 11 October 2010).
50 Bates, B, Lennox, A, Prentice, A, et al. (2012) NDNS Headline Results from Years 1, 2 and 3 (Combined) of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009–2010/2011). London: Food Standards Agency/Department of Health. http://media.dh.gov.uk/network/261/files/2012/07/NDNS-Y3-report_All-TEXT-docs-combined.pdf (accessed accessed 29 May 2013).

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed