Blumfield, ML, Hure, AJ, MacDonald-Wicks, LK, et al. (2012) Dietary balance during pregnancy is associated with fetal adiposity and fat distribution. Am J Clin Nutr
Moore, VM & Davies, MJ (2005) Diet during pregnancy, neonatal outcomes and later health. Reprod Fertil Dev
Maslova, E, Rytter, D, Bech, BH, et al. (2016) Maternal intake of fat in pregnancy and offspring metabolic health – a prospective study with 20 years of follow-up. Clin Nutr
Kjøllesdal, MKR & Holmboe-Ottesen, G (2014) Dietary patterns and birth weight – a review. AIMS Public Health
Brantsæter, AL, Haugen, M, Myhre, R, et al. (2014) Diet matters, particularly in pregnancy – Results from MoBa studies of maternal diet and pregnancy outcomes. Norsk Epidemiologi
Englund-Ögge, L, Brantsæter, AL, Sengpiel, V, et al. (2014) Maternal dietary patterns and preterm delivery: results from large prospective cohort study.
Chen, L-W, Wu, Y, Neelakantan, N, et al. (2014) Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with risk of low birth weight: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis. BMC Med.
Thompson, JMD, Wall, C, Becroft, DMO, et al. (2010) Maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy and the association with small-for-gestational-age infants. Br J Nutr
Klemmensen, Å, Tabor, A, Østerdal, ML, et al. (2009) Intake of vitamin C and E in pregnancy and risk of pre-eclampsia: prospective study among 57 346 women. BJOG
Haider, B, Yakoob, M & Bhutta, ZA (2011) Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes. BMC Public Health
11, Suppl. 3, S19.
Lu, W-P, Lu, M-S, Li, Z-H, et al. (2014) Effects of multimicronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on postnatal growth of children under 5 years of age: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLOS ONE
Alwan, NA, Greenwood, DC, Simpson, NAB, et al. (2011) Dietary iron intake during early pregnancy and birth outcomes in a cohort of British women. Hum Reprod
Kawai, K, Spiegelman, D, Shankar, AH, et al. (2011) Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation and pregnancy outcomes in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Bull World Health Organ
Fekete, K, Berti, C, Trovato, M, et al. (2012) Effect of folate intake on health outcomes in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation. J Nutr
Imdad, A & Bhutta, ZA (2012) Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes: effect of balanced protein-energy supplementation. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
26, Suppl. 1, 178–190.
Stevens, B, Buettner, P, Watt, K, et al. (2015) The effect of balanced protein energy supplementation in undernourished pregnant women and child physical growth in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Matern Child Nutr
Liberato, SC, Singh, G & Mulholland, K (2013) Effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth: a review of the literature focusing on contextual factors. Food Nutr Res
Blumfield, ML, Hure, AJ, Macdonald-Wicks, L, et al. (2012) Systematic review and meta-analysis of energy and macronutrient intakes during pregnancy in developed countries. Nutr Rev
von Ruesten, A, Brantsæter, AL, Haugen, M, et al. (2014) Adherence of pregnant women to Nordic dietary guidelines in relation to postpartum weight retention: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. BMC Public Health
Moore, VM, Davies, MJ, Willson, KJ, et al. (2004) Dietary composition of pregnant women is related to size of the baby at birth. J Nutr
Chong, MF-F, Chia, A-R, Colega, M, et al. (2015) Maternal protein intake during pregnancy is not associated with offspring birth weight in a multiethnic Asian population. J Nutr
CucÓ, G, Arija, V, Iranzo, R, et al. (2006) Association of maternal protein intake before conception and throughout pregnancy with birth weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
Lagiou, P, Tamimi, RM, Mucci, LA, et al. (2004) Diet during pregnancy in relation to maternal weight gain and birth size. Eur J Clin Nutr
Knudsen, VK, Orozova-Bekkevold, IM, Mikkelsen, TB, et al. (2007) Major dietary patterns in pregnancy and fetal growth. Eur J Clin Nutr
De Giuseppe, R, Roggi, C & Cena, H (2014)
n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation: effects on infant and maternal outcomes. Eur J Nutr
Imhoff-Kunsch, B, Briggs, V, Goldenberg, T, et al. (2012) Effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake during pregnancy on maternal, infant, and child health outcomes: a systematic review. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol
26, Suppl. 1, 91–107.
Oken, E, Kleinman, KP, Olsen, SF, et al. (2004) Associations of seafood and elongated n-3 fatty acid intake with fetal growth and length of gestation: results from a US pregnancy cohort. Am J Epidemiol
Szajewska, H, Horvath, A & Koletzko, B (2006) Effect of n–3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of women with low-risk pregnancies on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr
Mani, I, Dwarkanath, P, Thomas, T, et al. (2016) Maternal fat and fatty acid intake and birth outcomes in a South Indian population. Int J Epidemiol
Gardosi, J, Chang, A, Kalyan, B, et al. (1992) Customised antenatal growth charts. Lancet
Gardosi, J (2004) Customized fetal growth standards: rationale and clinical application. Semin Perinatol
Boylan, SCJ, Dolby, VA, Greenwood, DC, et al. (2010) Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal growth restriction: a large prospective observational study. BMJ
Greenwood, DC, Alwan, N, Boylan, S, et al. (2010) Caffeine intake during pregnancy, late miscarriage and stillbirth. Eur J Epidemiol
Alwan, NA, Greenwood, DC, Simpson, NA, et al. (2010) The relationship between dietary supplement use in late pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in British women. BJOG
Boylan, SM, Cade, JE, Kirk, SFL, et al. (2008) Assessing caffeine exposure in pregnant women. Br J Nutr
Holland, BWA, Unwin, ID, Buss, DH, et al. (1992) McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 5th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Cogswell, ME, Weisberg, P & Spong, C (2003) Cigarette smoking, alcohol use and adverse pregnancy outcomes: implications for micronutrient supplementation. J Nutr
Nykjaer, C, Alwan, NA, Greenwood, DC, et al. (2014) Maternal alcohol intake prior to and during pregnancy and risk of adverse birth outcomes: evidence from a British cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health
Clausson, B, Gardosi, J, Francis, A, et al. (2001) Perinatal outcome in SGA births defined by customised versus population-based birthweight standards. Br J Obstet Gynaecol
Pasupathy, D, McCowan, L, Poston, L, et al. (2011) Perinatal outcomes in large for gestational age infants; the use of absolute birth weight or customised birth weight centiles?
Am J Obstet Gynecol
Kroener, L, Wang, ET & Pisarska, MD (2016) Predisposing factors to abnormal first trimester placentation and the impact on fetal outcomes. Semin Reprod Med
Roberts, CT (2010) IFPA Award in Placentology Lecture: complicated interactions between genes and the environment in placentation, pregnancy outcome and long term health. Placenta
31, Suppl., S47–S53.
Smith, GCS (2004) First trimester origins of fetal growth impairment. Semin Perinatol
Brantsæter, AL, Olafsdottir, AS, Forsum, E, et al. (2012) Does milk and dairy consumption during pregnancy influence fetal growth and infant birthweight? A systematic literature review. Food Nutr Res
Walsh, J, Mahony, R, Byrne, J, et al. (2011) The association of maternal and fetal glucose homeostasis with fetal adiposity and birthweight. 159, 338–341.
Gabbe, SG & Quilligan, EJ (1977) Fetal carbohydrate metabolism: its clinical importance. Am J Obstet Gynecol
Hay, WW Jr. & Sparks, JW (1985) Placental, fetal, and neonatal carbohydrate metabolism. Clin Obstet Gynecol
Hay, WW (2006) Recent observations on the regulation of fetal metabolism by glucose. J Physiol
Langley-Evans, AJ & Langley-Evans, SC (2003) Relationship between maternal nutrient intakes in early and late pregnancy and infants weight and proportions at birth: prospective cohort study. J R Soc Promot Health
Kerssen, A, de Valk, HW & Visser, GHA (2007) Increased second trimester maternal glucose levels are related to extremely large-for-gestational-age infants in women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care
Butte, NF (2000) Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in pregnancy: normal compared with gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr
Combs, CA, Gunderson, E, Kitzmiller, JL, et al. (1992) Relationship of fetal macrosomia to maternal postprandial glucose control during pregnancy. Diabetes Care
Walsh, JM, McGowan, CA, Mahony, R, et al. (2012) Low glycaemic index diet in pregnancy to prevent macrosomia (ROLO study): randomised control trial. BMJ
Clapp, JF 3rd (2002) Maternal carbohydrate intake and pregnancy outcome. Proc Nutr Soc
Pedersen, J (1961) Pathogenesis of the characteristic features of newborn infants of diabetic women. In The Pregnant Diabetic and Her Newborn, pp. 128–137. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
Olsen, SF, Halldorsson, TI, Willett, WC, et al. (2007) Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr
Olmedo-Requena, R, Amezcua-Prieto, C, Luna-Del-Castillo, dJD, et al. (2016) Association between low dairy intake during pregnancy and risk of small-for-gestational-age infants. Matern Child Health
Bath, SC, Hill, S, Goenaga Infante, H, et al. (2017) Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows’ milk. Br J Nutr
Yang, Z & Huffman, SL (2011) Review of fortified food and beverage products for pregnant and lactating women and their impact on nutritional status. Matern Child Nutr
Rydbeck, F, Rahman, A, Grandér, M, et al. (2014) Maternal urinary iodine concentration up to 1.0 mg/L is positively associated with birth weight, length, and head circumference of male offspring. J Nutr
Andersen, SL, Olsen, J, Wu, CS, et al. (2013) Low birth weight in children born to mothers with hyperthyroidism and high birth weight in hypothyroidism, whereas preterm birth is common in both conditions: a Danish National Hospital Register Study. Eur Thyroid J
Xiao, Y, Sun, H, Li, C, et al. (2017) Effect of iodine nutrition on pregnancy outcomes in an iodine-sufficient area in China. Biol Trace Elem Res (epublication ahead of print version 2 August 2017).
Kovacs, CS (2014) Bone metabolism in the fetus and neonate. Pediatr Nephrol
Sabour, H, Hossein-Nezhad, A, Maghbooli, Z, et al. (2006) Relationship between pregnancy outcomes and maternal vitamin D and calcium intake: a cross-sectional study. Gynecol Endocrinol
Chiaffarino, F, Parazzini, F, Chatenoud, L, et al. (2006) Alcohol drinking and risk of small for gestational age birth. Eur J Clin Nutr
Windham, GC, Fenster, L, Hopkins, B, et al. (1995) The association of moderate maternal and paternal alcohol consumption with birthweight and gestational age. J Epidemiol
Nykjaer, C, Alwan, NA, Greenwood, DC, et al. (2013) Maternal alcohol intake up to and during pregnancy and risk of adverse birth outcomes: evidence from a British cohort. Lancet
Khan, IY, Dekou, V, Douglas, G, et al. (2005) A high-fat diet during rat pregnancy or suckling induces cardiovascular dysfunction in adult offspring. Am J Physiol
White, CL, Purpera, MN & Morrison, CD (2009) Maternal obesity is necessary for programming effect of high-fat diet on offspring. Am J Physiol
Newman, RE, Bryden, WL, Fleck, E, et al. (2002) Dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids alter avian metabolism: metabolism and abdominal fat deposition. Br J Nutr
Nuernberg, K, Breier, BH, Jayasinghe, SN, et al. (2011) Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes. Nutr Metab
Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values. A Guide. London: HMSO.
Chen, L-W, Tint, M-T, Fortier, MV, et al. (2016) Maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy is associated with neonatal abdominal adiposity: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study. J Nutr
Hartman, AM, Brown, CC, Palmgren, J, et al. (1990) Variability in nutrient and food intakes among older middle-aged men. Implications for design of epidemiologic and validation studies using food recording. Am J Epidemiol
Beer-Borst, S & Amadò, R (1995) Validation of a self-administered 24-hour recall questionnaire used in a large-scale dietary survey. Z Ernahrungswiss
Sharma, M, Rao, M, Jacob, S, et al. (1998) Validation of 24-hour dietary recall: a study in hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr
Karvetti, RL & Knuts, LR (1985) Validity of the 24-hour dietary recall. J Am Diet Assoc
Rose, G (2001) Sick individuals and sick populations. Int J Epidemiol
Deharveng URC, G, Slimani, N, Southgate, DAT, et al. (1998) Comparison of nutrients in the food composition tables available in the nine European countries participating in EPIC. Eur J Clin Nutr
Cowin, I & Emmett, P (1999) The effect of missing data in the supplements to McCance and Widdowson’s food tables on calculated nutrient intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr
Meltzer, HM, Brantsaeter, AL, Ydersbond, TA, et al. (2008) Methodological challenges when monitoring the diet of pregnant women in a large study: experiences from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Matern Child Nutr
Black, AE & Cole, TJ (2001) Biased over- or under-reporting is characteristic of individuals whether over time or by different assessment methods. J Am Diet Assoc
Brantsaeter, AL, Haugen, M, Alexander, J, et al. (2008) Validity of a new food frequency questionnaire for pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Matern Child Nutr
Byers, T (2001) Food frequency dietary assessment: how bad is good enough?
Am J Epidemiol
Hebert, JR, Clemow, L, Pbert, L, et al. (1995) Social desirability bias in dietary self-report may compromise the validity of dietary intake measures. Int J Epidemiol