The present cross-sectional study set out to determine the nutritional status of infants aged 0–3 months with the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference (WHO-MGR) and examine the relationship between undernutrition and congenital or early-onset sensorineural hearing loss (CESHL) rarely reported for developing countries. The nutritional status of all infants attending community-based clinics for routine Bacille de Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation from July 2005 to December 2006 was determined by weight-for-age, weight-for-length and BMI-for-age based on the WHO-MGR. Hearing loss status was determined by tympanometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) and visual response audiometry after a two-stage screening with transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and automated ABR. The relationship between nutritional status and CESHL were explored after adjusting for potentially confounding maternal and infant characteristics using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Of the 3386 infants who completed the hearing evaluation protocol, seventy-one were confirmed with hearing loss (>30 dB hearing level). More than one-third (37·9 %) of all infants and over half (54·9 %) of those with CESHL were undernourished by at least one measure of growth. Stunting (35·3 %) was the most prevalent nutritional deficit in infants with CESHL. In the final logistic model, infants with any undernourished physical state were significantly likely to have CESHL (OR 1·67; 95 % CI 1·03, 2·77) and of a severe-to-profound degree (OR 3·92; 95 % CI 1·38, 11·17) compared with infants without any undernourishment. Prospective studies to establish the full spectrum of the relationship between undernutrition and CESHL, particularly in resource-poor countries, are therefore warranted.
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