Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 19
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ma, Xianyong Jiang, Zongyong Zhang, Jian Hu, Youjun Gao, Kaiguo Wang, Li and Yang, Xuefen 2015. Isoflavone Ameliorates H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> Induced Injury by Activating the Antioxidant System of Sow Mammary Gland Cell. Natural Science, Vol. 07, Issue. 12, p. 571.


    Mocanu, Maria-Magdalena Nagy, Péter and Szöllősi, János 2015. Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer by Dietary Polyphenols. Molecules, Vol. 20, Issue. 12, p. 22578.


    Ahmad, Asif Hayat, Imran Arif, Sara Masud, Tariq Khalid, Nauman and Ahmed, Anwaar 2014. Mechanisms Involved in the Therapeutic Effects of Soybean (Glycine Max). International Journal of Food Properties, Vol. 17, Issue. 6, p. 1332.


    Chen, Wei Lin, Ying Cai Ma, Xian Yong Jiang, Zong Yong and Lan, Si Ping 2014. High concentrations of genistein exhibit pro-oxidant effects in primary muscle cells through mechanisms involving 5-lipoxygenase-mediated production of reactive oxygen species. Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 67, p. 72.


    Magee, Pamela J. Allsopp, Philip Samaletdin, Adile and Rowland, Ian R. 2014. Daidzein, R-(+)equol and S-(−)equol inhibit the invasion of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells potentially via the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 53, Issue. 1, p. 345.


    Pudenz, Maria Roth, Kevin and Gerhauser, Clarissa 2014. Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention. Nutrients, Vol. 6, Issue. 10, p. 4218.


    Tsuboy, Marcela S. Marcarini, Juliana C. de Souza, Alecsandra O. de Paula, Natália A. Dorta, Daniel J. Mantovani, Mário S. and Ribeiro, Lucia R. 2014. Genistein at Maximal Physiologic Serum Levels Induces G0/G1 Arrest in MCF-7 and HB4a Cells, But Not Apoptosis. Journal of Medicinal Food, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 218.


    Sikka, Sakshi Chen, Luxi Sethi, Gautam and Kumar, Alan Prem 2012. Targeting PPARγSignaling Cascade for the Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer. PPAR Research, Vol. 2012, p. 1.


    Yuan, Bo Wang, Linglan Jin, Yi Zhen, Huijuan Xu, Pingwei Xu, Youjun Li, Chibing and Xu, Haiyan 2012. Role of Metabolism in the Effects of Genistein and Its Phase II Conjugates on the Growth of Human Breast Cell Lines. The AAPS Journal, Vol. 14, Issue. 2, p. 329.


    Yuan, Bo Zhen, Huijuan Jin, Yi Xu, Li Jiang, Xue Sun, Shuaiting Li, Chibing and Xu, Haiyan 2012. Absorption and Plasma Disposition of Genistin Differ from Those of Genistein in Healthy Women. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 60, Issue. 6, p. 1428.


    Possemiers, Sam Bolca, Selin Verstraete, Willy and Heyerick, Arne 2011. The intestinal microbiome: A separate organ inside the body with the metabolic potential to influence the bioactivity of botanicals. Fitoterapia, Vol. 82, Issue. 1, p. 53.


    Blay, M. Espinel, A.E. Delgado, M.A. Baiges, I. Bladé, C. Arola, L. and Salvadó, J. 2010. Isoflavone effect on gene expression profile and biomarkers of inflammation. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Vol. 51, Issue. 2, p. 382.


    Fardet, Anthony 2010. New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre?. Nutrition Research Reviews, Vol. 23, Issue. 01, p. 65.


    Ferreira, Ângela CB Hochman, Bernardo Furtado, Fabianne Bonatti, Silvilena and Ferreira, Lydia M 2010. Keloids: a new challenge for nutrition. Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 68, Issue. 7, p. 409.


    Han, Hongyu Zhong, Caiyun Zhang, Xuchao Liu, Ranyi Pan, Meixia Tan, Li Li, Yan Wu, Jiangxue Zhu, Yinghui and Huang, Wenlin 2010. Genistein Induces Growth Inhibition and G2/M Arrest in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells. Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 62, Issue. 5, p. 641.


    Shinkaruk, Svitlana Carreau, Charlotte Flouriot, Gilles Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine and Potier, Mylène 2010. Comparative Effects of R- and S-equol and Implication of Transactivation Functions (AF-1 and AF-2) in Estrogen Receptor-Induced Transcriptional Activity. Nutrients, Vol. 2, Issue. 3, p. 340.


    Rostagno, M.A. Villares, A. Guillamón, E. García-Lafuente, A. and Martínez, J.A. 2009. Sample preparation for the analysis of isoflavones from soybeans and soy foods. Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1216, Issue. 1, p. 2.


    Tomás-Barberán, F.A. Gil-Izquierdo, A. and Moreno, D.A. 2009. Designing Functional Foods.


    Scalbert, Augustin and Knasmüller, Siegfried 2008. Genomic effects of phytochemicals and their implication in the maintenance of health. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 99, Issue. E-S1,


    ×

Isoflavones and the prevention of breast and prostate cancer: new perspectives opened by nutrigenomics

  • Claudia Steiner (a1), Stéphanie Arnould (a2), Augustin Scalbert (a1) and Claudine Manach (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114508965788
  • Published online: 01 May 2008
Abstract

Epidemiological evidence together with preclinical data from animal and in vitro studies strongly support a correlation between soy isoflavone consumption and protection towards breast and prostate cancers. The biological processes modulated by isoflavones, and especially by genistein, have been extensively studied, yet without leading to a clear understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of action involved. This review discusses the existing gaps in our knowledge and evaluates the potential of the new nutrigenomic approaches to improve the study of the molecular effects of isoflavones. Several issues need to be taken into account for the proper interpretation of the results already published for isoflavones. Too often knowledge on isoflavone bioavailability is not taken into account; supra-physiological doses are frequently used. Characterization of the individual variability as defined by the gut microflora composition and gene polymorphisms may also help to explain the discrepancies observed so far in the clinical studies. Finally, the complex inter-relations existing between tissues and cell types as well as cross-talks between metabolic and signalling pathways have been insufficiently considered. By appraising critically the abundant literature with these considerations in mind, the mechanisms of action that are the more likely to play a role in the preventive effects of isoflavones towards breast and prostate cancers are reviewed. Furthermore, the new perspectives opened by the use of genetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches are highlighted.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Isoflavones and the prevention of breast and prostate cancer: new perspectives opened by nutrigenomics
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Isoflavones and the prevention of breast and prostate cancer: new perspectives opened by nutrigenomics
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Isoflavones and the prevention of breast and prostate cancer: new perspectives opened by nutrigenomics
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: C. Manach, fax +33 473 62 46 38, email manach@clermont.inra.fr
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1M Messina , C Nagata & AH Wu (2006) Estimated Asian adult soy protein and isoflavone intakes. Nutr Cancer 55, 112.

2MJ Messina (2003) Emerging evidence on the role of soy in reducing prostate cancer risk. Nutr Rev 61, 117131.

5AW Hsing , L Tsao & SS Devesa (2000) International trends and patterns of prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Int J Cancer 85, 6067.

6H Shimizu , RK Ross , L Bernstein , R Yatani , BE Henderson & TM Mack (1991) Cancers of the prostate and breast among Japanese and white immigrants in Los Angeles County. Br J Cancer 63, 963966.

7LS Cook , M Goldoft , SM Schwartz & NS Weiss (1999) Incidence of adenocarcinoma of the prostate in Asian immigrants to the United States and their descendants. J Urol 161, 152155.

8HG Sim & CWS Cheng (2005) Changing demography of prostate cancer in Asia. Eur J Cancer 41, 834845.

9L Yan & EL Spitznagel (2005) Meta-analysis of soy food and risk of prostate cancer in men. Int J Cancer 117, 667669.

10BJ Trock , L Hilakivi-Clarke & R Clarke (2006) Meta-analysis of soy intake and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 459471.

12AH Wu , P Wan , J Hankin , CC Tseng , MC Yu & MC Pike (2002) Adolescent and adult soy intake and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. Carcinogenesis 23, 14911496.

15M Messina , W McCaskill-Stevens & JW Lampe (2006) Addressing the soy and breast cancer relationship: review, commentary, and workshop proceedings. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 12751284.

16GF Maskarinec , AE Williams & L Carlin (2003) Mammographic densities in a one-year isoflavone intervention. Eur J Cancer Prev 12, 165169.

18C Atkinson , RML Warren , E Sala , M Dowsett , AM Dunning , CS Healey , S Runswick , NE Day & SA Bingham (2004) Red clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ISRCTN42940165. Breast Cancer Res 6, R170R179.

20RS Rosenberg Zand , DJ Jenkins & EP Diamandis (2002) Flavonoids and steroid hormone-dependent cancers. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 777, 219232.

24SM Heinonen , A Hoikkala , K Wahala & H Adlercreutz (2003) Metabolism of the soy isoflavones daidzein, genistein and glycitein in human subjects. Identification of new metabolites having an intact isoflavonoid skeleton. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 87, 285299.

25SM Heinonen , K Wahala , KH Liukkonen , AM Aura , K Poutanen & H Adlercreutz (2004) Studies of the in vitro intestinal metabolism of isoflavones aid in the identification of their urinary metabolites. J Agric Food Chem 52, 26402646.

26CE Rufer , H Glatt & SE Kulling (2006) Structural elucidation of hydroxylated metabolites of the isoflavan equol by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Drug Metab Dispos 34, 5160.

30H Akaza , N Miyanaga , N Takashima , S Naito , Y Hirao , T Tsukamoto , T Fujioka , M Mori , WJ Kim , JM Song & AJ Pantuck (2004) Comparisons of percent equol producers between prostate cancer patients and controls: case-controlled studies of isoflavones in Japanese, Korean and American residents. Jpn J Clin Oncol 34, 8689.

32CL Frankenfeld , A McTiernan , SS Tworoger , C Atkinson , WK Thomas , FZ Stanczyk , SM Marcovina , DS Weigle , NS Weiss , VL Holt , SM Schwartz & JW Lampe (2004) Serum steroid hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations, and urinary hydroxylated estrogen metabolites in post-menopausal women in relation to daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 88, 399408.

35MD Niculescu , EA Pop , LM Fischer & SH Zeisel (2007) Dietary isoflavones differentially induce gene expression changes in lymphocytes from postmenopausal women who form equol as compared with those who do not. J Nutr Biochem 18, 380390.

36F Li , MAJ Hullar & JW Lampe (2007) Optimization of terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of human gut microbiota. J Microbiol Methods 68, 303311.

37K Dettmer , PA Aronov & BD Hammock (2007) Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Mass Spectrom Rev 26, 5178.

38J Kaput & RL Rodriguez (2004) Nutritional genomics: the next frontier in the postgenomic era. Physiol Genomics 16, 166177.

39M Hedelin , KA Balter , ET Chang , R Bellocco , A Klint , JE Johansson , F Wiklund , C Thellenberg-Karlsson , HO Adami & H Gronberg (2006) Dietary intake of phytoestrogens, estrogen receptor-beta polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate 66, 15121520.

41DR Rhodes , JJ Yu , K Shanker , N Deshpande , R Varambally , D Ghosh , T Barrette , A Pandey & AM Chinnaiyan (2004) Large-scale meta-analysis of cancer microarray data identifies common transcriptional profiles of neoplastic transformation and progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 93099314.

42NS Azad , N Rasool , CM Annunziata , L Minasian , G Whiteley & EC Kohn (2006) Proteomics in clinical trials and practice – present uses and future promise. Mol Cell Proteomics 5, 18191829.

44A Calvo , O Gonzalez-Moreno , CY Yoon , JI Huh , K Desai , QT Nguyen & JE Green (2005) Prostate cancer and the genomic revolution: advances using microarray analyses. Mutat Res 576, 6679.

45KW Jordan & LL Cheng (2007) NMR-based metabolomics approach to target biomarkers for human prostate cancer. Expert Rev Proteomics 4, 389400.

47WB Murrill , NM Brown , JX Zhang , PA Manzolillo , S Barnes & CA Lamartiniere (1996) Prepubertal genistein exposure suppresses mammary cancer and enhances gland differentiation in rats. Carcinogenesis 17, 14511457.

49L Hilakivi-Clarke , I Onojafe , M Raygada , E Cho , T Skaar , I Russo & R Clarke (1999) Prepubertal exposure to zearalenone or genistein reduces mammary tumorigenesis. Br J Cancer 80, 16821688.

50CA Lamartiniere (2002) Timing of exposure and mammary cancer risk. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 7, 6776.

51A Cabanes , M Wang , S Olivo , S DeAssis , JA Gustafsson , G Khan & L Hilakivi-Clarke (2004) Prepubertal estradiol and genistein exposures up-regulate BRCA1 mRNA and reduce mammary tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 25, 741748, Epub 2004 Jan 2016.

57YH Ju , KF Allred , CD Allred & WG Helferich (2006) Genistein stimulates growth of human breast cancer cells in a novel, postmenopausal animal model, with low plasma estradiol concentrations. Carcinogenesis 27, 12921299.

58JH Yang , H Nakagawa , K Tsuta & A Tsubura (2000) Influence of perinatal genistein exposure on the development of MNU-induced mammary carcinoma in female Sprague–Dawley rats. Cancer Lett 149, 171179.

59Y Su , RR Eason , Y Geng , SR Till , TM Badger & RCM Simmen (2007) In utero exposure to maternal diets containing soy protein isolate, but not genistein alone, protects young adult rat offspring from NMU-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 28, 10461051.

60E Padilla-Banks , WN Jefferson & RR Newbold (2006) Neonatal exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein alters mammary gland growth and developmental programming of hormone receptor levels. Endocrinology 147, 48714882.

61DC Dolinoy , JR Weidman , RA Waterland & RL Jirtle (2006) Maternal genistein alters coat color and protects A(vy) mouse offspring from obesity by modifying the fetal epigenome. Environ Health Perspect 114, 567572.

64CA Lamartiniere , J Wang , M Smith-Johnson & IE Eltoum (2002) Daidzein: bioavailability, potential for reproductive toxicity, and breast cancer chemoprevention in female rats. Toxicol Sci 65, 228238.

65YH Ju , J Fultz , KF Allred , DR Doerge & WG Helferich (2006) Effects of dietary daidzein and its metabolite, equol, at physiological concentrations on the growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) tumors implanted in ovariectomized athymic mice. Carcinogenesis 27, 856863.

66CD Allred , KF Allred , YH Ju , TS Goeppinger , DR Doerge & WG Helferich (2004) Soy processing influences growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors. Carcinogenesis 25, 16491657.

67T Ohta , S Nakatsugi , K Watanabe , T Kawamori , F Ishikawa , M Morotomi , S Sugie , T Toda , T Sugimura & K Wakabayashi (2000) Inhibitory effects of bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis, with a partial contribution of its component isoflavones. Carcinogenesis 21, 937941.

68C Wang & MS Kurzer (1998) Effects of phytoestrogens on DNA synthesis in MCF-7 cells in the presence of estradiol or growth factors. Nutr Cancer 31, 90100.

69JC Le Bail , Y Champavier , AJ Chulia & G Habrioux (2000) Effects of phytoestrogens on aromatase, 3 beta and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and human breast cancer cells. Life Sci 66, 12811291.

71SJ Hong , SI Kim , SM Kwon , JR Lee & BC Chung (2002) Comparative study of concentration of isoflavones and lignans in plasma and prostatic tissues of normal control and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Yonsei Med J 43, 236241.

72A Rannikko , A Petas , S Rannikko & H Adlercreutz (2006) Plasma and prostate phytoestrogen concentrations in prostate cancer patients after oral phytoestogen supplementation. Prostate 66, 8287.

73MS Morton , PS Chan , C Cheng , N Blacklock , A Matos-Ferreira , L Abranches-Monteiro , R Correia , S Lloyd & K Griffiths (1997) Lignans and isoflavonoids in plasma and prostatic fluid in men: samples from Portugal, Hong Kong, and the United Kingdom. Prostate 32, 122128.

75J Maubach , HT Depypere , J Goeman , J Van Der Eycken , A Heyerick , ME Bracke , P Blondeel & D De Keukeleire (2004) Distribution of soy-derived phytoestrogens in human breast tissue and biological fluids. Obstet Gynecol 103, 892898.

76ZC Dang , V Audinot , SE Papapoulos , JA Boutin & CW Lowik (2003) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) as a molecular target for the soy phytoestrogen genistein. J Biol Chem 278, 962967.

81R Turner , T Baron , S Wolffram , AM Minihane , A Cassidy , G Rimbach & PD Weinberg (2004) Effect of circulating forms of soy isoflavones on the oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res 38, 209216.

82G Rimbach , PD Weinberg , S de Pascual-Teresa , MG Alonso , BA Ewins , R Turner , AM Minihane , N Botting , B Fairley , S Matsugo , Y Uchida & A Cassidy (2004) Sulfation of genistein alters its antioxidant properties and its effect on platelet aggregation and monocyte and endothelial function. Biochim Biophys Acta 1670, 229237.

83F Pizzagalli , Z Varga , RD Huber , G Folkers , PJ Meier & MV St-Pierre (2003) Identification of steroid sulfate transport processes in the human mammary gland. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 39023912.

85MF McCarty (2006) Isoflavones made simple – genistein's agonist activity for the beta-type estrogen receptor mediates their health benefits. Med Hypotheses 66, 10931114.

86FH Sarkar & YW Li (2004) Cell signaling pathways altered by natural chemopreventive agents. Mutat Res 555, 5364.

87K Pettersson & JA Gustafsson (2001) Role of estrogen receptor beta in estrogen action. Annu Rev Physiol 63, 165192.

88MK Lindberg , S Moverare , S Skrtic , H Gao , K Dahlman-Wright , JA Gustafsson & C Ohlsson (2003) Estrogen receptor (ER)-beta reduces ER alpha-regulated gene transcription, supporting a ‘Ying Yang’ relationship between ER alpha and ER beta in mice. Mol Endocrinol 17, 203208.

89MM Liu , C Albanese , CM Anderson , K Hilty , P Webb , RM Uht , RH Price , RG Pestell & PJ Kushner (2002) Opposing action of estrogen receptors alpha and beta on cyclin D1 gene expression. J Biol Chem 277, 2435324360.

92KA Power & LU Thompson (2003) Ligand-induced regulation of ERalpha and ERbeta is indicative of human breast cancer cell proliferation. Breast Cancer Res Treat 81, 209221.

94D Gallo , S Giacomelli , F Cantelmo , GF Zannoni , G Ferrandina , E Fruscella , A Riva , P Morazzoni , E Bombardelli , S Mancuso & G Scambia (2001) Chemoprevention of DMBA-induced mammary cancer in rats by dietary soy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 69, 153164.

95A Dalu , BS Blaydes , CW Bryant , JR Latendresse , CC Weis & K Barry Delclos (2002) Estrogen receptor expression in the prostate of rats treated with dietary genistein. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 777, 249260.

96WA Fritz , J Wang , IE Eltoum & CA Lamartiniere (2002) Dietary genistein down-regulates androgen and estrogen receptor expression in the rat prostate. Mol Cell Endocrinol 186, 8999.

97J Wang , IE Eltoum & CA Lamartiniere (2007) Genistein chemoprevention of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice. J Carcinog 6, 3.

98G Kuiper , B Carlsson , K Grandien , E Enmark , J Haggblad , S Nilsson & JA Gustafsson (1997) Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Endocrinology 138, 863870.

99GG Kuiper , JG Lemmen , B Carlsson , JC Corton , SH Safe , PT van der Saag , B van der Burg & JA Gustafsson (1998) Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology 139, 42524263.

100J Matthews & JA Gustafsson (2003) Estrogen signaling: a subtle balance between ERalpha and ERbeta. Mol Interv 3, 281292.

101ACW Pike , AM Brzozowski & RE Hubbard (2000) A structural biologist's view of the oestrogen receptor. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 74, 261268.

102K Morito , T Hirose , J Kinjo , T Hirakawa , M Okawa , T Nohara , S Ogawa , S Inoue , M Muramatsu & Y Masamune (2001) Interaction of phytoestrogens with estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Biol Pharm Bull 24, 351356.

103D Kostelac , G Rechkemmer & K Briviba (2003) Phytoestrogens modulate binding response of estrogen receptors alpha and beta to the estrogen response element. J Agric Food Chem 51, 76327635.

104JL Limer & V Speirs (2004) Phyto-oestrogens and breast cancer chemoprevention. Breast Cancer Res 6, 119127.

105M Maggiolini , A Vivacqua , A Carpino , D Bonofiglio , G Fasanella , M Salerno , D Picard & S Ando (2002) The mutant androgen receptor T877A mediates the proliferative but not the cytotoxic dose-dependent effects of genistein and quercetin on human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol 62, 10271035.

106L Fioravanti , V Cappelletti , P Miodini , E Ronchi , M Brivio & G Di Fronzo (1998) Genistein in the control of breast cancer cell growth: insights into the mechanism of action in vitro. Cancer Lett 130, 143152.

107CE Wood , TC Register , AA Franke , MS Anthony & JM Cline (2006) Dietary soy isoflavones inhibit estrogen effects in the postmenopausal breast. Cancer Res 66, 12411249.

108TT Wang , N Sathyamoorthy & JM Phang (1996) Molecular effects of genistein on estrogen receptor mediated pathways. Carcinogenesis 17, 271275.

109N Sathyamoorthy & TT Wang (1997) Differential effects of dietary phyto-oestrogens daidzein and equol on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Eur J Cancer 33, 23842389.

110DF Hargreaves , CS Potten , C Harding , LE Shaw , MS Morton , SA Roberts , A Howell & NJ Bundred (1999) Two-week dietary soy supplementation has an estrogenic effect on normal premenopausal breast. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 40174024.

113J Bektic , AP Berger , K Pfeil , G Dobler , G Bartsch & H Klocker (2004) Androgen receptor regulation by physiological concentrations of the isoflavonoid genistein in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells is mediated by estrogen receptor beta. Eur Urol 45, 245251, discussion 251.

114S Gao , GZ Liu & ZX Wang (2004) Modulation of androgen receptor-dependent transcription by resveratrol and genistein in prostate cancer cells. Prostate 59, 214225.

116JN Davis , O Kucuk & FH Sarkar (2002) Expression of prostate-specific antigen is transcriptionally regulated by genistein in prostate cancer cells. Mol Carcinog 34, 91101.

118KS Weber , KDR Setchell , DM Stocco & ED Lephart (2001) Dietary soy-phytoestrogens decrease testosterone levels and prostate weight without altering LH, prostate 5 alpha-reductase or testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory peptide levels in adult male Sprague–Dawley rats. J Endocrinol 170, 591599.

119JR Zhou , LY Yu , Y Zhong , RL Nassr , AA Franke , SM Gaston & GL Blackburn (2002) Inhibition of orthotopic growth and metastasis of androgen-sensitive human prostate tumors in mice by bioactive soybean components. Prostate 53, 143153.

120TD Lund , DJ Munson , ME Haldy , KDR Setchell , ED Lephart & RJ Handa (2004) Equol is a novel anti-androgen that inhibits prostate growth and hormone feedback. Biol Reprod 70, 11881195.

122S Makela , M Poutanen , J Lehtimaki , ML Kostian , R Santti & R Vihko (1995) Estrogen-specific 17-beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase type-1 (Ec-1.1.1.62) as a possible target for the action of phytoestrogens. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 208, 5159.

123SA Whitehead & S Rice (2006) Endocrine-disrupting chemicals as modulators of sex steroid synthesis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 20, 4561.

124YC Kao , C Zhou , M Sherman , CA Laughton & S Chen (1998) Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: a site-directed mutagenesis study. Environ Health Perspect 106, 8592.

125S Makela , M Poutanen , ML Kostian , N Lehtimaki , L Strauss , R Santti & R Vihko (1998) Inhibition of 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase by flavonoids in breast and prostate cancer cells. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 217, 310316.

126BA Evans , K Griffiths & MS Morton (1995) Inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase in genital skin fibroblasts and prostate tissue by dietary lignans and isoflavonoids. J Endocrinol 147, 295302.

127CJ Kirk , RM Harris , DM Wood , RH Waring & PJ Hughes (2001) Do dietary phytoestrogens influence susceptibility to hormone-dependent cancer by disrupting the metabolism of endogenous oestrogens? Biochem Soc Trans 29, 209216.

128CK Wong & WM Keung (1997) Daidzein sulfoconjugates are potent inhibitors of sterol sulfatase (EC 3.1.6.2). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 233, 579583.

129RM Harris , DM Wood , L Bottomley , S Blagg , K Owen , PJ Hughes , RH Waring & CJ Kirk (2004) Phytoestrogens are potent inhibitors of estrogen sulfation: implications for breast cancer risk and treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 17791787.

130NB Kumar , A Cantor , K Allen , D Riccardi & CE Cox (2002) The specific role of isoflavones on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Cancer 94, 11661174.

133Y Mousavi & H Adlercreutz (1993) Genistein is an effective stimulator of sex-hormone binding globulin production in hepatocarcinoma human liver-cancer cells and suppresses proliferation of these cells in culture. Steroids 58, 301304.

134CE Wood , TC Register & JM Cline (2007) Soy isoflavonoid effects on endogenous estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal female monkeys. Carcinogenesis 28, 801808.

135AM Duncan , KE Underhill , X Xu , J Lavalleur , WR Phipps & MS Kurzer (1999) Modest hormonal effects of soy isoflavones in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 34793484.

140E Horia & BA Watkins (2007) Complementary actions of docosahexaenoic acid and genistein on COX-2, PGE(2) and invasiveness in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 28, 809815.

141E Elstner , C Muller , K Koshizuka , EA Williamson , D Park , H Asou , P Shintaku , JW Said , D Heber & HP Koeffler (1998) Ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and retinoic acid receptor inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in BNX mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 88068811.

142E Mueller , P Sarraf , P Tontonoz , RM Evans , KJ Martin , M Zhang , C Fletcher , S Singer & BM Spiegelman (1998) Terminal differentiation of human breast cancer through PPAR gamma. Mol Cell 1, 465470.

143E Mueller , M Smith , P Sarraf , T Kroll , A Aiyer , DS Kaufman , W Oh , G Demetri , WD Figg , XP Zhou , C Eng , BM Spiegelman & PW Kantoff (2000) Effects of ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in human prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 1099010995.

144S Theocharis , A Margeli , P Vielh & G Kouraklis (2004) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands as cell-cycle modulators. Cancer Treat Rev 30, 545554.

145T Suzuki , S Hayashi , Y Miki , Y Nakamura , T Moriya , A Sugawara , T Ishida , N Ohuchi & H Sasano (2006) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in human breast carcinoma: a modulator of estrogenic actions. Endocr Relat Cancer 13, 233250.

146S Han & J Roman (2007) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: a novel target for cancer therapeutics? Anticancer Drugs 18, 237244.

148JC Shen , RD Klein , Q Wei , Y Guan , JH Contois , TT Wang , S Chang & SD Hursting (2000) Low-dose genistein induces cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and G(1) cell-cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells. Mol Carcinog 29, 92102.

149JN Davis , B Singh , M Bhuiyan & FH Sarkar (1998) Genistein-induced upregulation of p21(WAF1), downregulation of cyclin B, and induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 32, 123131.

150AL Hewitt & KW Singletary (2003) Soy extract inhibits mammary adenocarcinoma growth in a syngeneic mouse model. Cancer Lett 192, 133143.

152RS Frey , J Li & KW Singletary (2001) Effects of genistein on cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest in nonneoplastic human mammary epithelial cells: involvement of Cdc2, p21(waf/cip1), p27(kip1), and Cdc25C expression. Biochem Pharmacol 61, 979989.

153RW King , PK Jackson & MW Kirschner (1994) Mitosis in transition. Cell 79, 563571.

155L Rice , VG Samedi , TA Medrano , CA Sweeney , HV Baker , A Stenstrom , J Furman & KT Shiverick (2002) Mechanisms of the growth inhibitory effects of the isoflavonoid biochanin A on LNCaP cells and xenografts. Prostate 52, 201212.

156LH Touny & PP Banerjee (2006) Identification of both Myt-1 and Wee-1 as necessary mediators of the p21-independent inactivation of the cdc-2/cyclin B1 complex and growth inhibition of TRAMP cancer cells by genistein. Prostate 66, 15421555.

157CH Liao , SL Pan , JH Guh & CM Teng (2004) Genistein inversely affects tubulin-binding agent-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 67, 20312038.

159J Gautier , MJ Solomon , RN Booher , JF Bazan & MW Kirschner (1991) cdc25 is a specific tyrosine phosphatase that directly activates p34cdc2. Cell 67, 197211.

160Y Li , S Upadhyay , M Bhuiyan & FH Sarkar (1999) Induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 by genistein. Oncogene 18, 31663172.

161KA Waite , MR Sinden & C Eng (2005) Phytoestrogen exposure elevates PTEN levels. Hum Mol Genet 14, 14571463.

162I Eto (2006) Nutritional and chemopreventive anti-cancer agents up-regulate expression of p27Kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, in mouse JB6 epidermal and human MCF7, MDA-MB-321 and AU565 breast cancer cells. Cancer Cell Int 6, 20.

163B Dave , RR Eason , SR Till , Y Geng , MC Velarde , TM Badger & RC Simmen (2005) The soy isoflavone genistein promotes apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells by inducing the tumor suppressor PTEN. Carcinogenesis 26, 17931803.

164T Kobayashi , T Nakata & T Kuzumaki (2002) Effect of flavonoids on cell cycle progression in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Lett 176, 1723.

165A Kazi , KG Daniel , DM Smith , NB Kumar & QP Dou (2003) Inhibition of the proteasome activity, a novel mechanism associated with the tumor cell apoptosis-inducing ability of genistein. Biochem Pharmacol 66, 965976.

167DL Bemis , JL Capodice , M Desai , R Buttyan & AE Katz (2004) A concentrated aglycone isoflavone preparation (GCP) that demonstrates potent anti-prostate cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Clin Cancer Res 10, 52825292.

170LH El Touny & PP Banerjee (2007) Genistein induces the metastasis suppressor kangai-1 which mediates its anti-invasive effects in TRAMP cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 361, 169175.

171H Skogseth , E Larsson & J Halgunset (2006) The invasive behaviour of prostatic cancer cells is suppressed by inhibitors of tyrosine kinase. Apmis 114, 6166.

172JK Kumi-Diaka , M Hassanhi , K Merchant & V Horman (2006) Influence of genistein isoflavone on matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in prostate cancer cells. J Med Food 9, 491497.

176G Peterson & S Barnes (1993) Genistein and biochanin A inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer cells but not epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation. Prostate 22, 335345.

179A Dalu , JF Haskell , L Coward & CA Lamartiniere (1998) Genistein, a component of soy, inhibits the expression of the EGF and ErbB2/Neu receptors in the rat dorsolateral prostate. Prostate 37, 3643.

180J Wang , IE Eltoum & CA Lamartiniere (2004) Genistein alters growth factor signaling in transgenic prostate model (TRAMP). Mol Cell Endocrinol 219, 171180.

181NM Brown , J Wang , MS Cotroneo , YX Zhao & CA Lamartiniere (1998) Prepubertal genistein treatment modulates TGF-alpha, EGF and EGF-receptor mRNAs and proteins in the rat mammary gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol 144, 149165.

183MS Cotroneo , J Wang , WA Fritz , IE Eltoum & CA Lamartiniere (2002) Genistein action in the prepubertal mammary gland in a chemoprevention model. Carcinogenesis 23, 14671474.

184WF Chen & MS Wong (2004) Genistein enhances insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 23512359.

185HM Aukema & I Housini (2001) Dietary soy protein effects on disease and IGF-I in male and female Han:SPRD-cy rats. Kidney Int 59, 5261.

186C Nagata , H Shimizu , R Takami , M Hayashi , N Takeda & K Yasuda (2003) Dietary soy and fats in relation to serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels in premenopausal Japanese women. Nutr Cancer 45, 185189.

188A Vrieling , DW Voskuil , HB Bueno de Mesquita , R Kaaks , PA van Noord , L Keinan-Boker , CH van Gils & PH Peeters (2004) Dietary determinants of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins 1, -2 and -3 in women in The Netherlands. Cancer Causes Control 15, 787796.

189BH Arjmandi , DA Khalil , BJ Smith , EA Lucas , S Juma , ME Payton & RA Wild (2003) Soy protein has a greater effect on bone in postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, as evidenced by reducing bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 10481054.

190JV Woodside , MJ Campbell , EE Denholm , L Newton , JW Honour , MS Morton , IS Young & AJ Leathem (2006) Short-term phytoestrogen supplementation alters insulin-like growth factor profile but not lipid or antioxidant status. J Nutr Biochem 17, 211215.

191KE Wangen , AM Duncan , BE Merz-Demlow , X Xu , R Marcus , WR Phipps & MS Kurzer (2000) Effects of soy isoflavones on markers of bone turnover in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85, 30433048.

195M Hussain , M Banerjee , FH Sarkar , Z Djuric , MN Pollak , D Doerge , J Fontana , S Chinni , J Davis , J Forman , DP Wood & O Kucuk (2003) Soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer 47, 111117.

196S Jagadeesh , S Kyo & PP Banerjee (2006) Genistein represses telomerase activity via both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms in human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 66, 21072115.

197LH El Touny & PP Banerjee (2007) Akt/GSK3 pathway as a target in genistein-induced inhibition of TRAMP prostate cancer progression towards a poorly differentiated phenotype. Carcinogenesis.

198Y Li & FH Sarkar (2002) Down-regulation of invasion and angiogenesis-related genes identified by cDNA microarray analysis of PC3 prostate cancer cells treated with genistein. Cancer Lett 186, 157164.

199L Gong , Y Li , A Nedeljkovic-Kurepa & FH Sarkar (2003) Inactivation of NF-kappaB by genistein is mediated via Akt signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. Oncogene 22, 47024709.

201JN Davis , O Kucuk & FH Sarkar (1999) Genistein inhibits NF-kappa B activation in prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 35, 167174.

202W Vanden Berghe , N Dijsselbloem , L Vermeulen , N Ndlovu , E Boone & G Haegeman (2006) Attenuation of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1-driven nuclear factor-kappaB gene expression by soy isoflavones does not require estrogenic activity. Cancer Res 66, 48524862.

203C Borras , J Gambini , MC Gomez-Cabrera , J Sastre , FV Pallardo , GE Mann & J Vina (2006) Genistein, a soy isoflavone, up-regulates expression of antioxidant genes: involvement of estrogen receptors, ERK1/2, and NF kappa B. FASEB J 20, 2136.

204XY Wang , EA Clubbs & JA Bomser (2006) Genistein modulates prostate epithelial cell proliferation via estrogen- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathways. J Nutr Biochem 17, 204210.

205EA Clubbs & JA Bomser (2007) Glycitein activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling in nontumorigenic (RWPE-1) prostate epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem 18, 525532.

206D Thompson & DF Easton (2002) Cancer incidence in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 94, 13581365.

207SJ Boulton (2006) Cellular functions of the BRCA tumour-suppressor proteins. Biochem Soc Trans 34, 633645.

208EM Rosen , S Fan , RG Pestell & ID Goldberg (2003) BRCA1 in hormone-responsive cancers. Trends Endocrinol Metab 14, 378385.

209S Fan , Q Meng , K Auborn , T Carter & EM Rosen (2006) BRCA1 and BRCA2 as molecular targets for phytochemicals indole-3-carbinol and genistein in breast and prostate cancer cells. Br J Cancer 94, 407426.

211CE Rufer & SE Kulling (2006) Antioxidant activity of isoflavones and their major metabolites using different in vitro assays. J Agric Food Chem 54, 29262931.

212H Wei , L Wei , K Frenkel , R Bowen & S Barnes (1993) Inhibition of tumor promoter-induced hydrogen peroxide formation in vitro and in vivo by genistein. Nutr Cancer 20, 112.

213RP Patel , BJ Boersma , JH Crawford , N Hogg , M Kirk , B Kalyanaraman , DA Parks , S Barnes & V Darley-Usmar (2001) Antioxidant mechanisms of isoflavones in lipid systems: paradoxical effects of peroxyl radical scavenging. Free Radic Biol Med 31, 15701581.

214M Raschke , IR Rowland , PJ Magee & BL Pool-Zobel (2006) Genistein protects prostate cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces expression of genes involved in the defence against oxidative stress. Carcinogenesis 27, 23222330.

215RA DiSilvestro , J Goodman , E Dy & G Lavalle (2005) Soy isoflavone supplementation elevates erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, but not plasma ceruloplasmin in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer Res Treat 89, 251255.

218WX Peng , HD Li & HH Zhou (2003) Effect of daidzein on CYP1A2 activity and pharmacokinetics of theophylline in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59, 237241.

219C Steiner , WH Peters , EP Gallagher , P Magee , I Rowland & BL Pool-Zobel (2007) Genistein protects human mammary epithelial cells from benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal genotoxicity by modulating the glutathione/glutathione S-transferase system. Carcinogenesis 28, 738748.

220NR Bianco , LJ Chaplin & MM Montano (2005) Differential induction of quinone reductase by phytoestrogens and protection against oestrogen-induced DNA damage. Biochem J 385, 279287.

221H Farhan , K Wahala & HS Cross (2003) Genistein inhibits vitamin D hydroxylases CYP24 and CYP27B1 expression in prostate cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 84, 423429.

225MA Lila & I Raskin (2005) Health-related interactions of phytochemicals. J Food Sci 70, R20R27.

227T Ueda , NR Mawji , N Bruchovsky & MD Sadar (2002) Ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor by interleukin-6 and the role of steroid receptor coactivator-1 in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem 277, 3808738094.

228S Kato , Y Masuhiro , M Watanabe , Y Kobayashi , K Takeyama , H Endoh & J Yanagisawa (2000) Molecular mechanism of a cross-talk between oestrogen and growth factor signalling pathways. Genes Cells 5, 593601.

229MF McCarty (2004) Targeting Multiple signaling pathways as a strategy for managing prostate cancer: multifocal signal modulation therapy. Integr Cancer Ther 3, 349380.

230IHL Hamelers & PH Steenbergh (2003) Interactions between insulin-like growth factor estrogen and signaling pathways in human breast tumor cells. Endocr Relat Cancer 10, 331345.

231X Wang & MW Kilgore (2002) Signal cross-talk between estrogen receptor alpha and beta and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamina1 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 194, 123133.

232D Bonofiglio , S Gabriele , S Aquila , S Catalano , M Gentile , E Middea , F Giordano & S Ando (2005) Estrogen receptor alpha binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor response element and negatively interferes with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling in breast cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 11, 61396147.

233K De Bosscher , W Vanden Berghe & G Haegeman (2006) Cross-talk between nuclear receptors and nuclear factor kappa B. Oncogene 25, 68686886.

234KM Vasudevan , S Gurumurthy & VM Rangnekar (2004) Suppression of PTEN expression by NF-kappa B prevents apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol 24, 10071021.

235S Terasaka , Y Aita , A Inoue , S Hayashi , M Nishigaki , K Aoyagi , H Sasaki , Y Wada-Kiyama , Y Sakuma , S Akaba , J Tanaka , H Sone , J Yonemoto , M Tanji & R Kiyama (2004) Using a customized DNA microarray for expression profiling of the estrogen-responsive genes to evaluate estrogen activity among natural estrogens and industrial chemicals. Environ Health Perspect 112, 773781.

236R Ise , D Han , Y Takahashi , S Terasaka , A Inoue , M Tanji & R Kiyama (2005) Expression profiling of the estrogen responsive genes in response to phytoestrogens using a customized DNA microarray. FEBS Lett 579, 17321740.

237JG Moggs , J Ashby , H Tinwell , FL Lim , DJ Moore , I Kimber & G Orphanides (2004) The need to decide if all estrogens are intrinsically similar. Environ Health Perspect 112, 11371142.

238JM Naciff , ML Jump , SM Torontali , GJ Carr , JP Tiesman , GJ Overmann & GP Daston (2002) Gene expression profile induced by 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol, bisphenol A, and genistein in the developing female reproductive system of the rat. Toxicol Sci 68, 184199.

239N Konstantakopoulos , KG Montgomery , N Chamberlain , MA Quinn , MS Baker , GE Rice , HM Georgiou & IG Campbell (2006) Changes in gene expressions elicited by physiological concentrations of genistein on human endometrial cancer cells. Mol Carcinog 45, 752763.

240JM Naciff & GP Daston (2004) Toxicogenomic approach to endocrine disrupters: identification of a transcript profile characteristic of chemicals with estrogenic activity. Toxicol Pathol 32, 5970.

241T Shioda , J Chesnes , KR Coser , LH Zou , J Hur , KL Dean , C Sonnenschein , AM Soto & KJ Isselbacher (2006) Importance of dosage standardization for interpreting transcriptomal signature profiles: evidence from studies of xenoestrogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 1203312038.

242T Buterin , C Koch & H Naegeli (2006) Convergent transcriptional profiles induced by endogenous estrogen and distinct xenoestrogens in breast cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 27, 15671578.

243AR Thomsen , K Almstrup , JE Nielsen , IK Sorensen , OW Petersen , H Leffers & VM Breinholt (2006) Estrogenic effect of soy isoflavones on mammary gland morphogenesis and gene expression profile. Toxicol Sci 93, 357368.

244TP York , SR Plymate , PS Nelson , LJ Eaves , HD Webb & JL Ware (2005) cDNA microarray analysis identifies genes induced in common by peptide growth factors and androgen in human prostate epithelial cells. Mol Carcinog 44, 242251.

245L You & EJ Bartolucci (2004) Gene expression profiles in mammary gland of male rats treated with genistein and methoxychlor. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 18, 161172.

246Y Takahashi , JA Lavigne , SD Hursting , GVR Chandramouli , SN Perkins , JC Barrett & TTY Wang (2004) Using DNA microarray analyses to elucidate the effects of genistein in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells: identification of novel targets. Mol Carcinog 41, 108119.

247Y Takahashi , JA Lavigne , SD Hursting , GVR Chandramouli , SN Perkins , YS Kim & TTY Wang (2006) Molecular signatures of soy-derived phytochemicals in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells: a comparison study using DNA microarray. Mol Carcinog 45, 943956.

248Y Takahashi , SD Hursting , SN Perkins , TC Wang & TTY Wang (2006) Genistein affects androgen-responsive genes through both androgen- and estrogen-induced signaling pathways. Mol Carcinog 45, 1825.

249YW Li , MX Che , S Bhagat , KL Ellis , O Kucuk , DR Doerge , J Abrams , ML Cher & FH Sarkar (2004) Regulation of gene expression and inhibition of experimental prostate cancer bone metastasis by dietary genistein. Neoplasia 6, 354363.

250K Suzuki , H Koike , H Matsui , Y Ono , M Hasumi , H Nakazato , H Okugi , Y Sekine , K Oki , K Ito , T Yamamoto , Y Fukabori , K Kurokawa & H Yamanaka (2002) Genistein, a soy isoflavone, induces glutathione peroxidase in the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3. Int J Cancer 99, 846852.

251WF Chen , MH Huang , CH Tzang , M Yang & MS Wong (2003) Inhibitory actions of genistein in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1638, 187196.

254KS Solanky , NJ Bailey , BM Beckwith-Hall , S Bingham , A Davis , E Holmes , JK Nicholson & A Cassidy (2005) Biofluid H-1 NMR-based metabonomic techniques in nutrition research metabolic effects of dietary isoflavones in humans. J Nutr Biochem 16, 236244.

255KS Solanky , NJC Bailey , BM Beckwith-Hall , A Davis , S Bingham , E Holmes , JK Nicholson & A Cassidy (2003) Application of biofluid H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic techniques for the analysis of the biochemical effects of dietary isoflavones on human plasma profile. Anal Biochem 323, 197204.

257JR Fay , JA Crowell & L Kopelovich (2005) Targeting epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in cancer chemoprevention. Expert Opin Ther Targets 9, 315328.

258JE Leader , C Wang , M Fu & RG Pestell (2006) Epigenetic regulation of nuclear steroid receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 72, 15891596.

259YP Yu , S Paranjpe , J Nelson , S Finkelstein , B Ren , D Kokkinakis , G Michalopoulos & JH Luo (2005) High throughput screening of methylation status of genes in prostate cancer using an oligonucleotide methylation array. Carcinogenesis 26, 471479.

261MZ Fang , D Chen , Y Sun , Z Jin , JK Christman & CS Yang (2005) Reversal of hypermethylation and reactivation of p16INK4a, RARbeta, and MGMT genes by genistein and other isoflavones from soy. Clin Cancer Res 11, 70337041.

262T Hong , T Nakagawa , WJ Pan , MY Kim , WL Kraus , T Ikehara , K Yasui , H Aihara , M Takebe , M Muramatsu & T Ito (2004) Isoflavones stimulate estrogen receptor-mediated core histone acetylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 317, 259264.

263TD Lund , DJ Munson , H Adlercreutz , RJ Handa & ED Lephart (2004) Androgen receptor expression in the rat prostate is down-regulated by dietary phytoestrogens. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2, 510.

264CK Wong & WM Keung (1999) Bovine adrenal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1. 145)/5-ene-4-ene isomerase (E.C. 5.3.3.1): characterization and its inhibition by isoflavones. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 71, 191202.

265RA Hiipakka , HZ Zhang , W Dai , Q Dai & ST Liao (2002) Structure–activity relationships for inhibition of human 5 alpha-reductases by polyphenols. Biochem Pharmacol 63, 11651176.

266H Adlercreutz , K Hockerstedt , C Bannwart , S Bloigu , E Hamalainen , T Fotsis & A Ollus (1987) Effect of dietary components, including lignans and phytoestrogens, on enterohepatic circulation and liver metabolism of estrogens and on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). J Steroid Biochem 27, 11351144.

267AM Pino , LE Valladares , MA Palma , AM Mancilla , M Yanez & C Albala (2000) Dietary isoflavones affect sex hormone-binding globulin levels in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85, 27972800.

268A Brzezinski , H Adlercreutz , R Shaoul , A Rosler , A Shmueli , V Tanos & JG Schenker (1997) Short-term effects of phytoestrogen-rich diet on postmenopausal women. Menopause 4, 8994.

269S Goodin , F Shen , WJ Shih , N Dave , MP Kane , P Medina , GH Lambert , J Aisner , M Gallo & RS DiPaola (2007) Clinical and biological activity of soy protein powder supplementation in healthy male volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 829833.

270A Rannikko , A Petas , T Raivio , OA Janne , S Rannikko & H Adlercreutz (2006) The effects of short-term oral phytoestrogen supplementation on the hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular axis in prostate cancer patients. Prostate 66, 10861091.

271ZM Shao , ML Alpaugh , JA Fontana & SH Barsky (1998) Genistein inhibits proliferation similarly in estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cell lines characterized by P21(WAF1/CIP1) induction, G(2)/M arrest, and apoptosis. J Cell Biochem 69, 4454.

275EM Laurenzana , CC Weis , CW Bryant , R Newbold & KB Delclos (2002) Effect of dietary administration of genistein, nonylphenol or ethinyl estradiol on hepatic testosterone metabolism, cytochrome P-450 enzymes, and estrogen receptor alpha expression. Food Chem Toxicol 40, 5363.

276MB van Duursen , JT Sanderson , PC de Jong , M Kraaij & M van den Berg (2004) Phytochemicals inhibit catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in cytosolic fractions from healthy human mammary tissues: implications for catechol estrogen-induced DNA damage. Toxicol Sci 81, 316324.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: