1Messina M, Nagata C & Wu AH (2006) Estimated Asian adult soy protein and isoflavone intakes. Nutr Cancer 55, 1–12.
2Messina MJ (2003) Emerging evidence on the role of soy in reducing prostate cancer risk. Nutr Rev 61, 117–131.
3Magee PJ & Rowland IR (2004) Phyto-oestrogens, their mechanism of action: current evidence for a role in breast and prostate cancer. Br J Nutr 91, 513–531.
4Wietrzyk J, Gryniciewicz G & Opolski A (2005) Phytoestrogens in cancer prevention and therapy – mechanisms of their biological activity. Anticancer Res 25, 2357–2366.
5Hsing AW, Tsao L & Devesa SS (2000) International trends and patterns of prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Int J Cancer 85, 60–67.
6Shimizu H, Ross RK, Bernstein L, Yatani R, Henderson BE & Mack TM (1991) Cancers of the prostate and breast among Japanese and white immigrants in Los Angeles County. Br J Cancer 63, 963–966.
7Cook LS, Goldoft M, Schwartz SM & Weiss NS (1999) Incidence of adenocarcinoma of the prostate in Asian immigrants to the United States and their descendants. J Urol 161, 152–155.
8Sim HG & Cheng CWS (2005) Changing demography of prostate cancer in Asia. Eur J Cancer 41, 834–845.
9Yan L & Spitznagel EL (2005) Meta-analysis of soy food and risk of prostate cancer in men. Int J Cancer 117, 667–669.
10Trock BJ, Hilakivi-Clarke L & Clarke R (2006) Meta-analysis of soy intake and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 459–471.
11Shu XO, Jin F, Dai Q, Wen W, Potter JD, Kushi LH, Ruan Z, Gao YT & Zheng W (2001) Soyfood intake during adolescence and subsequent risk of breast cancer among Chinese women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10, 483–488.
12Wu AH, Wan P, Hankin J, Tseng CC, Yu MC & Pike MC (2002) Adolescent and adult soy intake and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. Carcinogenesis 23, 1491–1496.
13Messina M, Kucuk O & Lampe JW (2006) An overview of the health effects of isoflavones with an emphasis on prostate cancer risk and prostate-specific antigen levels. J AOAC Int 89, 1121–1134.
14Jarred RA, Keikha M, Dowling C, McPherson SJ, Clare AM, Husband AJ, Pedersen JS, Frydenberg M & Risbridger GP (2002) Induction of apoptosis in low to moderate-grade human prostate carcinoma by red clover-derived dietary isoflavones. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 1689–1696.
15Messina M, McCaskill-Stevens W & Lampe JW (2006) Addressing the soy and breast cancer relationship: review, commentary, and workshop proceedings. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 1275–1284.
16Maskarinec GF, Williams AE & Carlin L (2003) Mammographic densities in a one-year isoflavone intervention. Eur J Cancer Prev 12, 165–169.
17Maskarinec G, Takata Y, Franke AA, Williams AE & Murphy SP (2004) A 2-year soy intervention in premenopausal women does not change mammographic densities. J Nutr 134, 3089–3094.
18Atkinson C, Warren RML, Sala E, Dowsett M, Dunning AM, Healey CS, Runswick S, Day NE & Bingham SA (2004) Red clover-derived isoflavones and mammographic breast density: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ISRCTN42940165. Breast Cancer Res 6, R170–R179.
19McMichael-Phillips DF, Harding C, Morton M, Roberts SA, Howell A, Potten CS & Bundred NJ (1998) Effects of soy-protein supplementation on epithelial proliferation in the histologically normal human breast. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 1431S–1436S.
20Rosenberg Zand RS, Jenkins DJ & Diamandis EP (2002) Flavonoids and steroid hormone-dependent cancers. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 777, 219–232.
21Manach C, Williamson G, Morand C, Scalbert A & Remesy C (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 230S–242S.
22Miltyk W, Craciunescu CN, Fischer L, Jeffcoat RA, Koch MA, Lopaczynski W, Mahoney C, Crowell J, Paglieri J & Zeisel SH (2003) Lack of significant genotoxicity of purified soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) in 20 patients with prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 875–882.
23Vergne S, Lamothe V, Chantre P, Potier M, Asselineau J, Perez P, Durand M, Moore N, Bennetau-Pelissero C & Sauvant P (2007) Influence of ethnicity on bioavailability of isoflavones in human: Caucasian vs Asian. Ann Nutr Metab 51, 208.
24Heinonen SM, Hoikkala A, Wahala K & Adlercreutz H (2003) Metabolism of the soy isoflavones daidzein, genistein and glycitein in human subjects. Identification of new metabolites having an intact isoflavonoid skeleton. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 87, 285–299.
25Heinonen SM, Wahala K, Liukkonen KH, Aura AM, Poutanen K & Adlercreutz H (2004) Studies of the in vitro intestinal metabolism of isoflavones aid in the identification of their urinary metabolites. J Agric Food Chem 52, 2640–2646.
26Rufer CE, Glatt H & Kulling SE (2006) Structural elucidation of hydroxylated metabolites of the isoflavan equol by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Drug Metab Dispos 34, 51–60.
27Setchell KD, Brown NM & Lydeking-Olsen E (2002) The clinical importance of the metabolite equol – a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones. J Nutr 132, 3577–3584.
28Atkinson C, Frankenfeld CL & Lampe JW (2005) Gut bacterial metabolism of the soy isoflavone daidzein: exploring the relevance to human health. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 230, 155–170.
29Song KB, Atkinson C, Frankenfeld CL, Jokela T, Wahala K, Thomas WK & Lampe JW (2006) Prevalence of daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes differs between Caucasian and Korean American women and girls. J Nutr 136, 1347–1351.
30Akaza H, Miyanaga N, Takashima N, Naito S, Hirao Y, Tsukamoto T, Fujioka T, Mori M, Kim WJ, Song JM & Pantuck AJ (2004) Comparisons of percent equol producers between prostate cancer patients and controls: case-controlled studies of isoflavones in Japanese, Korean and American residents. Jpn J Clin Oncol 34, 86–89.
31Duncan AM, MerzDemlow BE, Xu X, Phipps WR & Kurzer MS (2000) Premenopausal equol excretors show plasma hormone profiles associated with lowered risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9, 581–586.
32Frankenfeld CL, McTiernan A, Tworoger SS, Atkinson C, Thomas WK, Stanczyk FZ, Marcovina SM, Weigle DS, Weiss NS, Holt VL, Schwartz SM & Lampe JW (2004) Serum steroid hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations, and urinary hydroxylated estrogen metabolites in post-menopausal women in relation to daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 88, 399–408.
33Nettleton JA, Greany KA, Thomas W, Wangen KE, Adlercreutz H & Kurzer MS (2005) The effect of soy consumption on the urinary 2:16-hydroxyestrone ratio in postmenopausal women depends on equol production status but is not influenced by probiotic consumption. J Nutr 135, 603–608.
34Frankenfeld CL, McTiernan A, Aiello EJ, Thomas WK, LaCroix K, Schramm J, Schwartz SM, Holt VL & Lampe JW (2004) Mammographic density in relation to daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes in overweight, postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 1156–1162.
35Niculescu MD, Pop EA, Fischer LM & Zeisel SH (2007) Dietary isoflavones differentially induce gene expression changes in lymphocytes from postmenopausal women who form equol as compared with those who do not. J Nutr Biochem 18, 380–390.
36Li F, Hullar MAJ & Lampe JW (2007) Optimization of terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of human gut microbiota. J Microbiol Methods 68, 303–311.
37Dettmer K, Aronov PA & Hammock BD (2007) Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Mass Spectrom Rev 26, 51–78.
38Kaput J & Rodriguez RL (2004) Nutritional genomics: the next frontier in the postgenomic era. Physiol Genomics 16, 166–177.
39Hedelin M, Balter KA, Chang ET, Bellocco R, Klint A, Johansson JE, Wiklund F, Thellenberg-Karlsson C, Adami HO & Gronberg H (2006) Dietary intake of phytoestrogens, estrogen receptor-beta polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate 66, 1512–1520.
40Low YL, Taylor JI, Grace PB, Dowsett M, Folkerd E, Doody D, Dunning AM, Scollen S, Mulligan AA, Welch AA, Luben RN, Khaw KT, Day NE, Wareham NJ & Bingham SA (2005) Polymorphisms in the CYP19 gene may affect the positive correlations between serum and urine phytoestrogen metabolites and plasma androgen concentrations in men. J Nutr 135, 2680–2686.
41Rhodes DR, Yu JJ, Shanker K, Deshpande N, Varambally R, Ghosh D, Barrette T, Pandey A & Chinnaiyan AM (2004) Large-scale meta-analysis of cancer microarray data identifies common transcriptional profiles of neoplastic transformation and progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 9309–9314.
42Azad NS, Rasool N, Annunziata CM, Minasian L, Whiteley G & Kohn EC (2006) Proteomics in clinical trials and practice – present uses and future promise. Mol Cell Proteomics 5, 1819–1829.
43Adam BL, Qu YS, Davis JW, Ward MD, Clements MA, Cazares LH, Semmes OJ, Schellhammer PF, Yasui Y, Feng ZD & Wright GL (2002) Serum protein fingerprinting coupled with a pattern-matching algorithm distinguishes prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia and healthy men. Cancer Res 62, 3609–3614.
44Calvo A, Gonzalez-Moreno O, Yoon CY, Huh JI, Desai K, Nguyen QT & Green JE (2005) Prostate cancer and the genomic revolution: advances using microarray analyses. Mutat Res 576, 66–79.
45Jordan KW & Cheng LL (2007) NMR-based metabolomics approach to target biomarkers for human prostate cancer. Expert Rev Proteomics 4, 389–400.
46Pollard M & Suckow MA (2006) Dietary prevention of hormone refractory prostate cancer in Lobund-Wistar rats: a review of studies in a relevant animal model. Comp Med 56, 461–467.
47Murrill WB, Brown NM, Zhang JX, Manzolillo PA, Barnes S & Lamartiniere CA (1996) Prepubertal genistein exposure suppresses mammary cancer and enhances gland differentiation in rats. Carcinogenesis 17, 1451–1457.
48Hilakivi-Clarke L, Cho E & Clarke R (1998) Maternal genistein exposure mimics the effects of estrogen on mammary gland development in female mouse offspring. Oncol Rep 5, 609–616.
49Hilakivi-Clarke L, Onojafe I, Raygada M, Cho E, Skaar T, Russo I & Clarke R (1999) Prepubertal exposure to zearalenone or genistein reduces mammary tumorigenesis. Br J Cancer 80, 1682–1688.
50Lamartiniere CA (2002) Timing of exposure and mammary cancer risk. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 7, 67–76.
51Cabanes A, Wang M, Olivo S, DeAssis S, Gustafsson JA, Khan G & Hilakivi-Clarke L (2004) Prepubertal estradiol and genistein exposures up-regulate BRCA1 mRNA and reduce mammary tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 25, 741–748, .
52Hilakivi-Clarke L, Cho E, deAssis S, Olivo S, Ealley E, Bouker KB, Welch JN, Khan G, Clarke R & Cabanes A (2001) Maternal and prepubertal diet, mammary development and breast cancer risk. J Nutr 131, 154S–157S.
53Hsieh CY, Santell RC, Haslam SZ & Helferich WG (1998) Estrogenic effects of genistein on the growth of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 58, 3833–3838.
54Allred CD, Allred KF, Ju YH, Virant SM & Helferich WG (2001) Soy diets containing varying amounts of genistein stimulate growth of estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Cancer Res 61, 5045–5050.
55Ju YH, Allred CD, Allred KF, Karko KL, Doerge DR & Helferich WG (2001) Physiological concentrations of dietary genistein dose-dependently stimulate growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) tumors implanted in athymic nude mice. J Nutr 131, 2957–2962.
56Ju YH, Doerge DR, Allred KF, Allred CD & Helferich WG (2002) Dietary genistein negates the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells implanted in athymic mice. Cancer Res 62, 2474–2477.
57Ju YH, Allred KF, Allred CD & Helferich WG (2006) Genistein stimulates growth of human breast cancer cells in a novel, postmenopausal animal model, with low plasma estradiol concentrations. Carcinogenesis 27, 1292–1299.
58Yang JH, Nakagawa H, Tsuta K & Tsubura A (2000) Influence of perinatal genistein exposure on the development of MNU-induced mammary carcinoma in female Sprague–Dawley rats. Cancer Lett 149, 171–179.
59Su Y, Eason RR, Geng Y, Till SR, Badger TM & Simmen RCM (2007) In utero exposure to maternal diets containing soy protein isolate, but not genistein alone, protects young adult rat offspring from NMU-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 28, 1046–1051.
60Padilla-Banks E, Jefferson WN & Newbold RR (2006) Neonatal exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein alters mammary gland growth and developmental programming of hormone receptor levels. Endocrinology 147, 4871–4882.
61Dolinoy DC, Weidman JR, Waterland RA & Jirtle RL (2006) Maternal genistein alters coat color and protects A(vy) mouse offspring from obesity by modifying the fetal epigenome. Environ Health Perspect 114, 567–572.
62De Assis S & Hilakivi-Clarke L (2006) .
63Jin Z & MacDonald RS (2002) Soy isoflavones increase latency of spontaneous mammary tumors in mice. J Nutr 132, 3186–3190.
64Lamartiniere CA, Wang J, Smith-Johnson M & Eltoum IE (2002) Daidzein: bioavailability, potential for reproductive toxicity, and breast cancer chemoprevention in female rats. Toxicol Sci 65, 228–238.
65Ju YH, Fultz J, Allred KF, Doerge DR & Helferich WG (2006) Effects of dietary daidzein and its metabolite, equol, at physiological concentrations on the growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) tumors implanted in ovariectomized athymic mice. Carcinogenesis 27, 856–863.
66Allred CD, Allred KF, Ju YH, Goeppinger TS, Doerge DR & Helferich WG (2004) Soy processing influences growth of estrogen-dependent breast cancer tumors. Carcinogenesis 25, 1649–1657.
67Ohta T, Nakatsugi S, Watanabe K, Kawamori T, Ishikawa F, Morotomi M, Sugie S, Toda T, Sugimura T & Wakabayashi K (2000) Inhibitory effects of bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-induced rat mammary carcinogenesis, with a partial contribution of its component isoflavones. Carcinogenesis 21, 937–941.
68Wang C & Kurzer MS (1998) Effects of phytoestrogens on DNA synthesis in MCF-7 cells in the presence of estradiol or growth factors. Nutr Cancer 31, 90–100.
69Le Bail JC, Champavier Y, Chulia AJ & Habrioux G (2000) Effects of phytoestrogens on aromatase, 3 beta and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and human breast cancer cells. Life Sci 66, 1281–1291.
70Hedlund TE, Maroni PD, Ferucci PG, Dayton R, Barnes S, Jones K, Moore R, Ogden LG, Wahala K, Sackett HM & Gray KJ (2005) Long-term dietary habits affect soy isoflavone metabolism and accumulation in prostatic fluid in Caucasian men. J Nutr 135, 1400–1406.
71Hong SJ, Kim SI, Kwon SM, Lee JR & Chung BC (2002) Comparative study of concentration of isoflavones and lignans in plasma and prostatic tissues of normal control and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Yonsei Med J 43, 236–241.
72Rannikko A, Petas A, Rannikko S & Adlercreutz H (2006) Plasma and prostate phytoestrogen concentrations in prostate cancer patients after oral phytoestogen supplementation. Prostate 66, 82–87.
73Morton MS, Chan PS, Cheng C, Blacklock N, Matos-Ferreira A, Abranches-Monteiro L, Correia R, Lloyd S & Griffiths K (1997) Lignans and isoflavonoids in plasma and prostatic fluid in men: samples from Portugal, Hong Kong, and the United Kingdom. Prostate 32, 122–128.
74Guy L, Vedrine N, Urpi-Sarda M, Gil-Izquierdo A, Al-Maharik N, Boiteux JP, Scalbert A, Rémésy C, Botting NP & Manach C (2007) Orally administered isoflavones are present as glucuronides in the human prostate. Nutr Cancer 60 .
75Maubach J, Depypere HT, Goeman J, Van Der Eycken J, Heyerick A, Bracke ME, Blondeel P & De Keukeleire D (2004) Distribution of soy-derived phytoestrogens in human breast tissue and biological fluids. Obstet Gynecol 103, 892–898.
76Dang ZC, Audinot V, Papapoulos SE, Boutin JA & Lowik CW (2003) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) as a molecular target for the soy phytoestrogen genistein. J Biol Chem 278, 962–967.
77Setchell KD, Brown NM, Desai P, Zimmer-Nechemias L, Wolfe BE, Brashear WT, Kirschner AS, Cassidy A & Heubi JE (2001) Bioavailability of pure isoflavones in healthy humans and analysis of commercial soy isoflavone supplements. J Nutr 131, 1362S–1375S.
78Busby MG, Jeffcoat AR, Bloedon LT, Koch MA, Black T, Dix KJ, Heizer WD, Thomas BF, Hill JM, Crowell JA & Zeisel SH (2002) Clinical characteristics and pharmacokinetics of purified soy isoflavones: single-dose administration to healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 126–136.
79Zhang Y, Hendrich S & Murphy PA (2003) Glucuronides are the main isoflavone metabolites in women. J Nutr 133, 399–404.
80Zhang Y, Song TT, Cunnick JE, Murphy PA & Hendrich S (1999) Daidzein and genistein glucuronides in vitro are weakly estrogenic and activate human natural killer cells at nutritionally relevant concentrations. J Nutr 129, 399–405.
81Turner R, Baron T, Wolffram S, Minihane AM, Cassidy A, Rimbach G & Weinberg PD (2004) Effect of circulating forms of soy isoflavones on the oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res 38, 209–216.
82Rimbach G, Weinberg PD, de Pascual-Teresa S, Alonso MG, Ewins BA, Turner R, Minihane AM, Botting N, Fairley B, Matsugo S, Uchida Y & Cassidy A (2004) Sulfation of genistein alters its antioxidant properties and its effect on platelet aggregation and monocyte and endothelial function. Biochim Biophys Acta 1670, 229–237.
83Pizzagalli F, Varga Z, Huber RD, Folkers G, Meier PJ & St-Pierre MV (2003) Identification of steroid sulfate transport processes in the human mammary gland. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 3902–3912.
84Barnes S (2004) Soy isoflavones–phytoestrogens and what else? J Nutr 134, 1225S–1228S.
85McCarty MF (2006) Isoflavones made simple – genistein's agonist activity for the beta-type estrogen receptor mediates their health benefits. Med Hypotheses 66, 1093–1114.
86Sarkar FH & Li YW (2004) Cell signaling pathways altered by natural chemopreventive agents. Mutat Res 555, 53–64.
87Pettersson K & Gustafsson JA (2001) Role of estrogen receptor beta in estrogen action. Annu Rev Physiol 63, 165–192.
88Lindberg MK, Moverare S, Skrtic S, Gao H, Dahlman-Wright K, Gustafsson JA & Ohlsson C (2003) Estrogen receptor (ER)-beta reduces ER alpha-regulated gene transcription, supporting a ‘Ying Yang’ relationship between ER alpha and ER beta in mice. Mol Endocrinol 17, 203–208.
89Liu MM, Albanese C, Anderson CM, Hilty K, Webb P, Uht RM, Price RH, Pestell RG & Kushner PJ (2002) Opposing action of estrogen receptors alpha and beta on cyclin D1 gene expression. J Biol Chem 277, 24353–24360.
90Leygue E, Dotzlaw H, Watson PH & Murphy LC (1998) Altered estrogen receptor alpha and beta messenger RNA expression during human breast tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 58, 3197–3201.
91Maggiolini M, Bonofiglio D, Marsico S, Panno ML, Cenni B, Picard D & Ando S (2001) Estrogen receptor alpha mediates the proliferative but not the cytotoxic dose-dependent effects of two major phytoestrogens on human breast cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol 60, 595–602.
92Power KA & Thompson LU (2003) Ligand-induced regulation of ERalpha and ERbeta is indicative of human breast cancer cell proliferation. Breast Cancer Res Treat 81, 209–221.
93Cappelletti V, Miodini P, Di Fronzo G & Daidone MG (2006) Modulation of estrogen receptor-beta isoforms by phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol 28, 1185–1191.
94Gallo D, Giacomelli S, Cantelmo F, Zannoni GF, Ferrandina G, Fruscella E, Riva A, Morazzoni P, Bombardelli E, Mancuso S & Scambia G (2001) Chemoprevention of DMBA-induced mammary cancer in rats by dietary soy. Breast Cancer Res Treat 69, 153–164.
95Dalu A, Blaydes BS, Bryant CW, Latendresse JR, Weis CC & Barry Delclos K (2002) Estrogen receptor expression in the prostate of rats treated with dietary genistein. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 777, 249–260.
96Fritz WA, Wang J, Eltoum IE & Lamartiniere CA (2002) Dietary genistein down-regulates androgen and estrogen receptor expression in the rat prostate. Mol Cell Endocrinol 186, 89–99.
97Wang J, Eltoum IE & Lamartiniere CA (2007) Genistein chemoprevention of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice. J Carcinog 6, 3.
98Kuiper G, Carlsson B, Grandien K, Enmark E, Haggblad J, Nilsson S & Gustafsson JA (1997) Comparison of the ligand binding specificity and transcript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Endocrinology 138, 863–870.
99Kuiper GG, Lemmen JG, Carlsson B, Corton JC, Safe SH, van der Saag PT, van der Burg B & Gustafsson JA (1998) Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology 139, 4252–4263.
100Matthews J & Gustafsson JA (2003) Estrogen signaling: a subtle balance between ERalpha and ERbeta. Mol Interv 3, 281–292.
101Pike ACW, Brzozowski AM & Hubbard RE (2000) A structural biologist's view of the oestrogen receptor. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 74, 261–268.
102Morito K, Hirose T, Kinjo J, Hirakawa T, Okawa M, Nohara T, Ogawa S, Inoue S, Muramatsu M & Masamune Y (2001) Interaction of phytoestrogens with estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Biol Pharm Bull 24, 351–356.
103Kostelac D, Rechkemmer G & Briviba K (2003) Phytoestrogens modulate binding response of estrogen receptors alpha and beta to the estrogen response element. J Agric Food Chem 51, 7632–7635.
104Limer JL & Speirs V (2004) Phyto-oestrogens and breast cancer chemoprevention. Breast Cancer Res 6, 119–127.
105Maggiolini M, Vivacqua A, Carpino A, Bonofiglio D, Fasanella G, Salerno M, Picard D & Ando S (2002) The mutant androgen receptor T877A mediates the proliferative but not the cytotoxic dose-dependent effects of genistein and quercetin on human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol 62, 1027–1035.
106Fioravanti L, Cappelletti V, Miodini P, Ronchi E, Brivio M & Di Fronzo G (1998) Genistein in the control of breast cancer cell growth: insights into the mechanism of action in vitro. Cancer Lett 130, 143–152.
107Wood CE, Register TC, Franke AA, Anthony MS & Cline JM (2006) Dietary soy isoflavones inhibit estrogen effects in the postmenopausal breast. Cancer Res 66, 1241–1249.
108Wang TT, Sathyamoorthy N & Phang JM (1996) Molecular effects of genistein on estrogen receptor mediated pathways. Carcinogenesis 17, 271–275.
109Sathyamoorthy N & Wang TT (1997) Differential effects of dietary phyto-oestrogens daidzein and equol on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Eur J Cancer 33, 2384–2389.
110Hargreaves DF, Potten CS, Harding C, Shaw LE, Morton MS, Roberts SA, Howell A & Bundred NJ (1999) Two-week dietary soy supplementation has an estrogenic effect on normal premenopausal breast. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 4017–4024.
111Leung LK & Wang TT (2000) Bcl-2 is not reduced in the death of MCF-7 cells at low genistein concentration. J Nutr 130, 2922–2926.
112Po LS, Wang TT, Chen ZY & Leung LK (2002) Genistein-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells involves changes in Bak and Bcl-x without evidence of anti-oestrogenic effects. Br J Nutr 88, 463–469.
113Bektic J, Berger AP, Pfeil K, Dobler G, Bartsch G & Klocker H (2004) Androgen receptor regulation by physiological concentrations of the isoflavonoid genistein in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells is mediated by estrogen receptor beta. Eur Urol 45, 245–251, .
114Gao S, Liu GZ & Wang ZX (2004) Modulation of androgen receptor-dependent transcription by resveratrol and genistein in prostate cancer cells. Prostate 59, 214–225.
115Davis JN, Muqim N, Bhuiyan M, Kucuk O, Pienta KJ & Sarkar FH (2000) Inhibition of prostate specific antigen expression by genistein in prostate cancer cells. Int J Oncol 16, 1091–1097.
116Davis JN, Kucuk O & Sarkar FH (2002) Expression of prostate-specific antigen is transcriptionally regulated by genistein in prostate cancer cells. Mol Carcinog 34, 91–101.
117Hamilton-Reeves JM, Rebello SA, Thomas W, Slaton JW & Kurzer MS (2007) Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate suppresses androgen receptor expression without altering estrogen receptor-beta expression or serum hormonal profiles in men at high risk of prostate cancer. J Nutr 137, 1769–1775.
118Weber KS, Setchell KDR, Stocco DM & Lephart ED (2001) Dietary soy-phytoestrogens decrease testosterone levels and prostate weight without altering LH, prostate 5 alpha-reductase or testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory peptide levels in adult male Sprague–Dawley rats. J Endocrinol 170, 591–599.
119Zhou JR, Yu LY, Zhong Y, Nassr RL, Franke AA, Gaston SM & Blackburn GL (2002) Inhibition of orthotopic growth and metastasis of androgen-sensitive human prostate tumors in mice by bioactive soybean components. Prostate 53, 143–153.
120Lund TD, Munson DJ, Haldy ME, Setchell KDR, Lephart ED & Handa RJ (2004) Equol is a novel anti-androgen that inhibits prostate growth and hormone feedback. Biol Reprod 70, 1188–1195.
121Sun XY, Plouzek CA, Henry JP, Wang TTY & Phang JM (1998) Increased UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and decreased prostate specific antigen production by biochanin A in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 58, 2379–2384.
122Makela S, Poutanen M, Lehtimaki J, Kostian ML, Santti R & Vihko R (1995) Estrogen-specific 17-beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase type-1 (Ec-22.214.171.124) as a possible target for the action of phytoestrogens. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 208, 51–59.
123Whitehead SA & Rice S (2006) Endocrine-disrupting chemicals as modulators of sex steroid synthesis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 20, 45–61.
124Kao YC, Zhou C, Sherman M, Laughton CA & Chen S (1998) Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: a site-directed mutagenesis study. Environ Health Perspect 106, 85–92.
125Makela S, Poutanen M, Kostian ML, Lehtimaki N, Strauss L, Santti R & Vihko R (1998) Inhibition of 17beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase by flavonoids in breast and prostate cancer cells. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 217, 310–316.
126Evans BA, Griffiths K & Morton MS (1995) Inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase in genital skin fibroblasts and prostate tissue by dietary lignans and isoflavonoids. J Endocrinol 147, 295–302.
127Kirk CJ, Harris RM, Wood DM, Waring RH & Hughes PJ (2001) Do dietary phytoestrogens influence susceptibility to hormone-dependent cancer by disrupting the metabolism of endogenous oestrogens? Biochem Soc Trans 29, 209–216.
128Wong CK & Keung WM (1997) Daidzein sulfoconjugates are potent inhibitors of sterol sulfatase (EC 126.96.36.199). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 233, 579–583.
129Harris RM, Wood DM, Bottomley L, Blagg S, Owen K, Hughes PJ, Waring RH & Kirk CJ (2004) Phytoestrogens are potent inhibitors of estrogen sulfation: implications for breast cancer risk and treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 1779–1787.
130Kumar NB, Cantor A, Allen K, Riccardi D & Cox CE (2002) The specific role of isoflavones on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Cancer 94, 1166–1174.
131Kurzer MS (2002) Hormonal effects of soy in premenopausal women and men. J Nutr 132, 570S–573S.
132Cassidy A, Bingham S & Setchell KDR (1994) Biological effects of a diet of soy protein-rich in isoflavones on the menstrual-cycle of premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 333–340.
133Mousavi Y & Adlercreutz H (1993) Genistein is an effective stimulator of sex-hormone binding globulin production in hepatocarcinoma human liver-cancer cells and suppresses proliferation of these cells in culture. Steroids 58, 301–304.
134Wood CE, Register TC & Cline JM (2007) Soy isoflavonoid effects on endogenous estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal female monkeys. Carcinogenesis 28, 801–808.
135Duncan AM, Underhill KE, Xu X, Lavalleur J, Phipps WR & Kurzer MS (1999) Modest hormonal effects of soy isoflavones in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 3479–3484.
136Maskarinec G, Williams AE, Inouye JS, Stanczyk FZ & Franke AA (2002) A randomized isoflavone intervention among premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 195–201.
137Duncan AM, Merz BE, Xu X, Nagel TC, Phipps WR & Kurzer MS (1999) Soy isoflavones exert modest hormonal effects in premenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 192–197.
138Mezei O, Banz WJ, Steger RW, Peluso MR, Winters TA & Shay N (2003) Soy isoflavones exert antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through the PPAR pathways in obese Zucker rats and murine RAW 264.7 cells. J Nutr 133, 1238–1243.
139Chacko BK, Chandler RT, D'Alessandro TL, Mundhekar A, Khoo NKH, Botting N, Barnes S & Patel RP (2007) Anti-inflammatory effects of isoflavones are dependent on flow and human endothelial cell PPAR gamma. J Nutr 137, 351–356.
140Horia E & Watkins BA (2007) Complementary actions of docosahexaenoic acid and genistein on COX-2, PGE(2) and invasiveness in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 28, 809–815.
141Elstner E, Muller C, Koshizuka K, Williamson EA, Park D, Asou H, Shintaku P, Said JW, Heber D & Koeffler HP (1998) Ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and retinoic acid receptor inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in BNX mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 8806–8811.
142Mueller E, Sarraf P, Tontonoz P, Evans RM, Martin KJ, Zhang M, Fletcher C, Singer S & Spiegelman BM (1998) Terminal differentiation of human breast cancer through PPAR gamma. Mol Cell 1, 465–470.
143Mueller E, Smith M, Sarraf P, Kroll T, Aiyer A, Kaufman DS, Oh W, Demetri G, Figg WD, Zhou XP, Eng C, Spiegelman BM & Kantoff PW (2000) Effects of ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in human prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97, 10990–10995.
144Theocharis S, Margeli A, Vielh P & Kouraklis G (2004) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands as cell-cycle modulators. Cancer Treat Rev 30, 545–554.
145Suzuki T, Hayashi S, Miki Y, Nakamura Y, Moriya T, Sugawara A, Ishida T, Ohuchi N & Sasano H (2006) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in human breast carcinoma: a modulator of estrogenic actions. Endocr Relat Cancer 13, 233–250.
146Han S & Roman J (2007) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: a novel target for cancer therapeutics? Anticancer Drugs 18, 237–244.
147Zhou JR, Gugger ET, Tanaka T, Guo Y, Blackburn GL & Clinton SK (1999) Soybean phytochemicals inhibit the growth of transplantable human prostate carcinoma and tumor angiogenesis in mice. J Nutr 129, 1628–1635.
148Shen JC, Klein RD, Wei Q, Guan Y, Contois JH, Wang TT, Chang S & Hursting SD (2000) Low-dose genistein induces cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and G(1) cell-cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells. Mol Carcinog 29, 92–102.
149Davis JN, Singh B, Bhuiyan M & Sarkar FH (1998) Genistein-induced upregulation of p21(WAF1), downregulation of cyclin B, and induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 32, 123–131.
150Hewitt AL & Singletary KW (2003) Soy extract inhibits mammary adenocarcinoma growth in a syngeneic mouse model. Cancer Lett 192, 133–143.
151Pagliacci MC, Smacchia M, Migliorati G, Grignani F, Riccardi C & Nicoletti I (1994) Growth-inhibitory effects of the natural phyto-oestrogen genistein in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Eur J Cancer 30A, 1675–1682.
152Frey RS, Li J & Singletary KW (2001) Effects of genistein on cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest in nonneoplastic human mammary epithelial cells: involvement of Cdc2, p21(waf/cip1), p27(kip1), and Cdc25C expression. Biochem Pharmacol 61, 979–989.
153King RW, Jackson PK & Kirschner MW (1994) Mitosis in transition. Cell 79, 563–571.
154Shao ZM, Wu J, Shen ZZ & Barsky SH (1998) Genistein exerts multiple suppressive effects on human breast carcinoma cells. Cancer Res 58, 4851–4857.
155Rice L, Samedi VG, Medrano TA, Sweeney CA, Baker HV, Stenstrom A, Furman J & Shiverick KT (2002) Mechanisms of the growth inhibitory effects of the isoflavonoid biochanin A on LNCaP cells and xenografts. Prostate 52, 201–212.
156Touny LH & Banerjee PP (2006) Identification of both Myt-1 and Wee-1 as necessary mediators of the p21-independent inactivation of the cdc-2/cyclin B1 complex and growth inhibition of TRAMP cancer cells by genistein. Prostate 66, 1542–1555.
157Liao CH, Pan SL, Guh JH & Teng CM (2004) Genistein inversely affects tubulin-binding agent-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 67, 2031–2038.
158Frey RS & Singletary KW (2003) Genistein activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, inactivates ERK1/ERK2 and decreases Cdc25C expression in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. J Nutr 133, 226–231.
159Gautier J, Solomon MJ, Booher RN, Bazan JF & Kirschner MW (1991) cdc25 is a specific tyrosine phosphatase that directly activates p34cdc2. Cell 67, 197–211.
160Li Y, Upadhyay S, Bhuiyan M & Sarkar FH (1999) Induction of apoptosis in breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 by genistein. Oncogene 18, 3166–3172.
161Waite KA, Sinden MR & Eng C (2005) Phytoestrogen exposure elevates PTEN levels. Hum Mol Genet 14, 1457–1463.
162Eto I (2006) Nutritional and chemopreventive anti-cancer agents up-regulate expression of p27Kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, in mouse JB6 epidermal and human MCF7, MDA-MB-321 and AU565 breast cancer cells. Cancer Cell Int 6, 20.
163Dave B, Eason RR, Till SR, Geng Y, Velarde MC, Badger TM & Simmen RC (2005) The soy isoflavone genistein promotes apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells by inducing the tumor suppressor PTEN. Carcinogenesis 26, 1793–1803.
164Kobayashi T, Nakata T & Kuzumaki T (2002) Effect of flavonoids on cell cycle progression in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Lett 176, 17–23.
165Kazi A, Daniel KG, Smith DM, Kumar NB & Dou QP (2003) Inhibition of the proteasome activity, a novel mechanism associated with the tumor cell apoptosis-inducing ability of genistein. Biochem Pharmacol 66, 965–976.
166Li X, Marani M, Mannucci R, Kinsey B, Andriani F, Nicoletti I, Denner L & Marcelli M (2001) Overexpression of BCL-X(L) underlies the molecular basis for resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Cancer Res 61, 1699–1706.
167Bemis DL, Capodice JL, Desai M, Buttyan R & Katz AE (2004) A concentrated aglycone isoflavone preparation (GCP) that demonstrates potent anti-prostate cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Clin Cancer Res 10, 5282–5292.
168Cao F, Jin TY & Zhou YF (2006) Inhibitory effect of isoflavones on prostate cancer cells and PTEN gene. Biomed Environ Sci 19, 35–41.
169Valachovicova T, Slivova V, Bergman H, Shuherk J & Sliva D (2004) Soy isoflavones suppress invasiveness of breast cancer cells by the inhibition of NF-kappa B/AP-1-dependent and -independent pathways. Int J Oncol 25, 1389–1395.
170El Touny LH & Banerjee PP (2007) Genistein induces the metastasis suppressor kangai-1 which mediates its anti-invasive effects in TRAMP cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 361, 169–175.
171Skogseth H, Larsson E & Halgunset J (2006) The invasive behaviour of prostatic cancer cells is suppressed by inhibitors of tyrosine kinase. Apmis 114, 61–66.
172Kumi-Diaka JK, Hassanhi M, Merchant K & Horman V (2006) Influence of genistein isoflavone on matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in prostate cancer cells. J Med Food 9, 491–497.
173Xu L & Bergan RC (2006) Genistein inhibits matrix metalloproteinase type 2 activation and prostate cancer cell invasion by blocking the transforming growth factor beta-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2-27-kDa heat shock protein pathway. Mol Pharmacol 70, 869–877.
174Huang XK, Chen S, Xu L, Liu YQ, Deb DK, Platanias LC & Bergan RC (2005) Genistein inhibits p38 map kinase activation, matrix metalloproteinase type 2, and cell invasion in human prostate epithelial cells. Cancer Res 65, 3470–3478.
175Mentor-Marcel R, Lamartiniere CA, Eltoum IA, Greenberg NM & Elgavish A (2005) Dietary genistein improves survival and reduces expression of osteopontin in the prostate of transgenic mice with prostatic adenocarcinoma (TRAMP). J Nutr 135, 989–995.
176Peterson G & Barnes S (1993) Genistein and biochanin A inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer cells but not epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation. Prostate 22, 335–345.
177Wang S, DeGroff VL & Clinton SK (2003) Tomato and soy polyphenols reduce insulin-like growth factor-I-stimulated rat prostate cancer cell proliferation and apoptotic resistance in vitro via inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways involving tyrosine kinase. J Nutr 133, 2367–2376.
178Akiyama T, Ishida J, Nakagawa S, Ogawara H, Watanabe S, Itoh N, Shibuya M & Fukami Y (1987) Genistein, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine-specific protein kinases. J Biol Chem 262, 5592–5595.
179Dalu A, Haskell JF, Coward L & Lamartiniere CA (1998) Genistein, a component of soy, inhibits the expression of the EGF and ErbB2/Neu receptors in the rat dorsolateral prostate. Prostate 37, 36–43.
180Wang J, Eltoum IE & Lamartiniere CA (2004) Genistein alters growth factor signaling in transgenic prostate model (TRAMP). Mol Cell Endocrinol 219, 171–180.
181Brown NM, Wang J, Cotroneo MS, Zhao YX & Lamartiniere CA (1998) Prepubertal genistein treatment modulates TGF-alpha, EGF and EGF-receptor mRNAs and proteins in the rat mammary gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol 144, 149–165.
182Lamartiniere CA, Cotroneo MS, Fritz WA, Wang J, Mentor-Marcel R & Elgavish A (2002) Genistein chemoprevention: timing and mechanisms of action in murine mammary and prostate. J Nutr 132, 552S–558S.
183Cotroneo MS, Wang J, Fritz WA, Eltoum IE & Lamartiniere CA (2002) Genistein action in the prepubertal mammary gland in a chemoprevention model. Carcinogenesis 23, 1467–1474.
184Chen WF & Wong MS (2004) Genistein enhances insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 2351–2359.
185Aukema HM & Housini I (2001) Dietary soy protein effects on disease and IGF-I in male and female Han:SPRD-cy rats. Kidney Int 59, 52–61.
186Nagata C, Shimizu H, Takami R, Hayashi M, Takeda N & Yasuda K (2003) Dietary soy and fats in relation to serum insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels in premenopausal Japanese women. Nutr Cancer 45, 185–189.
187Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Kaaks R, Rinaldi S & Key TJ (2002) The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 1441–1448.
188Vrieling A, Voskuil DW, Bueno de Mesquita HB, Kaaks R, van Noord PA, Keinan-Boker L, van Gils CH & Peeters PH (2004) Dietary determinants of circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins 1, -2 and -3 in women in The Netherlands. Cancer Causes Control 15, 787–796.
189Arjmandi BH, Khalil DA, Smith BJ, Lucas EA, Juma S, Payton ME & Wild RA (2003) Soy protein has a greater effect on bone in postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, as evidenced by reducing bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 1048–1054.
190Woodside JV, Campbell MJ, Denholm EE, Newton L, Honour JW, Morton MS, Young IS & Leathem AJ (2006) Short-term phytoestrogen supplementation alters insulin-like growth factor profile but not lipid or antioxidant status. J Nutr Biochem 17, 211–215.
191Wangen KE, Duncan AM, Merz-Demlow BE, Xu X, Marcus R, Phipps WR & Kurzer MS (2000) Effects of soy isoflavones on markers of bone turnover in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85, 3043–3048.
192Probst-Hensch NM, Wang H, Goh VH, Seow A, Lee HP & Yu MC (2003) Determinants of circulating insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations in a cohort of Singapore men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12, 739–746.
193Khalil DA, Lucas EA, Juma S, Smith BJ, Payton ME & Arjmandi BH (2002) Soy protein supplementation increases serum insulin-like growth factor-I in young and old men but does not affect markers of bone metabolism. J Nutr 132, 2605–2608.
194Adams KF, Newton KM, Chen C, Emerson SS, Potter JD, White E & Lampe JW (2003) Soy Isoflavones do not modulate circulating insulin-like growth factor concentrations in an older population in an intervention trial. J Nutr 133, 1316–1319.
195Hussain M, Banerjee M, Sarkar FH, Djuric Z, Pollak MN, Doerge D, Fontana J, Chinni S, Davis J, Forman J, Wood DP & Kucuk O (2003) Soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer 47, 111–117.
196Jagadeesh S, Kyo S & Banerjee PP (2006) Genistein represses telomerase activity via both transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms in human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 66, 2107–2115.
197El Touny LH & Banerjee PP (2007) Akt/GSK3 pathway as a target in genistein-induced inhibition of TRAMP prostate cancer progression towards a poorly differentiated phenotype. Carcinogenesis.
198Li Y & Sarkar FH (2002) Down-regulation of invasion and angiogenesis-related genes identified by cDNA microarray analysis of PC3 prostate cancer cells treated with genistein. Cancer Lett 186, 157–164.
199Gong L, Li Y, Nedeljkovic-Kurepa A & Sarkar FH (2003) Inactivation of NF-kappaB by genistein is mediated via Akt signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. Oncogene 22, 4702–4709.
200Li Y & Sarkar FH (2002) Gene expression profiles of genistein-treated PC3 prostate cancer cells. J Nutr 132, 3623–3631.
201Davis JN, Kucuk O & Sarkar FH (1999) Genistein inhibits NF-kappa B activation in prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 35, 167–174.
202Vanden Berghe W, Dijsselbloem N, Vermeulen L, Ndlovu N, Boone E & Haegeman G (2006) Attenuation of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1-driven nuclear factor-kappaB gene expression by soy isoflavones does not require estrogenic activity. Cancer Res 66, 4852–4862.
203Borras C, Gambini J, Gomez-Cabrera MC, Sastre J, Pallardo FV, Mann GE & Vina J (2006) Genistein, a soy isoflavone, up-regulates expression of antioxidant genes: involvement of estrogen receptors, ERK1/2, and NF kappa B. FASEB J 20, 2136.
204Wang XY, Clubbs EA & Bomser JA (2006) Genistein modulates prostate epithelial cell proliferation via estrogen- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathways. J Nutr Biochem 17, 204–210.
205Clubbs EA & Bomser JA (2007) Glycitein activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling in nontumorigenic (RWPE-1) prostate epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem 18, 525–532.
206Thompson D & Easton DF (2002) Cancer incidence in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 94, 1358–1365.
207Boulton SJ (2006) Cellular functions of the BRCA tumour-suppressor proteins. Biochem Soc Trans 34, 633–645.
208Rosen EM, Fan S, Pestell RG & Goldberg ID (2003) BRCA1 in hormone-responsive cancers. Trends Endocrinol Metab 14, 378–385.
209Fan S, Meng Q, Auborn K, Carter T & Rosen EM (2006) BRCA1 and BRCA2 as molecular targets for phytochemicals indole-3-carbinol and genistein in breast and prostate cancer cells. Br J Cancer 94, 407–426.
210Vissac-Sabatier C, Coxam V, Dechelotte P, Picherit C, Horcajada MN, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Bignon YJ & Bernard-Gallon D (2003) Phytoestrogen-rich diets modulate expression of Brca1 and Brca2 tumor suppressor genes in mammary glands of female Wistar rats. Cancer Res 63, 6607–6612.
211Rufer CE & Kulling SE (2006) Antioxidant activity of isoflavones and their major metabolites using different in vitro assays. J Agric Food Chem 54, 2926–2931.
212Wei H, Wei L, Frenkel K, Bowen R & Barnes S (1993) Inhibition of tumor promoter-induced hydrogen peroxide formation in vitro and in vivo by genistein. Nutr Cancer 20, 1–12.
213Patel RP, Boersma BJ, Crawford JH, Hogg N, Kirk M, Kalyanaraman B, Parks DA, Barnes S & Darley-Usmar V (2001) Antioxidant mechanisms of isoflavones in lipid systems: paradoxical effects of peroxyl radical scavenging. Free Radic Biol Med 31, 1570–1581.
214Raschke M, Rowland IR, Magee PJ & Pool-Zobel BL (2006) Genistein protects prostate cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces expression of genes involved in the defence against oxidative stress. Carcinogenesis 27, 2322–2330.
215DiSilvestro RA, Goodman J, Dy E & Lavalle G (2005) Soy isoflavone supplementation elevates erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, but not plasma ceruloplasmin in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Breast Cancer Res Treat 89, 251–255.
216Rowlands JC, He L, Hakkak R, Ronis MJ & Badger TM (2001) Soy and whey proteins downregulate DMBA-induced liver and mammary gland CYP1 expression in female rats. J Nutr 131, 3281–3287.
217Chan HY & Leung LK (2003) A potential protective mechanism of soya isoflavones against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene tumour initiation. Br J Nutr 90, 457–465.
218Peng WX, Li HD & Zhou HH (2003) Effect of daidzein on CYP1A2 activity and pharmacokinetics of theophylline in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59, 237–241.
219Steiner C, Peters WH, Gallagher EP, Magee P, Rowland I & Pool-Zobel BL (2007) Genistein protects human mammary epithelial cells from benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal genotoxicity by modulating the glutathione/glutathione S-transferase system. Carcinogenesis 28, 738–748.
220Bianco NR, Chaplin LJ & Montano MM (2005) Differential induction of quinone reductase by phytoestrogens and protection against oestrogen-induced DNA damage. Biochem J 385, 279–287.
221Farhan H, Wahala K & Cross HS (2003) Genistein inhibits vitamin D hydroxylases CYP24 and CYP27B1 expression in prostate cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 84, 423–429.
222Cross HS, Kallay E, Lechner D, Gerdenitsch W, Adlercreutz H & Armbrecht HJ (2004) Phytoestrogens and vitamin D metabolism: a new concept for the prevention and therapy of colorectal, prostate, and mammary carcinomas. J Nutr 134, 1207S–1212S.
223Markovits J, Linassier C, Fosse P, Couprie J, Pierre J, Jacquemin-Sablon A, Saucier JM, Le Pecq JB & Larsen AK (1989) Inhibitory effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein on mammalian DNA topoisomerase II. Cancer Res 49, 5111–5117.
224Chinni SR, Alhasan SA, Multani AS, Pathak S & Sarkar FH (2003) Pleotropic effects of genistein on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Int J Mol Med 12, 29–34.
225Lila MA & Raskin I (2005) Health-related interactions of phytochemicals. J Food Sci 70, R20–R27.
226Lee AV, Cui XJ & Oesterreich S (2001) Cross-talk among estrogen receptor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor signaling in breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 7, 4429S–4435S.
227Ueda T, Mawji NR, Bruchovsky N & Sadar MD (2002) Ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor by interleukin-6 and the role of steroid receptor coactivator-1 in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem 277, 38087–38094.
228Kato S, Masuhiro Y, Watanabe M, Kobayashi Y, Takeyama K, Endoh H & Yanagisawa J (2000) Molecular mechanism of a cross-talk between oestrogen and growth factor signalling pathways. Genes Cells 5, 593–601.
229McCarty MF (2004) Targeting Multiple signaling pathways as a strategy for managing prostate cancer: multifocal signal modulation therapy. Integr Cancer Ther 3, 349–380.
230Hamelers IHL & Steenbergh PH (2003) Interactions between insulin-like growth factor estrogen and signaling pathways in human breast tumor cells. Endocr Relat Cancer 10, 331–345.
231Wang X & Kilgore MW (2002) Signal cross-talk between estrogen receptor alpha and beta and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamina1 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 194, 123–133.
232Bonofiglio D, Gabriele S, Aquila S, Catalano S, Gentile M, Middea E, Giordano F & Ando S (2005) Estrogen receptor alpha binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor response element and negatively interferes with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling in breast cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 11, 6139–6147.
233De Bosscher K, Vanden Berghe W & Haegeman G (2006) Cross-talk between nuclear receptors and nuclear factor kappa B. Oncogene 25, 6868–6886.
234Vasudevan KM, Gurumurthy S & Rangnekar VM (2004) Suppression of PTEN expression by NF-kappa B prevents apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol 24, 1007–1021.
235Terasaka S, Aita Y, Inoue A, Hayashi S, Nishigaki M, Aoyagi K, Sasaki H, Wada-Kiyama Y, Sakuma Y, Akaba S, Tanaka J, Sone H, Yonemoto J, Tanji M & Kiyama R (2004) Using a customized DNA microarray for expression profiling of the estrogen-responsive genes to evaluate estrogen activity among natural estrogens and industrial chemicals. Environ Health Perspect 112, 773–781.
236Ise R, Han D, Takahashi Y, Terasaka S, Inoue A, Tanji M & Kiyama R (2005) Expression profiling of the estrogen responsive genes in response to phytoestrogens using a customized DNA microarray. FEBS Lett 579, 1732–1740.
237Moggs JG, Ashby J, Tinwell H, Lim FL, Moore DJ, Kimber I & Orphanides G (2004) The need to decide if all estrogens are intrinsically similar. Environ Health Perspect 112, 1137–1142.
238Naciff JM, Jump ML, Torontali SM, Carr GJ, Tiesman JP, Overmann GJ & Daston GP (2002) Gene expression profile induced by 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol, bisphenol A, and genistein in the developing female reproductive system of the rat. Toxicol Sci 68, 184–199.
239Konstantakopoulos N, Montgomery KG, Chamberlain N, Quinn MA, Baker MS, Rice GE, Georgiou HM & Campbell IG (2006) Changes in gene expressions elicited by physiological concentrations of genistein on human endometrial cancer cells. Mol Carcinog 45, 752–763.
240Naciff JM & Daston GP (2004) Toxicogenomic approach to endocrine disrupters: identification of a transcript profile characteristic of chemicals with estrogenic activity. Toxicol Pathol 32, 59–70.
241Shioda T, Chesnes J, Coser KR, Zou LH, Hur J, Dean KL, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM & Isselbacher KJ (2006) Importance of dosage standardization for interpreting transcriptomal signature profiles: evidence from studies of xenoestrogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 12033–12038.
242Buterin T, Koch C & Naegeli H (2006) Convergent transcriptional profiles induced by endogenous estrogen and distinct xenoestrogens in breast cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 27, 1567–1578.
243Thomsen AR, Almstrup K, Nielsen JE, Sorensen IK, Petersen OW, Leffers H & Breinholt VM (2006) Estrogenic effect of soy isoflavones on mammary gland morphogenesis and gene expression profile. Toxicol Sci 93, 357–368.
244York TP, Plymate SR, Nelson PS, Eaves LJ, Webb HD & Ware JL (2005) cDNA microarray analysis identifies genes induced in common by peptide growth factors and androgen in human prostate epithelial cells. Mol Carcinog 44, 242–251.
245You L & Bartolucci EJ (2004) Gene expression profiles in mammary gland of male rats treated with genistein and methoxychlor. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 18, 161–172.
246Takahashi Y, Lavigne JA, Hursting SD, Chandramouli GVR, Perkins SN, Barrett JC & Wang TTY (2004) Using DNA microarray analyses to elucidate the effects of genistein in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells: identification of novel targets. Mol Carcinog 41, 108–119.
247Takahashi Y, Lavigne JA, Hursting SD, Chandramouli GVR, Perkins SN, Kim YS & Wang TTY (2006) Molecular signatures of soy-derived phytochemicals in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells: a comparison study using DNA microarray. Mol Carcinog 45, 943–956.
248Takahashi Y, Hursting SD, Perkins SN, Wang TC & Wang TTY (2006) Genistein affects androgen-responsive genes through both androgen- and estrogen-induced signaling pathways. Mol Carcinog 45, 18–25.
249Li YW, Che MX, Bhagat S, Ellis KL, Kucuk O, Doerge DR, Abrams J, Cher ML & Sarkar FH (2004) Regulation of gene expression and inhibition of experimental prostate cancer bone metastasis by dietary genistein. Neoplasia 6, 354–363.
250Suzuki K, Koike H, Matsui H, Ono Y, Hasumi M, Nakazato H, Okugi H, Sekine Y, Oki K, Ito K, Yamamoto T, Fukabori Y, Kurokawa K & Yamanaka H (2002) Genistein, a soy isoflavone, induces glutathione peroxidase in the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3. Int J Cancer 99, 846–852.
251Chen WF, Huang MH, Tzang CH, Yang M & Wong MS (2003) Inhibitory actions of genistein in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1638, 187–196.
252Handayani R, Rice L, Cui Y, Medrano TA, Samedi VG, Baker HV, Szabo NJ & Shiverick KT (2006) Soy isoflavones alter expression of genes associated with cancer progression, including interleukin-8, in androgen-independent PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. J Nutr 136, 75–82.
253Rowell C, Carpenter DM & Lamartiniere CA (2005) Chemoprevention of breast cancer, proteomic discovery of genistein action in the rat mammary gland. J Nutr 135, 2953S–2959S.
254Solanky KS, Bailey NJ, Beckwith-Hall BM, Bingham S, Davis A, Holmes E, Nicholson JK & Cassidy A (2005) Biofluid H-1 NMR-based metabonomic techniques in nutrition research metabolic effects of dietary isoflavones in humans. J Nutr Biochem 16, 236–244.
255Solanky KS, Bailey NJC, Beckwith-Hall BM, Davis A, Bingham S, Holmes E, Nicholson JK & Cassidy A (2003) Application of biofluid H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic techniques for the analysis of the biochemical effects of dietary isoflavones on human plasma profile. Anal Biochem 323, 197–204.
256Gibney MJ, Walsh M, Brennan L, Roche HM, German B & van Ommen B (2005) Metabolomics in human nutrition: opportunities and challenges. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 497–503.
257Fay JR, Crowell JA & Kopelovich L (2005) Targeting epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in cancer chemoprevention. Expert Opin Ther Targets 9, 315–328.
258Leader JE, Wang C, Fu M & Pestell RG (2006) Epigenetic regulation of nuclear steroid receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 72, 1589–1596.
259Yu YP, Paranjpe S, Nelson J, Finkelstein S, Ren B, Kokkinakis D, Michalopoulos G & Luo JH (2005) High throughput screening of methylation status of genes in prostate cancer using an oligonucleotide methylation array. Carcinogenesis 26, 471–479.
260Day JK, Bauer AM, DesBordes C, Zhuang Y, Kim BE, Newton LG, Nehra V, Forsee KM, MacDonald RS, Besch-Williford C, Huang TH & Lubahn DB (2002) Genistein alters methylation patterns in mice. J Nutr 132, 2419S–2423S.
261Fang MZ, Chen D, Sun Y, Jin Z, Christman JK & Yang CS (2005) Reversal of hypermethylation and reactivation of p16INK4a, RARbeta, and MGMT genes by genistein and other isoflavones from soy. Clin Cancer Res 11, 7033–7041.
262Hong T, Nakagawa T, Pan WJ, Kim MY, Kraus WL, Ikehara T, Yasui K, Aihara H, Takebe M, Muramatsu M & Ito T (2004) Isoflavones stimulate estrogen receptor-mediated core histone acetylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 317, 259–264.
263Lund TD, Munson DJ, Adlercreutz H, Handa RJ & Lephart ED (2004) Androgen receptor expression in the rat prostate is down-regulated by dietary phytoestrogens. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2, 5–10.
264Wong CK & Keung WM (1999) Bovine adrenal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1. 145)/5-ene-4-ene isomerase (E.C. 188.8.131.52): characterization and its inhibition by isoflavones. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 71, 191–202.
265Hiipakka RA, Zhang HZ, Dai W, Dai Q & Liao ST (2002) Structure–activity relationships for inhibition of human 5 alpha-reductases by polyphenols. Biochem Pharmacol 63, 1165–1176.
266Adlercreutz H, Hockerstedt K, Bannwart C, Bloigu S, Hamalainen E, Fotsis T & Ollus A (1987) Effect of dietary components, including lignans and phytoestrogens, on enterohepatic circulation and liver metabolism of estrogens and on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). J Steroid Biochem 27, 1135–1144.
267Pino AM, Valladares LE, Palma MA, Mancilla AM, Yanez M & Albala C (2000) Dietary isoflavones affect sex hormone-binding globulin levels in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85, 2797–2800.
268Brzezinski A, Adlercreutz H, Shaoul R, Rosler A, Shmueli A, Tanos V & Schenker JG (1997) Short-term effects of phytoestrogen-rich diet on postmenopausal women. Menopause 4, 89–94.
269Goodin S, Shen F, Shih WJ, Dave N, Kane MP, Medina P, Lambert GH, Aisner J, Gallo M & DiPaola RS (2007) Clinical and biological activity of soy protein powder supplementation in healthy male volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 829–833.
270Rannikko A, Petas A, Raivio T, Janne OA, Rannikko S & Adlercreutz H (2006) The effects of short-term oral phytoestrogen supplementation on the hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular axis in prostate cancer patients. Prostate 66, 1086–1091.
271Shao ZM, Alpaugh ML, Fontana JA & Barsky SH (1998) Genistein inhibits proliferation similarly in estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cell lines characterized by P21(WAF1/CIP1) induction, G(2)/M arrest, and apoptosis. J Cell Biochem 69, 44–54.
272Katdare M, Osborne M & Telang NT (2002) Soy isoflavone genistein modulates cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis in HER-2/neu oncogene expressing human breast epithelial cells. Int J Oncol 21, 809–815.
273Li Y & Sarkar FH (2002) Inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB activation in PC3 cells by genistein is mediated via Akt signaling pathway. Clin Cancer Res 8, 2369–2377.
274Berghe WV, Dijsselbloem N, Vermeulen L, Ndlovu MN, Boone E & Haegeman G (2006) Attenuation of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1-driven nuclear factor-kappa B gene expression by soy isoflavones does not require estrogenic activity. Cancer Res 66, 4852–4862.
275Laurenzana EM, Weis CC, Bryant CW, Newbold R & Delclos KB (2002) Effect of dietary administration of genistein, nonylphenol or ethinyl estradiol on hepatic testosterone metabolism, cytochrome P-450 enzymes, and estrogen receptor alpha expression. Food Chem Toxicol 40, 53–63.
276van Duursen MB, Sanderson JT, de Jong PC, Kraaij M & van den Berg M (2004) Phytochemicals inhibit catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in cytosolic fractions from healthy human mammary tissues: implications for catechol estrogen-induced DNA damage. Toxicol Sci 81, 316–324.
277Appelt LC & Reicks MM (1999) Soy induces phase II enzymes but does not inhibit dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced carcinogenesis in female rats. J Nutr 129, 1820–1826.
278Eaton EA, Walle UK, Lewis AJ, Hudson T, Wilson AA & Walle T (1996) Flavonoids, potent inhibitors of the human P-form phenolsulfotransferase. Potential role in drug metabolism and chemoprevention. Drug Metab Dispos 24, 232–237.