Abdelali, H, Cassand, P, Soussotte, V, Daubeze, M, Bouley, C & Narbonne, JF (1995) Effect of dairy products on initiation of precursor lesions of colon cancer in rats. Nutrition and Cancer 24, 121–132.
Arimochi, H, Kinouchi, T, Kataoka, K, Kuwahara, T & Ohnishi, Y (1997) Effect of intestinal bacteria on formation of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 238, 753–757.
Ayebo, AD, Angelo, IA & Shahani, KM (1980) Effect of ingesting Lactobacillus acidophilus milk upon fecal flora and enzyme activity in humans. Milchwissenschaft 35, 730–733.
Baricault, L, Denariaz, G, Houri, J-J, Bouley, C, Sapin, C & Trugnan, G (1995) Use of HT-29, a cultured human colon cancer cell line, to study the effect of fermented milks on colon cancer cell growth and differentiation. Carcinogenesis 16, 245–252.
Bartram, HP, Scheppach, W, Gerlach, S, Ruckdeschel, G, Kelber, E & Kasper, H (1994) Does yogurt enriched with Bifidobacterium longum affect colonic microbiology and fecal metabolites in healthy subjects? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 428–432.
Biasco, G, Paganelli, G, Brandi, G, Brillianti, S & Lami, F (1991) Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum on rectal cell kinetics and fecal pH. Italian Journal of Gastroenterology 23, 142.
Biffi, A, Coradini, D, Larsen, R, Riva, L & Di Fronzo, G (1997) Antiproliferative effect of fermented milk on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line. Nutrition and Cancer 28, 93–99.
Bruce, WR (1987) Recent hypotheses for the origin of colon cancer. Cancer Research 47, 4237–4242.
Challa, A, Rao, DR, Chawan, CB & Shackelford, L (1997) Bifidobacterium longum and lactulose suppress azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 18, 517–521.
De Simone, C, Vesely, R, Bianchi Salvadori, B & Jirillo, E (1993) The role of probiotics in modulation of the immune system in man and in animals. International Journal of Immunotherapy 9, 23–28.
Fang, W-F & Strobel, HW (1978) Activation of carcinogens and mutagens by rat colon mucosa. Cancer Research 38, 2939–2944.
Friend, BA, Farmer, RE & Shahani, KM (1982) Effect of feeding and intraperitoneal implantation of yogurt culture cells on Ehrlich ascites tumour. Milchwissenschaft 37, 708–710.
Goldin, BR & Gorbach, SL (1980) Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus dietary supplements on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride-induced intestinal cancer in rats. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 64, 263–265.
Goldin, BR & Gorbach, SL (1984a) Alterations of the intestinal microflora by diet, oral antibiotics and Lactobacillus: decreased production of free amines from aromatic nitro compounds, azo dyes and glucuronides. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 73, 689–695.
Goldin, BR & Gorbach, SL (1984b) The effect of milk and lactobacillus feeding on human intestinal bacterial enzyme activity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 756–761.
Goldin, BR, Swenson, L, Dwyer, J, Sexton, M & Gorbach, SL (1980) Effect of diet and Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements on human fecal bacterial enzymes. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 64, 255–261.
Hayatsu, H & Hayatsu, T (1993) Suppressing effect of Lactobacillus casei administration on the urinary mutagenicity arising from ingestion of fried ground beef in the human. Cancer Letters 73, 173–179.
Hirayama, K & Rafter, J (2000) The role of probiotic bacteria in cancer prevention. Microbes and Infection 2, 681–686.
Intestinal Microecology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (1977) Dietary fibre, transit time, fecal bacteria, steroids and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Lancet 2, 207–211.
Kampman, E, Giovannucci, E, van't Veer, P, Rimm, E, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Kok, FJ & Willett, WC (1994a) Calcium, vitamin D, dairy foods and the occurrence of colorectal adenomas among men and women in two prospective studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 139, 16–29.
Kampman, E, Goldbohm, RA, van den Brandt, PA & van't Veer, P (1994b) Fermented dairy products, calcium and colorectal cancer in the Netherlands cohort study. Cancer Research 54, 3186–3190.
Kato, I, Endo, K & Yokokura, T (1994) Effects of oral administration of Lactobacillus casei on antitumour responses induced by tumour resection in mice. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 16, 29–36.
Kato, I, Kobayashi, S, Yokokura, T & Mutai, M (1981) Antitumour activity of Lactobacillus casei in mice. Gann 72, 517–523.
Kato, I, Yokokura, T & Mutai, M (1983) Macrophage activation by Lactobacillus casei in mice. Microbiology and Immunology 27, 611–618.
Kohwi, T, Imai, K, Tamura, A & Hashimoto, Y (1978) Antitumour effect of Bifidobacterium infantis in mice. Gann 69, 613–618.
Kulkarni, N & Reddy, BS (1994) Inhibitory effect of Bifidobacterium longum cultures on the azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and fecal bacterial β-glucuronidase. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 207, 278–283.
Le, MG, Moulton, LH, Hill, C & Kramer, A (1986) Consumption of dairy produce and alcohol in a case–control study of breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 77, 633–636.
Lee, S-M & Lee, W-K (2000) Inhibitory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the azoxymethane-induced colonic preneoplastic lesions. Journal of Microbiology 38, 169–175.
Lidbeck, A, Geltner-Allinger, U, Orrhage, KM, Ottava, L, Brismar, B, Gustafsson, J-A, Rafter, JJ & Nord, CE (1991) Impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements on the faecal microflora and soluble faecal bile acids in colon cancer patients. Microbial Ecology in Health & Disease 4, 81–88.
Lidbeck, A, Overvik, E, Rafter, J, Nord, CE & Gustafsson, J-A (1992) Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements on mutagen excretion in feces and urine in humans. Microbial Ecology in Health & Disease 5, 59–67.
Ling, WH, Korpela, R, Mykkanen, H, Salminen, S & Hanninen, O (1994) Lactobacillus strain GG supplementation decreases colonic hydrolytic and reductive enzyme activities in healthy female adults. Journal of Nutrition 124, 18–23.
Malhotra, SL (1977) Dietary factors in a study of colon cancer from cancer registry, with special reference to the role of saliva, milk and fermented milk products and vegetable fibre. Medical Hypotheses 3, 122–134.
Matsuzaki, T (1998) Immunomodulation by treatment with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota. International Journal of Food Microbiology 41, 133–140.
Modler, GW, McKellar, RC & Yaguchi, M (1990) Bifidobacteria and bifidogenic factors. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 23, 29–41.
Morotomi, M & Mutai, M (1986) In vitro binding of potent mutagenic pyrolysates to intestinal bacteria. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 77, 195–201.
Orrhage, K, Sillerstrom, E, Gustafsson, J-A, Nord, CE & Rafter, J (1994) Binding of mutagenic heterocyclic amines by intestinal and LAB. Mutation Research 311, 239–248.
Peters, RK, Pike, MC, Garabrant, D & Mack, TM (1992) Diet and colon cancer in Los Angeles County, California. Cancer Causes Control 3, 457–473.
Pool-Zobel, BL, Neudecker, C, Domizlaff, I, Ji, S, Schillinger, U, Rumney, C, Moretti, M, Vilarini, I, Scassellati-Sforzolini, R & Rowland, I (1996) Lactobacillus-and Bifidobacterium-mediated antigenotoxicity in the colon of rats. Nutrition and Cancer 26, 365–380.
Reddy, BS (1998) Prevention of colon cancer by pre-and probiotics: evidence from laboratory studies. British Journal of Nutrition 80, S219–S223.
Reddy, GV, Friend, BA, Shahani, KM & Farmer, RE (1983) Antitumour activity of yogurt components. Journal of Food Protection 46, 8–11.
Reddy, GV, Shahani, KM & Banerjee, MR (1973) Inhibitory effect of yogurt on Ehrlich ascites tumour cell proliferation. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 50, 815–817.
Rowland, IR & Grasso, P (1975) Degradation of N-nitrosamines by intestinal bacteria. Applied Microbiology 29, 7–12.
Rowland, IR, Rumney, CJ, Coutts, JT & Lievense, LC (1998) Effect of Bifidobacterium longum and inulin on gut bacterial metabolism and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats. Carcinogenesis 19, 281–285.
Salminen, S, Bouley, C, Boutron-Ruault, M-C, Cummings, JH, Franck, A, Gibson, GR, Isolauri, E, Moreau, M-C, Roberfroid, M & Rowland, I (1998) Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function. British Journal of Nutrition 80, Suppl. 1, S147–S171.
Sant, M, Capocaccia, E, Verdecchia, A, Gatta, G, Micheli, A, Mariotto, A, Hakulinen, T & Berrino, F (1995) Comparisions of colon-cancer survival among European countries: The Eurocare Study. International Journal of Cancer 63, 43–48.
Schiffrin, EJ, Rochat, F, Link-Amster, H, Aeschlimann, JM & Donnet-Hughes, A (1995) Immunomodulation of human blood cells following the ingestion of LAB. Journal of Dairy Science 78, 491–496.
Sekine, K, Kawashima, T & Hashimoto, Y (1994) Comparison of the TNF-α levels induced by human-derived Bifidobacterium longum and rat-derived Bifidobacterium animalis in mouse peritoneal cells. Bifidobacteria Microflora 13, 79–89.
Sekine, K, Toida, T, Saito, M, Kuboyama, M, Kawashima, T & Hashimoto, Y (1985) A new morphologically characterized cell wall preparation (whole peptidoglycan) from Bifidobacterium infantis with a higher efficacy on the regression of an established tumour in mice. Cancer Research 45, 1300–1307.
Shahani, KM & Ayebo, AD (1980) Role of dietary lactobacilli in gastrointestinal microecology. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 2448–2457.
Spanhaak, S, Havenaar, R & Schaafsma, G (1998) The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parmeters in humans. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 899–907.
van't Veer, P, Dekker, JM, Lamers, JWJ, Kok, FJ, Schouten, EG, Brants, HAM, Sturmans, F & Hermus, RJJ (1989) Consumption of fermented milk products and breast cancer: a case–control study in the Netherlands. Cancer Research 49, 4020–4023.
Venitt, S (1988) Mutagens in human faeces and cancer of the large bowel. In Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, pp. 399–460 [Rowland, I, editor]. London: Academic Press.
Weisburger, JH & Wynder, EL (1987) Etiology of colorectal cancer with emphasis on mechanism of action and prevention. In Important Advances in Oncology, pp. 197–220. [De Vita, VT, Hellman, S and Rosenberg, SA, editors]. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott.
Yamazaki, K, Tsunoda, A, Sibusawa, M, Tsunoda, Y, Kusano, M, Fukuchi, K, Yamanaka, M, Kushima, M, Nomoto, K & Morotomi, M (2000) The effects of an oral administration of Lactobacillus casei Shirota on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci and colon cancer in rats. Oncology Reports 7, 977–982.
Young, TB & Wolf, DA (1988) Case–control study of proximal and distal colon cancer and diet in Wisconsin. International Journal of Cancer 42, 167–175.
Zhang, XB & Ohta, Y (1993) Microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat prevent absorption of the mutagen-carcinogen 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 39, 841–845.