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Longitudinal association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with adipokines and markers of glucose metabolism among Brazilian pregnant women

  • Camila Benaim (a1) (a2), Paula Guedes Cocate (a1) (a2), Erica Guimarães de Barros (a1), Nadya Helena Alves-Santos (a1) (a2), Amanda Caroline Cunha Figueiredo (a1) (a2), Ana Beatriz Franco-Sena (a1) (a3), Jaqueline Lepsch (a1) (a4), Amanda Rodrigues Amorim Adegboye (a5), Rana Mokhtar (a6), Michael F. Holick (a6) and Gilberto Kac (a1) (a2)...


This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association of vitamin D status with glycaemia, insulin, homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, adiponectin and leptin. A prospective cohort with 181 healthy, pregnant Brazilian women was followed at the 5th–13th, 20th–26th and 30th–36th gestational weeks. In this cohort, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) plasma concentrations were analysed using liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Vitamin D status was categorised as sufficient or insufficient using the Endocrine Society Practice Guidelines (≥75/<75 nmol/l) and the Institute of Medicine (≥50/<50 nmol/l) thresholds. Linear mixed-effect regression models were employed to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and each outcome, considering interaction terms between vitamin D status and gestational age (P<0·1). At baseline, 70·7 % of pregnant women had 25(OH)D levels <75 nmol/l and 16 % had levels <50 nmol/l. Women with sufficient vitamin D status at baseline, using both thresholds, presented lower glycaemia than those with insufficient 25(OH)D. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/l showed lower insulin (β=−0·12; 95 % CI −0·251, 0·009; P=0·069) and adiponectin (β=−0·070; 95 % CI −0·150, 0·010; P=0·085) concentrations throughout pregnancy than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥75 nmol/l. Pregnant women with 25(OH)D <50 nmol/l at baseline presented significantly higher leptin concentrations than those with 25(OH)D levels ≥50 nmol/l (β=−0·253; 95 % CI −0·044, 0·550; P=0·095). The baseline status of vitamin D influences the biomarkers involved in glucose metabolism. Vitamin D-sufficient women at baseline had higher increases in insulin and adiponectin changes throughout gestation than those who were insufficient.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: G. Kac, fax +55 21 22808343, email


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