Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma β-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans

  • Ada L. Garcia (a1) (a2), Corinna Koebnick (a1) (a3), Peter C. Dagnelie (a4), Carola Strassner (a1), Ibrahim Elmadfa (a5), Norbert Katz (a6), Claus Leitzmann (a1) and Ingrid Hoffmann (a1)...
Abstract

Dietary carotenoids are associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases. Raw food diets are predominantly plant-based diets that are practised with the intention of preventing chronic diseases by virtue of their high content of beneficial nutritive substances such as carotenoids. However, the benefit of a long-term adherence to these diets is controversial since little is known about their adequacy. Therefore, we investigated vitamin A and carotenoid status and related food sources in raw food diet adherents in Germany. Dietary vitamin A, carotenoid intake, plasma retinol and plasma carotenoids were determined in 198 (ninety-two male and 106 female) strict raw food diet adherents in a cross-sectional study. Raw food diet adherents consumed on average 95 weight% of their total food intake as raw food (approximately 1800 g/d), mainly fruits. Raw food diet adherents had an intake of 1301 retinol activity equivalents/d and 16·7 mg/d carotenoids. Plasma vitamin A status was normal in 82 % of the subjects ( ≥ 1·05 μmol/l) and 63 % had β-carotene concentrations associated with chronic disease prevention ( ≥ 0·88 μmol/l). In 77 % of subjects the lycopene status was below the reference values for average healthy populations ( < 0·45 μmol/l). Fat contained in fruits, vegetables and nuts and oil consumption was a significant dietary determinant of plasma carotenoid concentrations (β-carotene r 0·284; P < 0·05; lycopene r 0·168; P = 0·024). Long-term raw food diet adherents showed normal vitamin A status and achieve favourable plasma β-carotene concentrations as recommended for chronic disease prevention, but showed low plasma lycopene levels. Plasma carotenoids in raw food adherents are predicted mainly by fat intake.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma β-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma β-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Long-term strict raw food diet is associated with favourable plasma β-carotene and low plasma lycopene concentrations in Germans
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor Ingrid Hoffmann, fax +49 6419939059, email ingrid.hoffmann@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1 EJ Johnson (2002) The role of carotenoids in human health. Nutr Clin Care 5, 5665.

4 W Stahl & H Sies (2005) Bioactivity and protective effects of natural carotenoids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1740, 101107.

6 JM Holden , AL Eldridge , GR Beecher , (1999) Carotenoid content of U.S. foods: an update of the database. J Food Comp Anal 12, 169196.

8 C Koebnick , C Strassner , I Hoffmann & C Leitzmann (1999) Consequences of a long-term raw food diet on body weight and menstruation: results of a questionnaire survey. Ann Nutr Metab 43, 6979.

10 E Cunningham (2004) What is a raw foods diet and are there any risks or benefits associated with it? J Am Diet Assoc 104, 1623.

19 E Jakob & I Elmadfa (1995) Application of a simplified HPLC assay for the determination of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in animal and plant food items. Food Chem 56, 87.

23 H Biesalski , H Bohles , H Esterbauer , P Furst , P Gey , G Hundsdorfer , H Kasper , H Sies & J Weisburger (1997) Antioxidant vitamins in prevention. Clin Nutr 16, 151155.

25 S West , S Vitale , J Hallfrisch , (1994) Are antioxidants or supplements protective for age-related macular degeneration? Arch Ophthalmol 112, 222227.

27 GB Mensink & R Beitz (2004) Food and nutrient intake in East and West Germany, 8 years after the reunification – The German Nutrition Survey 1998. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 10001010.

29 VP Palace , N Khaper , Q Qin & PK Singal (1999) Antioxidant potentials of vitamin A and carotenoids and their relevance to heart disease. Free Radic Biol Med 26, 746761.

30 P Astorg (1997) Food carotenoids and cancer prevention: an overview of current research. Trends Food Sci Technol 8, 406413.

31 A Tavani & C La Vecchia (1999) Beta-carotene and risk of coronary heart disease. A review of observational and intervention studies. Biomed Pharmacother 53, 409416.

32 AL Rauma & H Mykkanen (2000) Antioxidant status in vegetarians versus omnivores. Nutrition 16, 111119.

35 V Tyssandier , E Reboul , JF Dumas , (2003) Processing of vegetable-borne carotenoids in the human stomach and duodenum. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 284, G913G923.

40 E Kennedy & CA Davis (2000) Dietary guidelines 2000 – the opportunity and challenges for reaching the consumer. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 14621465.

41 RM Krauss , RH Eckel , B Howard , (2000) AHA Dietary Guidelines: revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 102, 22842299.

46 LC Nebeling , MR Forman , BI Graubard & RA Snyder (1997) Changes in carotenoid intake in the United States: the 1987 and 1992 National Health Interview Surveys. J Am Diet Assoc 97, 991996.

47 R Pelz , B Schmidt-Faber & H Heseker (1998) Carotenoid intake in the German National Food Consumption Survey. Z Ernahrungswiss 37, 319327.

48 M Porrini , P Riso & G Testolin (1998) Absorption of lycopene from single or daily portions of raw and processed tomato. Br J Nutr 80, 353361.

54 NC Armstrong , G Paganga , E Brunner , (1997) Reference values for alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in the Whitehall II Study. Free Radic Res 27, 207219.

57 JE Dutra-de-Oliveira , RM Favaro , IR Leonardo , AA Jordao Junior & H Vannucchi (1998) Absorption, by humans, of beta-carotene from fortified soybean oil added to rice: effect of heat treatment. J Am Coll Nutr 17, 361365.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 69
Total number of PDF views: 266 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1511 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 31st March 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.