Abedin L, Lien EL, Vingrys AJ & Sinclair AJ (1999) The effects of dietary α-linolenic acid compared with docosahexaenoic acid on brain, retina, liver, and heart in the guinea pig. Lipids 34, 475–482.
Aid S, Vancassel S, Poumes-Ballihaut C, Chalon S, Guesnet P & Lavialle M (2003) Effect of a diet-induced n-3 PUFA depletion on cholinergic parameters in the rat hippocampus. J Lipid Res 44, 1545–1551.
Akbar M & Kim HY (2002) Protective effects of docosahexaenoic acid in staurosporine-induced apoptosis: involvement of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway. J Neurochem 82, 655–665.
Anderson G & Connor WE (1988) Uptake of fatty acids by developing brain. Lipids 23, 286–290.
Anderson RE, Benolken RM, Dudley PA, Landis DJ & Wheeler TG (1974) Polyunsaturated fatty acids of photoreceptor membranes. Exp Eye Res 18, 205–213.
Barcelo-Coblijn G, Hogyes E, Kitajka K, Puskas LG, Zvara A, Hackler L, Jr Nvakas, C Penke, Z Farkas T (2003) Modification by docosahexaenoic acid of age-induced alterations in gene expression and molecular composition of rat brain phospholipids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 11321–11326.
Bazinet RP, McMillan EG & Cunnane SC (2003a) Dietary alpha-linolenic acid increases the n-3 PUFA content of sow's milk and the tissues of the suckling piglet. Lipids 38, 1045–1049.
Bazinet RP, McMillan EG, Seebaransingh R, Hayes AM & Cunnane SC (2003b) Whole-body beta-oxidation of 18: 2 omega6 and 18: 3 omega3 in the pig varies markedly with weaning strategy and dietary 18: 3 omega3. J Lipid Res 44, 314–319.
Bell RM & Burns DJ (1991) Lipid activation of protein kinase C. J Biol Chem 266, 4661–4664.
Bernhart JT & Sprecher H (1975) Studies to determine the role rates of chain elongation and desaturation in regulating the unsaturated fatty acid composition of rat liver lipids. Biochim Biophys Acta 398, 354–363.
Bernoud N, Fenart L, Bénistant C, Pageaux JF, Dehouck MP, Molière P (1998) Astrocytes are mainly responsible for the polyunsaturated fatty acid enrichment in blood-brain barrier endothelial cells in vitro. J Lipid Res 39, 1816–1824.
Birch EE, Garfield S & Hoffman DR (2000) A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 42, 174–181.
Borghese CM, Gomez RA & Ramirez OA (1993) Phosphatidylserine increases hippocampal synaptic efficacy. Brain Res Bull 31, 697–700.
Bourre JM, Dinh L, Boithias C, Dumont O, Piciotti M & Cunnane S (1997) Possible role of the choroid plexus in the supply of brain tissue with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Neurosci Lett 224, 1–4.
Bourre JM, Durand G, Pascal G & Youyou A (1989) Brain cell and tissue recovery in rats made deficient in n-3 fatty acids by alteration of dietary fat. J Nutr 119, 15–22.
Bourre JM, Piciotti M & Dumont O (1990) Delta-6-desaturase in brain and liver during development and aging. Lipids 25, 354–356.
Bowen RAR & Clandinin MT (2000) High dietary C18: 3 n -3 increases the C18: 3 n -3 but not the 22: 6 n -3 content in the whole body, brain, skin, epididymal fat pads, and muscles of suckling rat pups. Lipids 35, 389–394.
Bowen RA & Clandinin MT (2002) Dietary low linolenic acid compared with docosahexaenoic acid alters synaptic plasma membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition and sodium-potassium ATPase kinetics in developing rats. J Neurochem 83, 764–774.
Bowen RAR, Wierzbicki AA & Clandinin MT (1999) Does increasing dietary C18: 3 n -3 acid content increase the docosahexaenoic acid content of phospholipids in neuronal cells of neonatal rats?. Pediatr Res 45, 815–819.
Breckenridge WC, Gombos G & Morgan IG (1972) The lipid composition of adult rat brain synaptosomal membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 266, 695–707.
Calderon F & Kim HY (2004) Docosahexaenoic acid promotes neurite growth in hippocampal neurons. J Neurochem 90, 979–988.
Carlson SE & Neuringer M (1999) Polyunsaturated fatty acid status and neurodevelopment: a summary and critical analysis of the literature. Lipids 34, 171–178.
Carlson SE, Werkman SH & Tolley EA (1992) First year growth of preterm infants fed standard compared to marine oil n-3 supplemented formula. Lipids 27, 901–907.
Carlson SE, Werkman SH & Tolley EA (1996) Effect of long-chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation on visual acuity and growth of preterm infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 687–697.
Carrie I, Clément M, de Javel D, Francès H & Bourre JM (1999) Learning deficits in first generation OF1 mice deficient in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids do not result from visual alteration. Neurosci Lett 266, 69–72.
Carrie I, Guesnet P, Bourre JM & Frances H (2000) Diets containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect behaviour differently during development than ageing in mice. Brit J Nutr 83, 439–447.
Chalon S, Delion-Vancassel S, Belzung C, Guilloteau D, Leguisquet AM & Besnard JC (1998) Dietary fish oil affects monoaminergic neurotransmission and behavior in rats. J Nutr 128, 2512–2519.
Champeil-Potokar G, Denis I, Goustard-Langelier B, Alessandri JM, Guesnet P & Lavialle M (2004) Astrocytes in culture require docosahexaenoic acid to restore the n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid balance in their membrane phospholipids. J Neurosci Res 75, 96–106.
Clandinin MT (1997) Influence of diet fat on membranes. In Membrane and Cell Signaling. Principles of Medical Biology, vol. 7A. pp. 93–119Greenwich: JAI Press.
Clandinin MT, Chappell JE, Leong S, Heim T, Swyer PR & Chance GW (1980a) Intrauterine fatty acid accretion rates in human brain: implications for fatty acid requirements. Early Hum Dev 4, 121–129.
Clandinin MT, Chappell JE, Leong S, Heim T, Swyer PR & Chance GW (1980b) Extrauterine fatty acid accretion in infant brain: implications for fatty acid requirements. Early Human Dev 4, 131–138.
Clandinin MT, Chappell JE, Van Aerde JEE (1989) Requirements of newborn infants for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Acta Paediatr Scand 351, 63–71.
Cotman C, Blank ML, Moehl A & Snyder F (1969) Lipid composition of synaptic plasma membranes isolated from rat brain by zonal centrifugation. Biochemistry 8, 4606–4612.
Cunnane SC, Keeling PW, Thompson RP & Crawford MA (1984) Linoleic acid and arachidonic acid metabolism in human peripheral blood leucocytes: comparison with the rat. Br J Nutr 51, 209–217.
Cunnane SC, Menard CR, Likhodii SS, Brenna JT & Crawford MA (1999) Carbon recycling into de novo lipogenesis is a major pathway in neonatal metabolism of linoleate and α-linolenate. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 60, 387–392.
Cunnane SC, Williams SC, Bell JD, Brookes S, Craig K, Iles RA & Crawford MA (1994) Utilization of uniformly labeled 13C-polyunsaturated fatty acids in the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids and cholesterol accumulating in the neonatal rat brain. J Neurochem 62, 2429–2436.
DeLany JP, Windhauser MM, Champagne CM & Bray GA (2000) Differential oxidation of individual dietary fatty acids in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 905–911.
De La Presa, Owens S & Innis SM (1999) Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid prevent a decrease in dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitters in frontal cortex caused by a linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid deficient diet in formula-fed piglets. J Nutr 129, 2088–2093.
Delion S, Chalon S, Herault J, Guilloteau D, Besnard JC & Durand G (1994) Chronic dietary α-linoleic acid deficiency alters dopaminergic and serotinergic neurotransmitters in rats. J Nutr 124, 2466–2476.
Delton-Vandenbroucke I, Grammas P & Anderson RE (1997) Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in retinal and cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. J Lipid Res 38, 147–159.
Dhopeshwarkar GA & Subramanian C (1976) Intracranial conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid: evidence for lack of delta-8 desaturase in the brain. J Neurochem 26, 1175–1179.
Dobbing J & Sands J (1979) Comparative aspects of the brain growth spurt. Early Hum Dev 3, 79–83.
Edmond J, Tami AH, Rose AK, Bergner EA & Lee WNP (1998) Fatty acid transport and utilization for the developing brain. J Neurochem 70, 1227–1234.
Enslen M, Milon H & Malnoe A (1991) Effect of low intake of n-3 fatty acids during development on brain phospholipid fatty acid composition and exploratory behavior in rats. Lipids 26, 203–208.
Ferdinandusse S, Denis S, Mooijer PAW, Zhang Z, Reddy JK, Spector AA & Wanders RJ (2001) Identification of the peroxisomal-oxidation enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid. J Lipid Res 42, 1987–1995.
Folch J, Lee M, Sloane-Stanley GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–506.
Foot M, Cruz TG & Clandinin MT (1982) Influence of dietary fat on the lipid composition of rat brain synaptosomal and microsomal membranes. Biochem J 208, 631–641.
Frances H, Coudereau JP, Sandouk P, Clement M, Monier C & Bourre JM (1996) Influence of a dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency on learning in the Morris water maze and on the effects of morphine. Eur J Pharmacol 298, 217–225.
Fu Z & Sinclair AJ (2000) Novel pathway of metabolism of alpha-linolenic acid in the guinea pig. Pediatr Res 47, 414–417.
Garcia M, Ward G, Ma YC, Salem N, Jr Kim HY (1998) Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on the synthesis of phosphatidylserine in rat brain microsomes and C6 glioma cells. J Neurochem 70, 24–30.
Gerbi A, Zerouga M, Debray M, Durand G, Chanez C & Bourre J (1994) Effect of fish oil diet on fatty acid composition of phospholipids of brain membranes and on kinetic properties of Na, K-ATPase isoenzymes of weaned and adult rats. J Neurochem 62, 1560–1569.
Ghosh S, Strum JC, Sciorra VA, Daniel L & Bell RM (1996) Raf-1 kinase possesses distinct binding domains for phosphatidylserine and phosphatic acid. J Biol Chem 271, 8472–8480.
Green P & Yavin E (1995) Modulation of fetal rat brain and liver phospholipid content by intraamniotic ethyl docosahexaenoate administration. J Neurochem 65, 2555–2560.
Green P & Yavin E (1996a) Fatty acid composition of late embryonic and early postnatal rat brain. Lipids 31, 5235–5238.
Green P & Yavin E (1996b) Natural and accelerated docosahexaenoic acid accumulation in the prenatal rat brain. Lipids 31, S235–S238.
Green P & Yavin E (1998) Mechanism of docosahexaenoic acid accretion in the fetal brain. J Neurosci Res 52, 129–136.
Hamilton J, Greiner R, Salem N, Jr Kim HY (2000) N-3 fatty acid deficiency decreases phosphatidylserine accumulation selectively in neuronal tissues. Lipids 35, 863–869.
Horrobin DF, Huang YS, Cunnane SC & Manku MS (1984) Essential fatty acid in plasma, red blood cells and liver phospholipids in common laboratory animals as compared to humans. Lipids 19, 806–811.
Huster D, Arnold K & Gawrisch K (1998) Influence of docosahexaenoic acid and cholesterol on lateral lipid organization in phospholipid mixtures. Biochemistry 37, 17299–17308.
Ikemoto A, Kobayashi T, Emoto K, Umeda M, Watanabe S & Okuyama H (1999) Effects of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids on the synthesis and distribution of aminophospholipids during neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 364, 67–74.
Innis SM (1991) Essential fatty acids in growth and development. Prog Lipid Res 30, 39–103.
Innis SM, de La Presa & Owens S (2001) Dietary fatty acid composition in pregnancy alters neurite membrane fatty acids and dopamine in newborn rat brain. J Nutr 131, 118–122.
Innis SM & Dyer RA (2002) Brain astrocyte synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid from n-3 fatty acids is limited at the elongation of docosapentaenoic acid. J Lipid Res 43, 1529–1536.
Jacobson SW (1999) Assessment of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid nutritional supplementation on infant neurobehavioral development and visual acuity. Lipids 34, 151–160.
Jump DB (2002) The biochemistry of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Biol Chem 277, 8755–8758.
Jumpsen JA, Lien E, Goh YK & Clandinin MT (1997a) Diets varying in n-3 and n-6 fatty acid content produce differences in phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition during development of neuronal and glial cells in rats. J Nutr 127, 724–731.
Jumpsen JA, Lien E, Goh YK & Clandinin MT (1997b) During neuronal and glial cell development diet n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio alters the fatty acid composition of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. Biochim Biophys Acta 1347, 40–50.
Kim HY, Akbar M, Lau A & Edsall L (2000) Inhibition of neuronal apoptosis by docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6 n -3): Role of phosphatidylserine in antiapoptotic effect. J Biol Chem 275, 35215–35223.
Kinsella JE, Lokesh B, Broughton S & Whelan JW (1990) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids: potential effects on the modulation of inflammatory and immune cells: an overview. J Nutr 6, 24–44.
Kishimoto Y, Davies WE & Radin NS (1965) Developing rat brain: changes in cholesterol, galactolipids, and the individual fatty acids of gangliosides and glycerophosphatides. J Lipid Res 6, 532–536.
Kita Y, Kimura KD & Kobayashi M (1998) Microinjection of activated phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase induces process outgrowth in rat PC12 cells through the Rac-JNK signal transduction pathway. J Cell Sci 111, 907–915.
Kitajka K, Sinclair AJ, Weisinger RS, Weisinger HS, Mathai M, Jayasooriya AP, Halver JE & Puskas LG (2004) Effects of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on brain gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 10931–10936.
Kobayashi M, Nagata S & Kita Y (1997) Expression of a constitutively active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase induces process formation in rat PC12 cells. Use of Cre/loxP recombination system. J Biol Chem 272, 16089–16092.
Kodas E, Galineau L, Bodard S, Vancassel S, Guilloteau D, Besnard JC & Chalon S (2004) Serotoninergic neurotransmission is affected by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rat. J Neurochem 89, 695–702.
Kuo WL, Abe M, Rhee J, Eves EM, McCarthy SA, Yan M, Templeton DJ, McMahon M & Rosner MR (1996) Raf, but not MEK or ERK, is sufficient for differentiation of hippocampal neuronal cells. Mol Cell Biol 16, 1458–1470.
Kurvinen JP, Kuksis A, Sinclair AJ, Abedin L & Kallio H (2000) The effect of low-linolenic acid diet on glycerophospholipid molecular species in guinea pig brain. Lipids 35, 1001–1009.
Lamptey MS & Walker BL (1976) A possible essential role for dietary linolenic acid in the development of the young rat. J Nutr 106, 86–93.
Levi deStein, M Medina, DeRobertis JHED (1989) In vivo and in vitro modulation of central type of benzodiazepine receptors by phosphatidylserine. Mol Brain Res 5, 9–15.
Leyton J, Drury PJ & Crawford MA (1987) Differential oxidation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in vivo in the rat. Br J Nutr 57, 383–393.
Lien EL, Boyle FG, Yuhas RJ & Kuhlman CF (1994) Effect of maternal dietary C20: 4n-6 or C18: 2 n -6 acid on rat pup fatty acid profiles. Lipids 29, 53–59.
Litman BJ & Mitchell DC (1996) A role for phospholipid polyunsaturation in modulating membrane protein function. Lipids 31, S193–S197.
Madsen L, Froyland L, Dyroy E, Helland K & Berge R (1998) Docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids are differently metabolized in rat. J Lipid Res 39, 583–593.
Martinez M (1989) Polyunsaturated fatty acids changes suggesting a new enzymatic defect in Zellweger syndrome. Lipids 24, 261–265.
Menard CR, Goodman KJ, Corso TN, Brenna JT & Cunnane SC (1998) Recycling of carbon into lipids synthesized de novo is a quantitatively important pathway of alpha-[U-13C] linolenate utilization in the developing rat brain. J Neurochem 71, 2151–2158.
Mitchell DC & Litman BJ (1998) Molecular order and dynamics in bilayers consisting of highly polyunsaturated phospholipids. Biophys J 74, 879–891.
Moore SA (1993) Cerebral endothelium and astrocytes cooperate in supplying docosahexaenoic acid to neurons. Adv Exp Med Biol 331, 229–233.
Moore SA (2001) Polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and release by brain-derived cells in vitro. J Mol Neurosci 16, 195–200.
Moore SA, Yoder E, Murphy S, Dutton GR & Spector AA (1991) Astrocytes, not neurons, produce docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6 n -3) and arachidonic acid (20: 4n-6). J Neurochem 56, 518–524.
Moore SA, Yoder E & Spector AA (1990) Role of the blood-brain barrier in the formation of long-chain n-3 and n-6 fatty acids from essential fatty acid precursors. J Neurochem 55, 391–402.
Morgane PJ, Austin-LaFrance R, Bronzino J, Tonkiss J, Diaz-Cintra S, Cintra L, Kemper T & Galler JR (1993) Prenatal malnutrition and development of the brain. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 17, 91–128.
Moriguchi T, Greiner RS, Salem N Jr (2000) Behavioral deficits associated with dietary induction of decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid concentration. J Neurochem 75, 2563–2573.
Morrison WR & Smith LM (1964) Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethyl-acetals from lipids with boron fluoride-methanol. J Lipid Res 5, 600–608.
Murthy M, Hamilton J, Greiner RS, Moriguchi T, Salem N, Kim H-Y Jr (2002) Differential effects of n-3 fatty acid deficiency on phospholipid molecular species composition in the rat hippocampus. J Lipid Res 43, 611–617.
Nouvelot A, Bourre JM, Sezille G, Dewailly P & Jaillard J (1983) Changes in the fatty acid patterns of brain phospholipids during development of rats fed peanut or rapeseed oil, taking into account differences between milk and maternal food. Ann Nutr Metab 27, 173–181.
Nouvelot A, Delbart C & Bourre JM (1986) Hepatic metabolism of dietary alpha-linolenic acid in suckling rats, and its possible importance in polyunsaturated fatty acid uptake by the brain. Ann Nutr Metab 30, 316–323.
O'Brien JS & Sampson EL (1965) Fatty acid and fatty aldehyde composition of the major brain lipids in normal human gray matter, white matter and myelin. J Lipid Res 6, 545–551.
Okuyama H, Kobayashi T & Watanabe S (1997) Dietary fatty acids-the n-6/n-3 balance and chronic elderly diseases. Excess linoleic acid and relative n-3 deficiency syndrome seen in Japan. Prog Lipid Res 35, 409–457.
Puskas LG, Kitajka K, Nyakas C, Barcelo-Coblijn G & Farkas T (2003) Short-term administration of omega 3 fatty acids from fish oil results in increased transthyretin transcription in old rat hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 1580–1585.
Ravel D, Chambaz J, Pepin D, Manier MC & Bereziat G (1985) Essential fatty acid interconversion during gestation in the rat. Biochim Biophys Acta 833, 161–164.
Salem N, Niebylski CD Jr (1995) The nervous system has an absolute molecular species requirement for proper function. Mol Membr Biol 12, 131–134.
Salem N, Jr Litman, B Kim, Gawrisch HYK (2001) Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids 36, 945–959.
Salem N, Jr Serpentino, P Puskin, Abood JSLG (1980) Preparation and spectroscopic characterization of molecular species of brain phosphatidylserines. Chem Phys Lipids 27, 289–304.
Salem N, Jr Wegher, B Mena, Uauy PR (1996) Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids are biosynthesized from their 18-carbon precursors in human infants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93, 49–54.
Sanders TA & Rana SK (1987) Comparison of the metabolism of linoleic and linolenic acids in the fetal rat. Ann Nutr Metab 31, 349–353.
SAS Institute Inc. (1988) SAS/STAT User's Guide Release 6.11 Edition.Cary, NC:SAS Institute Inc.
Sastry PS (1985) Lipids of nervous tissue: composition and metabolism. Prog Lipid Res 24, 69–176.
Sauerwald TU, Hachey DL, Luijendijik IHT, Boerlage A, Degerhart HJ & Sauer PJJ (1996) New insights into the metabolism of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during infancy. Eur J Med Res 2, 88–92.
Sellinger OZ & Azcurra JM (1974) Bulk separation of neuronal cell bodies and glial cells in the absence of added digestive enzymes. In Research Methods in Neurochemistry, pp. 3–38 [Marks N, Rodnight R, editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
Sheaff-Greiner RC, Zhang Q, Goodman KJ, Giussani DA, Nathanielsz PW & Brenna JT (1996) Linoleate, α-linolenate, and docosahexaenoate recycling into saturated and mono unsaturated fatty acids is a major pathway in pregnant or lactating adults and fetal or infant rhesus monkeys. J Lipid Res 37, 2675–2686.
Sinclair AJ (1975) Incorporation of radioactive polyunsaturated fatty acids into liver and brain of developing rat. Lipids 10, 175–184.
Sinclair AJ & Crawford MA (1972) The accumulation of arachidonate and docosahexaenoate in developing rat brain. J Neurochem 19, 1753–1758.
Spector AA & Yorek MA (1985) Membrane lipid composition and cellular function. J Lipid Res 26, 1015–1035.
Sprecher H (2000) Metabolism of highly unsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1486, 219–231.
Sprecher H, Chen Q & Yin FQ (1999) Regulation of the biosynthesis of 22: 5 n -6 and 22: 6 n -3: a complex intracellular process. Lipids 34, S153–S156.
Steel RGD & Torrie JH (1960) Principles and Procedures of Statistics, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Stubbs CD & Smith AD (1984) The modification of mammalian membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in relation to membrane fluidity and function. Biochim Biophys Acta 779, 89–137.
Sun GY & Horrocks LA (1970) The acyl and alk-1-enyl groups of the major phosphoglycerides from ox brain myelin and mouse brain microsomal, mitochondrial and myelin fractions. Lipids 5, 1006–1012.
Sun GY & Sun AY (1974) Synaptosomal plasma membranes: acyl group composition of phosphoglycerides and (Na + +K + )-ATPase activity during essential fatty acid deficiency. J Neurochem 22, 15–18.
Tinoco J (1982) Dietary requirements and functions of alpha-linolenic acid in animals. Prog Lipid Res 21, 1–45.
Touchstone JC, Chen JC & Beaver KM (1980) Improved separation of phospholipids in thin-layer chromatography. Lipids 15, 61–62.
Tsutsumi T, Yamauchi E, Suzuki E, Watanabe S, Kobayashi T & Okuyama H (1995) Effect of a high alpha-linolenate and high linoleate diet on membrane-associated enzyme activities in rat brain-modulation of Na+, K+- ATPase activity at suboptimal concentrations of ATP. Biol Pharm Bull 18, 664–670.
Uauy R, Mena P, Wegher B, Nieto S, Salem N Jr (2000) Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid formation in neonates: effect of gestational age and intrauterine growth. Pediatr Res 47, 127–135.
Ubl JJ & Reiser G (1997) Characteristics of thrombin-induced calcium signals in rat astrocytes. Glia 21, 361–369.
Voss AM, Reinhart S, Sankarappa S & Sprecher H (1991) The metabolism of 7,10,13,16,19-docosapentaenoic acid to 4,7,10,13, 16,19-docosahexaenoic acid in rat liver is independent of a 4-desaturase. J Biol Chem 226, 19995–20000.
Wainwright PE, Xing HC, Girard T, Parker L & Ward G (1998) Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency on Morris water-maze performance and amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats. Nutr Neurosci 1, 281–293.
Wheeler TG, Benolken RM & Anderson RE (1975) Visual membranes: specificity of fatty acid precursors for the electrical response to illumination. Science 188, 1312–1314.
Willard DE, Harmon SD & Kaduce TL (2001) Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in differentiated rat brain astrocytes. J Lipid Res 42, 1368–1376.
Willard DE, Harmon SD, Kaduce TL & Spector AA (2002) Comparison of 20-, 22-, and 24-carbon n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid utilization in differentiated rat brain astrocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 67, 99–104.
Willats P, Forsyth JS, Dimodugno MK, Varma S & Colvin M (1998) Effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age. Lancet 352, 688–691.
Willatts P & Forsyth JS (2000) The role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant cognitive development. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 63, 95–100.
Wood KW, Qi H, D'Arcangelo G, Armstrong RC, Roberts TM & Halegoua S (1993) The cytoplasmic raf oncogene induces a neuronal phenotype in PC12 cells: a potential role for cellular raf kinases in neuronal growth factor signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90, 5016–5020.
Woods J, Ward G, Salem N Jr (1996) Evaluation of high linolenate diets in the neonatal rat. Pediatr Res 40, 687–694.
Yamamoto N, Saitoh M, Moriuchi A, Nomura M & Okuyama H (1987) Effect of dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance on brain lipid compositions and learning ability of rats. J Lipid Res 28, 144–151.
Yonekubo A, Honda S, Okano M, Takahashi K & Yamamoto Y (1993) Dietary fish oil alters rat milk composition and liver and brain fatty acid composition of fetal and neonatal rats. J Nutr 123, 1703–1708.
Zhang H, Hamilton JH, Salem N, Jr Kim HY (1998) N-3 Fatty acid deficiency in the rat pineal gland: effects on phospholipid molecular species composition and endogenous 12-HETE and melatonin levels. J Lipid Res 39, 1397–1403.
Zimmer L, Vancassel S, Cantagrel S, Breton P, Delamanche S, Guilloteau D, Durand G & Chalon S (2002) The dopamine mesocorticolimbic pathway is affected by deficiency in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 662–667.