1Thorsdottir I, Torfadottir JE, Birgisdottir BE, et al. (2002) Weight gain in women of normal weight before pregnancy: complications in pregnancy or delivery and birth outcome. Obstet Gynecol 99, 799–806.
2Stotland NE, Hopkins LM & Caughey AB (2004) Gestational weight gain, macrosomia, and risk of cesarean birth in nondiabetic nulliparas. Obstet Gynecol 104, 671–677.
3Jain NJ, Denk CE, Kruse LK, et al. (2007) Maternal obesity: can pregnancy weight gain modify risk of selected adverse pregnancy outcomes? Am J Perinatol 24, 291–298.
4Brennand EA, Dannenbaum D & Willows ND (2005) Pregnancy outcomes of First Nations women in relation to pregravid weight and pregnancy weight gain. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 27, 936–944.
5Cedergren M (2006) Effects of gestational weight gain and body mass index on obstetric outcome in Sweden. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 93, 269–274.
6Hackmon R, James R, O'Reilly Green C, et al. (2007) The impact of maternal age, body mass index and maternal weight gain on the glucose challenge test in pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 20, 253–257.
7Saldana TM, Siega-Riz AM, Adair LS, et al. (2006) The relationship between pregnancy weight gain and glucose tolerance status among black and white women in central North Carolina. Am J Obstet Gynecol 195, 1629–1635.
8Kac G, Benicio MH, Velasquez-Melendez G, et al. (2004) Gestational weight gain and prepregnancy weight influence postpartum weight retention in a cohort of Brazilian women. J Nutr 134, 661–666.
9Vesco KK, Dietz PM, Rizzo J, et al. (2009) Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention among obese women. Obstet Gynecol 114, 1069–1075.
10Gunderson EP & Abrams B (2000) Epidemiology of gestational weight gain and body weight changes after pregnancy. Epidemiol Rev 22, 261–274.
11Gunderson EP, Abrams B & Selvin S (2000) The relative importance of gestational gain and maternal characteristics associated with the risk of becoming overweight after pregnancy. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 1660–1668.
12Melzer K & Schutz Y (2010) Pre-pregnancy and pregnancy predictors of obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 34, Suppl. 2, S44–S52.
13Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Schall JI, et al. (1995) Gestational weight gain, pregnancy outcome, and postpartum weight retention. Obstet Gynecol 86, 423–427.
14Hedderson MM, Weiss NS, Sacks DA, et al. (2006) Pregnancy weight gain and risk of neonatal complications: macrosomia, hypoglycemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Obstet Gynecol 108, 1153–1161.
15Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Taylor RH, et al. (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34, 362–366.
16Lock DR, Bar-Eyal A, Voet H, et al. (1988) Glycemic indices of various foods given to pregnant diabetic subjects. Obstet Gynecol 71, 180–183.
17Brand-Miller JC, Holt SH, Pawlak DB, et al. (2002) Glycemic index and obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 281S–285S.
18Flood A, Subar AF, Hull SG, et al. (2006) Methodology for adding glycemic load values to the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire database. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 393–402.
19Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20, 545–550.
20Salmeron J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 277, 472–477.
21Schulz M, Liese AD, Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. (2005) Nutritional correlates of dietary glycaemic index: new aspects from a population perspective. Br J Nutr 94, 397–406.
22Ludwig DS (2000) Dietary glycemic index and obesity. J Nutr 130, 280S–283S.
23Lau C, Toft U, Tetens I, et al. (2006) Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and body mass index in the Inter99 study: is underreporting a problem? Am J Clin Nutr 84, 641–645.
24Nielsen BM, Bjornsbo KS, Tetens I, et al. (2005) Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness. Br J Nutr 94, 992–997.
25Ma Y, Olendzki B, Chiriboga D, et al. (2005) Association between dietary carbohydrates and body weight. Am J Epidemiol 161, 359–367.
26Romaguera D, Angquist L & Du H (2010) Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index – a proxy measure of visceral adiposity. PLoS One 5, e11588.
27Du H, van der ADL, van Bakel MM, et al. (2009) Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, 1280–1288.
28Gaesser GA (2007) Carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to body mass index. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 1768–1780.
29Thomas DE, Elliott EJ & Baur L (2007) Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, .
30Larsen TM, Dalskov SM, van Baak M, et al. (2010) Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med 363, 2102–2113.
31Clapp JF (1997) Diet, exercise, and feto-placental Growth. Arch Gynecol Obstet 260, 101–108.
32Moses RG, Luebcke M, Davis WS, et al. (2006) Effect of a low-glycemic-index diet during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 807–812.
33Rhodes ET, Pawlak DB, Takoudes TC, et al. (2010) Effects of a low-glycemic load diet in overweight and obese pregnant women: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 1306–1315.
34Scholl TO, Chen X, Khoo CS, et al. (2004) The dietary glycemic index during pregnancy: influence on infant birth weight, fetal growth, and biomarkers of carbohydrate metabolism. Am J Epidemiol 159, 467–474.
35Herrera E (2000) Metabolic adaptations in pregnancy and their implications for the availability of substrates to the fetus. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, Suppl. 1, S47–S51.
36Deierlein AL, Siega-Riz AM & Herring A (2008) Dietary energy density but not glycemic load is associated with gestational weight gain. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 693–699.
37Olsen J, Melbye M, Olsen SF, et al. (2001) The Danish National Birth Cohort – its background, structure and aim. Scand J Public Health 29, 300–307.
38Olsen SF, Mikkelsen TB, Knudsen VK, et al. (2007) Data collected on maternal dietary exposures in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 21, 76–86.
39Mikkelsen TB, Osler M & Olsen SF (2006) Validity of protein, retinol, folic acid and n-3 fatty acid intakes estimated from the food-frequency questionnaire used in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Public Health Nutr 9, 771–778.
40Foster-Powell K, Holt SH & Brand-Miller JC (2002) International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 5–56.
41Wolever TM, Nguyen PM, Chiasson JL, et al. (1994) Determinants of diet glycemic index calculated retrospectively from diet records of 342 individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 1265–1269.
42Willett WC, Howe GR & Kushi LH (1997) Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 1220S–1228S.
43Cole TJ, Freeman JV & Preece MA (1998) British 1990 growth reference centiles for weight, height, body mass index and head circumference fitted by maximum penalized likelihood. Stat Med 17, 407–429.
44Baker JL, Gamborg M, Heitmann BL, et al. (2008) Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 1543–1551.
45Clapp JF III (2002) Maternal carbohydrate intake and pregnancy outcome. Proc Nutr Soc 61, 45–50.
47Nohr EA, Vaeth M, Baker JL, et al. (2009) Pregnancy outcomes related to gestational weight gain in women defined by their body mass index, parity, height, and smoking status. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 1288–1294.
48Zhang C, Liu S, Solomon CG, et al. (2006) Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic load, and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 29, 2223–2230.
49Heitmann BL & Lissner L (1995) Dietary underreporting by obese individuals – is it specific or non-specific? BMJ 311, 986–989.