1 World Health Organization (2003) Obesity and Overweight. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity, and Health. Geneva: WHO.
2 World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. WHO Technical Report Series. Geneva: WHO.
3 Rolls BJ, Drewnowski A & Ledikwe JH (2005) Changing the energy density of the diet as a strategy for weight management. J Am Diet Assoc 105, S98–S103.
4 Rolls BJ (2009) The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake. Physiol Behav 97, 609–615.
5 James WP (2008) WHO recognition of the global obesity epidemic. Int J Obes (London) 32, Suppl. 7, S120–S126.
6 Sabate J, Haddad E, Tanzman JS, et al. (2003) Serum lipid response to the graduated enrichment of a Step I diet with almonds: a randomized feeding trial. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 1379–1384.
7 Griel AE & Kris-Etherton PM (2006) Tree nuts and the lipid profile: a review of clinical studies. Br J Nutr 96, Suppl. 2, S68–S78.
8 Gebauer SK, West SG, Kay CD, et al. (2008) Effects of pistachios on cardiovascular disease risk factors and potential mechanisms of action: a dose–response study. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 651–659.
9 Fraser GE, Sabate J, Beeson WL, et al. (1992) A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study. Arch Intern Med 152, 1416–1424.
10 Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. (1998) Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 317, 1341–1345.
11 Josse AR, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, et al. (2007) Almonds and postprandial glycemia – a dose–response study. Metabolism 56, 400–404.
12 Jiang R, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. (2002) Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA 288, 2554–2560.
13 Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, et al. (2008) Effect of almonds on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in nondiabetic hyperlipidemic subjects: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Metabolism 57, 882–887.
14 Sari I, Baltaci Y, Bagci C, et al. (2010) Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: a prospective study. Nutrition 26, 399–404.
15 Davis PA & Iwahashi CK (2001) Whole almonds and almond fractions reduce aberrant crypt foci in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 165, 27–33.
16 Gonzalez CA & Salas-Salvado J (2006) The potential of nuts in the prevention of cancer. Br J Nutr 96, Suppl. 2, S87–S94.
17 Casas-Agustench P, Bulló M, Ros E, et al. . (2010) Cross-sectional association of nut intake with adiposity in a Mediterranean population. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis .
18 Morgan WA & Clayshulte BJ (2000) Pecans lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in people with normal lipid levels. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 312–318.
19 Alper CM & Mattes RD (2002) Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 1129–1137.
20 Fraser GE, Bennett HW, Jaceldo KB, et al. (2002) Effect on body weight of a free 76 kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 275–283.
21 Wien MA, Sabate JM, Ikle DN, et al. (2003) Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 1365–1372.
22 Sabate J, Cordero-Macintyre Z, Siapco G, et al. (2005) Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain? Br J Nutr 94, 859–864.
23 Hollis J & Mattes R (2007) Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humans. Br J Nutr 98, 651–656.
24 Levine AS & Silvis SE (1980) Absorption of whole peanuts, peanut oil, and peanut butter. N Engl J Med 303, 917–918.
25 Berry SE, Tydeman EA, Lewis HB, et al. (2008) Manipulation of lipid bioaccessibility of almond seeds influences postprandial lipemia in healthy human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 922–929.
26 Traoret CJ, Lokko P, Cruz AC, et al. (2008) Peanut digestion and energy balance. Int J Obes (London) 32, 322–328.
27 Casas-Agustench P, Lopez-Uriarte P, Bullo M, et al. (2011) Effects of one serving of mixed nuts on serum lipids, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21, 126–135.
28 Baer DJ, Rumpler WV, Miles CW, et al. (1997) Dietary fiber decreases the metabolizable energy content and nutrient digestibility of mixed diets fed to humans. J Nutr 127, 579–586.
29 Sheridan MJ, Cooper JN, Erario M, et al. (2007) Pistachio nut consumption and serum lipid levels. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 141–148.
30 Cassady BA, Hollis JH, Fulford AD, et al. (2009) Mastication of almonds: effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 794–800.
31 Ellis PR, Kendall CW, Ren Y, et al. (2004) Role of cell walls in the bioaccessibility of lipids in almond seeds. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 604–613.