Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 17
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Dhillon, Jaapna Running, Cordelia A. Tucker, Robin M. and Mattes, Richard D. 2016. Effects of food form on appetite and energy balance. Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 48, p. 368.

    Gebauer, Sarah K. Novotny, Janet A. Bornhorst, Gail M. and Baer, David J. 2016. Food processing and structure impact the metabolizable energy of almonds. Food Funct.,

    Grundy, Myriam M.-L. Edwards, Cathrina H. Mackie, Alan R. Gidley, Michael J. Butterworth, Peter J. and Ellis, Peter R. 2016. Re-evaluation of the mechanisms of dietary fibre and implications for macronutrient bioaccessibility, digestion and postprandial metabolism. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 116, Issue. 05, p. 816.

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo Bulló, Mònica and Salas-Salvadó, Jordi 2016. Pistachios for Health. Nutrition Today, Vol. 51, Issue. 3, p. 133.

    Musa-Veloso, Kathy Paulionis, Lina Poon, Theresa and Lee, Han Youl 2016. The effects of almond consumption on fasting blood lipid levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Journal of Nutritional Science, Vol. 5,

    Bulló, M. Juanola-Falgarona, M. Hernández-Alonso, P. and Salas-Salvadó, J. 2015. Nutrition attributes and health effects of pistachio nuts. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 113, Issue. S2, p. S79.

    Carughi, Arianna Feeney, Mary Jo Kris-Etherton, Penny Fulgoni, Victor Kendall, Cyril W. C. Bulló, Mònica and Webb, Densie 2015. Pairing nuts and dried fruit for cardiometabolic health. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,

    Lucan, Sean C and DiNicolantonio, James J 2015. How calorie-focused thinking about obesity and related diseases may mislead and harm public health. An alternative. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 18, Issue. 04, p. 571.

    Martin, Nicole Germanò, Roberta Hartley, Louise Adler, Alma J Rees, Karen and Rees, Karen 2015. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

    O’Neil, Carol E. Fulgoni, Victor L. and Nicklas, Theresa A. 2015. Tree Nut consumption is associated with better adiposity measures and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome health risk factors in U.S. Adults: NHANES 2005–2010. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Tey, Siew Chisholm, Alexandra and Brown, Rachel 2015. Nutritional Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome.

    Alves, Raquel Duarte Moreira Moreira, Ana Paula Boroni Macedo, Viviane Silva de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita Bressan, Josefina Mattes, Richard and Costa, Neuza Maria Brunoro 2014. Regular intake of high-oleic peanuts improves fat oxidation and body composition in overweight/obese men pursuing a energy-restricted diet. Obesity, Vol. 22, Issue. 6, p. 1422.

    Moreira Alves, Raquel Duarte Boroni Moreira, Ana Paula Macedo, Viviane Silva Bressan, Josefina de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita Mattes, Richard and Brunoro Costa, Neuza Maria 2014. High-oleic peanuts: New perspective to attenuate glucose homeostasis disruption and inflammation related obesity. Obesity, Vol. 22, Issue. 9, p. 1981.

    Rebello, Candida Greenway, Frank L. and Dhurandhar, Nikhil V. 2014. Functional foods to promote weight loss and satiety. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, Vol. 17, Issue. 6, p. 596.

    Mandalari, Giuseppina Bisignano, Carlo Filocamo, Angela Chessa, Simona Sarò, Mariagiovanna Torre, Germana Faulks, Richard M. and Dugo, Paola 2013. Bioaccessibility of pistachio polyphenols, xanthophylls, and tocopherols during simulated human digestion. Nutrition, Vol. 29, Issue. 1, p. 338.

    Dreher, Mark L 2012. Pistachio nuts: composition and potential health benefits. Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 70, Issue. 4, p. 234.

    Wang, Xin Li, Zhaoping Liu, Yanjun Lv, Xiaofeng and Yang, Wenying 2012. Effects of pistachios on body weight in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 11, Issue. 1,


Measured energy value of pistachios in the human diet

  • David J. Baer (a1), Sarah K. Gebauer (a1) and Janet A. Novotny (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 28 June 2011

Previous studies have suggested that lipid from nuts is more poorly absorbed than that from other food sources. If lipid from nuts is poorly absorbed, then the metabolisable energy contained in the nuts is less than that predicted by the Atwater general factors. A crossover feeding study was conducted in which sixteen volunteers consumed pistachios for 3 weeks as part of a controlled diet. Pistachio doses were 0, 42 and 84 g/d. Urine and faecal samples were collected, and urine, faeces and diet were analysed for N, fat, total dietary fibre, ash and combustible energy. Blood was also collected after each treatment period and analysed for plasma lipids. Energy value of pistachio nuts was calculated from differences in energy excretion during the different dietary treatments. The measured energy density of pistachios was found to be 22·6 kJ/g, which is 5 % less than the currently accepted energy value of 23·7 kJ/g, as calculated using the Atwater general factors. The pistachio nut intervention lowered LDL-cholesterol by 6 %, but did not significantly change plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol or TAG. In conclusion, pistachio nuts contain less metabolisable energy than that calculated from the Atwater general factors. Accurate information about metabolisable energy content of foods is important for reliable food labelling.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Measured energy value of pistachios in the human diet
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Measured energy value of pistachios in the human diet
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Measured energy value of pistachios in the human diet
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: D. J. Baer, fax +1 301 504 9098, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1World Health Organization (2003) Obesity and Overweight. Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity, and Health. Geneva: WHO.

3BJ Rolls , A Drewnowski & JH Ledikwe (2005) Changing the energy density of the diet as a strategy for weight management. J Am Diet Assoc 105, S98S103.

4BJ Rolls (2009) The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake. Physiol Behav 97, 609615.

5WP James (2008) WHO recognition of the global obesity epidemic. Int J Obes (London) 32, Suppl. 7, S120S126.

9GE Fraser , J Sabate , WL Beeson , (1992) A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study. Arch Intern Med 152, 14161424.

10FB Hu , MJ Stampfer , JE Manson , (1998) Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 317, 13411345.

11AR Josse , CW Kendall , LS Augustin , (2007) Almonds and postprandial glycemia – a dose–response study. Metabolism 56, 400404.

12R Jiang , JE Manson , MJ Stampfer , (2002) Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA 288, 25542560.

13DJ Jenkins , CW Kendall , A Marchie , (2008) Effect of almonds on insulin secretion and insulin resistance in nondiabetic hyperlipidemic subjects: a randomized controlled crossover trial. Metabolism 57, 882887.

14I Sari , Y Baltaci , C Bagci , (2010) Effect of pistachio diet on lipid parameters, endothelial function, inflammation, and oxidative status: a prospective study. Nutrition 26, 399404.

15PA Davis & CK Iwahashi (2001) Whole almonds and almond fractions reduce aberrant crypt foci in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 165, 2733.

18WA Morgan & BJ Clayshulte (2000) Pecans lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in people with normal lipid levels. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 312318.

19CM Alper & RD Mattes (2002) Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 11291137.

20GE Fraser , HW Bennett , KB Jaceldo , (2002) Effect on body weight of a free 76 kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 275283.

21MA Wien , JM Sabate , DN Ikle , (2003) Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 13651372.

24AS Levine & SE Silvis (1980) Absorption of whole peanuts, peanut oil, and peanut butter. N Engl J Med 303, 917918.

26CJ Traoret , P Lokko , AC Cruz , (2008) Peanut digestion and energy balance. Int J Obes (London) 32, 322328.

27P Casas-Agustench , P Lopez-Uriarte , M Bullo , (2011) Effects of one serving of mixed nuts on serum lipids, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21, 126135.

28DJ Baer , WV Rumpler , CW Miles , (1997) Dietary fiber decreases the metabolizable energy content and nutrient digestibility of mixed diets fed to humans. J Nutr 127, 579586.

29MJ Sheridan , JN Cooper , M Erario , (2007) Pistachio nut consumption and serum lipid levels. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 141148.

30BA Cassady , JH Hollis , AD Fulford , (2009) Mastication of almonds: effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 794800.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *