1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2003) Public health and aging: trends in aging—United States and worldwide. JAMA 289, 1371–1373.
4. Knoops, KT, de Groot, LC, Kromhout, D, et al. (2004) Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women: the HALE project. JAMA 292, 1433–1439.
5. Sofi, F, Abbate, R, Gensini, GF, et al. (2010) Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 1189–1196.
6. Trichopoulou, A, Kouris-Blazos, A, Wahlqvist, ML, et al. (1995) Diet and overall survival in elderly people. BMJ 311, 1457–1460.
7. Kurotani, K, Akter, S, Kashino, I, et al. (2016) Quality of diet and mortality among Japanese men and women: Japan Public Health Center based prospective study. BMJ 352, i1209.
8. Lasheras, C, Fernandez, S & Patterson, AM (2000) Mediterranean diet and age with respect to overall survival in institutionalized, nonsmoking elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 987–992.
9. Trichopoulou, A, Bamia, C & Trichopoulos, D (2005) Mediterranean diet and survival among patients with coronary heart disease in Greece. Arch Intern Med 165, 929–935.
10. Osler, M & Schroll, M (1997) Diet and mortality in a cohort of elderly people in a north European community. Int J Epidemiol 26, 155–159.
11. Sjögren, P, Becker, W, Warensjö, E, et al. (2010) Mediterranean and carbohydrate-restricted diets and mortality among elderly men: a cohort study in Sweden. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 967–974.
12. Tognon, G, Rothenberg, E, Eiben, G, et al. (2011) Does the Mediterranean diet predict longevity in the elderly? A Swedish perspective. Age (Dordr) 33, 439–450.
13. McNaughton, SA, Bates, CJ & Mishra, GD (2012) Diet quality is associated with all-cause mortality in adults aged 65 years and older. J Nutr 142, 320–325.
14. Reedy, J, Krebs-Smith, SM, Miller, PE, et al. (2014) Higher diet quality is associated with decreased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality among older adults. J Nutr 144, 881–889.
15. Kouris-Blazos, A, Gnardellis, C, Wahlqvist, ML, et al. (1999) Are the advantages of the Mediterranean diet transferable to other populations? A cohort study in Melbourne, Australia. Br J Nutr 82, 57–61.
16. Haveman-Nies, A, de Groot, L, Burema, J, et al. (2002) Dietary quality and lifestyle factors in relation to 10-year mortality in older Europeans: the SENECA study. Am J Epidemiol 156, 962–968.
17. Trichopoulou, A, Orfanos, P, Norat, T, et al. (2005) Modified Mediterranean diet and survival: EPIC-elderly prospective cohort study. BMJ 330, 991.
18. Knoops, KT, Groot de, LC, Fidanza, F, et al. (2006) Comparison of three different dietary scores in relation to 10-year mortality in elderly European subjects: the HALE project. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 746–755.
19. Bamia, C, Trichopoulos, D, Ferrari, P, et al. (2007) Dietary patterns and survival of older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly Study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Public Health Nutr 10, 590–598.
20. Estruch, R, Ros, R, Salas-Salvadó, J, et al. (2013) Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med 368, 1279–1290.
21. Bonaccio, M, Di Castelnuovo, A, Bonanni, A, et al. (2014) Decline of the Mediterranean diet at a time of economic crisis. Results from the Moli-sani study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 24, 853–860.
22. Limongi, F, Noale, M, Gesmundo, A, et al. (2017) Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and all-cause mortality risk in an elderly Italian population: data from the ILSA study. J Nutr Health Aging 21, 505–513.
23. Martínez-González, MA, Guillén-Grima, F, De Irala, J, et al. (2012) The Mediterranean diet is associated with a reduction in premature mortality among middle-aged adults. J Nutr 142, 1672–1678.
24. Whalen, KA, Judd, S, McCullough, ML, et al. (2017) Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet pattern scores are inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in adults. J Nutr 147, 612–620.
25. Di Castelnuovo, A, Costanzo, S, Persichillo, M, et al. (2012) Distribution of short and lifetime risks for cardiovascular disease in Italians. Eur J Prev Cardiol 19, 723–730.
26. Pereira, MA, Fitzgerald, SJ, Gregg, EW, et al. (1997) A collection of physical activity questionnaires for health-related research: the Monica Optional Study of Physical Activity (MOSPA). Med Sci Sports Exerc 29, S162–S169.
27. Pisani, P, Faggiano, F, Krogh, V, et al. (1997) Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency dietary questionnaire for use in the Italian EPIC centres. Int J Epidemiol 26, Suppl. 1, S152–S160.
28. Trichopoulou, A, Costacou, T, Bamia, C, et al. (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 348, 2599–2608.
29. Bonaccio, M, Di Castelnuovo, A, Costanzo, S, et al. (2016) Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and mortality in subjects with diabetes. Prospective results from the Moli-sani study. Eur J Prev Cardiol 23, 400–407.
30. Desquilbet, L & Mariotti, F (2010) Dose–response analyses using restricted cubic spline functions in public health research. Stat Med 29, 1037–1057.
31. DerSimonian, R & Laird, N (1986) Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 7, 177–188.
32. Higgins, JP & Thompson, SG (2002) Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 21, 1539–1558.
33. Bagnardi, V, Zambon, A, Quatto, P, et al. (2004) Flexible meta-regression functions for modeling aggregate dose–response data, with an application to alcohol and mortality. Am J Epidemiol 159, 1077–1086.
34. Hodge, AM, Bassett, JK, Dugué, PA, et al. (2018) Dietary inflammatory index or Mediterranean diet score as risk factors for total and cardiovascular mortality. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 28, 461–469.
35. Warensjö Lemming, E, Byberg, L, Wolk, A, et al. (2018) A comparison between two healthy diet scores, the modified Mediterranean diet score and the Healthy Nordic Food Index, in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Br J Nutr 119, 836–846.
36. van den Brandt, PA (2011) The impact of a Mediterranean diet and healthy lifestyle on premature mortality in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 913–920.
37. de Groot, LC, Verheijden, MW, de Henauw, S, et al. (2004) Lifestyle, nutritional status, health, and mortality in elderly people across Europe: a review of the longitudinal results of the SENECA study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59, 1277–1284.
38. de Lorgeril, M, Salen, P, Martin, JL, et al. (1998) Mediterranean dietary pattern in a randomized trial: prolonged survival and possible reduced cancer rate. Arch Intern Med 158, 1181–1187.
39. Hoevenaar-Blom, MP, Nooyens, AC, Kromhout, D, et al. (2012) Mediterranean style diet and 12-year incidence of cardiovascular diseases: the EPIC-NL cohort study. PLOS ONE 7, e45458.
40. Rosato, V, Temple, NJ, La Vecchia, C, et al. (2017) Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Eur J Nutr (Epublication ahead of print 25 November 2017).
41. Dinu, M, Pagliai, G, Casini, A, et al. (2017) Mediterranean diet and multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials. Eur J Clin Nutr 72, 30–43.
42. Martínez-González, MÁ, Hershey, MS, Zazpe, I, et al. (2017) Transferability of the Mediterranean diet to non-Mediterranean countries. What is and what is not the Mediterranean diet. Nutrients 9, 1226.
43. Tosti, V, Bertozzi, B & Fontana, L (2018) Health benefits of the Mediterranean diet: metabolic and molecular mechanisms. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med 73, 318–326.
44. Stamler, J (2013) Toward a modern Mediterranean diet for the 21st Century. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23, 1159–1162.
45. Bonaccio, M, Pounis, G, Cerletti, C, et al. (2017) Mediterranean diet, dietary polyphenols and low grade inflammation: results from the Moli-sani study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 83, 107–113.
46. Guasch-Ferré, M, Hu, FB, Martínez-González, MA, et al. (2014) Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED study. BMC Med 12, 78.
47. Zheng, J, Huang, T, Yu, Y, et al. (2012) Fish consumption and CHD mortality: an updated meta-analysis of seventeen cohort studies. Public Health Nutr 15, 725–737.
48. Bonaccio, M, Ruggiero, E, Di Castelnuovo, A, et al. (2017) Fish intake is associated with lower cardiovascular risk in a Mediterranean population: prospective results from the Moli-sani study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 27, 865–873.
49. Costanzo, S, Di Castelnuovo, A, Donati, MB, et al. (2011) Wine, beer or spirit drinking in relation to fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis. Eur J Epidemiol 26, 833–850.
50. Esposito, K, Maiorino, MI, Di Palo, C, et al. (2009) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 26, 900–907.
51. Boccardi, V, Esposito, A, Rizzo, MR, et al. (2013) Mediterranean diet, telomere maintenance and health status among elderly. PLOS ONE 8, e62781.
52. Santoro, A, Brigidi, P, Gonos, ES, et al. (2014) Mediterranean diet and inflammaging in the elderly: the European project NU-AGE. Preface. Mech Ageing Dev 136–137, 1–2.
53. Bonaccio, M, Di Castelnuovo, A, Pounis, G, et al. (2017) Relative contribution of health-related behaviours and chronic diseases to the socioeconomic patterning of low-grade inflammation. Int J Public Health 62, 551–562.
54. Barbaresko, J, Koch, M, Schulze, MB, et al. (2013) Dietary pattern analysis and biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: a systematic literature review. Nutr Rev 71, 511–527.
55. Bonaccio, M, Di Castelnuovo, A, Pounis, G, et al. (2016) A score of low-grade inflammation and risk of mortality: prospective findings from the Moli-sani study. Haematologica 101, 1434–1441.
56. Wouterse, B, Huisman, M, Meijboom, BR, et al. (2015) The effect of trends in health and longevity on health services use by older adults. BMC Health Serv Res 15, 574.