Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Medium-chain TAG improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight weanling piglets

  • Hao Zhang (a1), Yue Li (a1), Xiang Hou (a1), Lili Zhang (a1) and Tian Wang (a1)...
Abstract

We previously reported that medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate hepatic oxidative damage in weanling piglets with intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). There is a relationship between oxidative status and energy metabolism, a process involved in substrate availability and glucose flux. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of IUGR and MCT on hepatic energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets. Twenty-four IUGR piglets and twenty-four normal-birth-weight (NBW) piglets were fed a diet of either soyabean oil (SO) or MCT from 21 d of postnatal age to 49 d of postnatal age. Then, the piglets’ biochemical parameters and gene expressions related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were determined (n 4). Compared with NBW, IUGR decreased the ATP contents and succinate oxidation rates in the liver of piglets, and reduced hepatic mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS) activity (P<0·05). IUGR piglets exhibited reductions in hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents and gene expressions related to mitochondrial biogenesis compared with NBW piglets (P<0·05). The MCT diet increased plasma ghrelin concentration and hepatic CS and succinate dehydrogenase activities, but decreased hepatic pyruvate kinase activity compared with the SO diet (P<0·05). The MCT-fed piglets showed improved mtDNA contents and PPARγ coactivator-1α expression in the liver (P<0·05). The MCT diet alleviated decreased mRNA abundance of the hepatic PPARα induced by IUGR (P<0·05). It can therefore be postulated that MCT may have beneficial effects in improving energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in weanling piglets.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Medium-chain TAG improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight weanling piglets
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Medium-chain TAG improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight weanling piglets
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Medium-chain TAG improve energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in the liver of intra-uterine growth-retarded and normal-birth-weight weanling piglets
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: T. Wang, fax +86 25 8439 5156, email tianwangnjau@163.com
References
Hide All
1. Gmenwald, P (1963) Chronic fetal distress and placental insufficiency. Biol Neonate 5, 215223.
2. Ogata, ES, Bussey, ME & Finley, S (1986) Altered gas exchange, limited glucose, branched chain amino acids, and hypoinsulinism retard fetal growth in the rat. Metabolism 35, 970977.
3. Simmons, RA, Gounis, AS, Bangalore, SA, et al. (1992) Intrauterine growth retardation: fetal glucose transport is diminished in lung but spared in brain. Pediatr Res 31, 5963.
4. Bell, AW & Ehrhardt, RA (2002) Regulation of placental nutrient transport and implications for fetal growth. Nutr Res Rev 15, 211230.
5. World Health Organization (1995) Maternal anthropometry and pregnancy outcomes: a WHO collaborative study. Bull World Health Organ 73, Suppl, 198.
6. Barker, DJ, Bull, AR, Osmond, C, et al. (1990) Fetal and placental size and risk of hypertension in adult life. Br Med J 301, 259262.
7. Hales, CN, Barker, DJ, Clark, PM, et al. (1991) Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64. Br Med J 303, 10191022.
8. Peterside, IE, Selak, MA & Simmons, RA (2004) Impaired oxidative phosphorylation in hepatic mitochondria in growth-retarded rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285, E1258E1266.
9. Park, KS, Kim, SK, Kim, MS, et al. (2003) Fetal and early postnatal protein malnutrition cause long-term changes in rat liver and muscle mitochondria. J Nutr 133, 30853090.
10. Zentek, J, Buchheit-Renko, S, Ferrara, F, et al. (2011) Nutritional and physiological role of medium-chain triglycerides and medium-chain fatty acids in piglets. Anim Health Res Rev 12, 8393.
11. Wojtczak, L & Schönfeld, P (1993) Effect of fatty acids on energy coupling processes in mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta 1183, 4157.
12. Dove, CR (1993) The effect of adding copper and various fat sources to the diets of weanling swine on growth performance and serum fatty acid profiles. J Anim Sci 71, 21872192.
13. Hong, SM, Hwang, JH & Kim, IH (2012) Effect of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics in weanling pigs. Asian Australas J Anim 25, 10031008.
14. Dierick, NA, Decuypere, JA, Molly, K, et al. (2002) The combined use of triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and exogenous lipolytic enzymes as an alternative to nutritional antibiotics in piglet nutrition: II. In vivo release of MCFAs in gastric cannulated and slaughtered piglets by endogenous and exogenous lipases; effects on the luminal gut flora and growth performance. Livest Prod Sci 76, 116.
15. Zhang, H, Chen, Y, Li, Y, et al. (2014) Medium-chain TAG attenuate hepatic oxidative damage in intra-uterine growth-retarded weanling piglets by improving the metabolic efficiency of the glutathione redox cycle. Br J Nutr 112, 876885.
16. Merrifield, CA, Lewis, M, Claus, SP, et al. (2011) A metabolic system-wide characterization of the pig: a model for human physiology. Mol Biosyst 7, 25772588.
17. National Research Council (1996) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 7th ed. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
18. Wang, T, Huo, Y, Shi, F, et al. (2005) Effects of intrauterine growth retardation on development of the gastrointestinal tract in neonatal pigs. Biol Neonate 88, 6672.
19. Tang, X, Gao, J, Wang, Y, et al. (2006) Effective protection of Terminalia catappa L. leaves from damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in liver mitochondria. J Nutr Biochem 17, 177182.
20. Serviddio, G, Bellanti, F, Romano, AD, et al. (2007) Bioenergetics in aging: mitochondrial proton leak in aging rat liver, kidney and heart. Redox Rep 12, 9195.
21. Bradford, MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72, 7224872254.
22. Liu, J, Yao, Y, Yu, B, et al. (2012) Effect of folic acid supplementation on hepatic antioxidant function and mitochondrial-related gene expression in weanling intrauterine growth retarded piglets. Livest Sci 146, 123132.
23. Livak, KJ & Schmittgen, TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods 25, 402408.
24. Bach, AC & Babayan, VK (1982) Medium chain triglycerides: an update. Am J Clin Nutr 36, 950962.
25. Johnson, RC & Cotter, R (1986) Metabolism of medium chain triglyceride emulsion. Nutr Int 2, 150158.
26. Ogata, ES, Swanson, SL, Collins, JJ, et al. (1990) Intrauterine growth retardation: altered hepatic energy and redox states in the fetal rat. Pediatr Res 27, 5663.
27. Cianfarani, S, Agostoni, C, Bedogni, G, et al. (2012) Effect of intrauterine growth retardation on liver and long-term metabolic risk. Int J Obes (Lond) 36, 12701277.
28. Selak, MA, Storey, BT, Peterside, I, et al. (2003) Impaired oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of intrauterine growth-retarded rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285, E130E137.
29. Williamson, JR & Cooper, RH (1980) Regulation of the citric acid cycle in mammalian systems. FEBS Lett 117, Suppl, K73K85.
30. Michiels, J, De Vos, M, Missotten, J, et al. (2013) Maturation of digestive function is retarded and plasma antioxidant capacity lowered in fully weaned low birth weight piglets. Br J Nutr 109, 6575.
31. Ooyama, K, Kojima, K, Aoyama, T, et al. (2009) Decrease of food intake in rats after ingestion of medium-chain triacylglycerol. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 55, 423427.
32. Balietti, M, Fattoretti, P, Giorgetti, B, et al. (2009) A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase activity in aging cardiomyocytes. Potential protective role against apoptosis-induced heart failure. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1171, 377384.
33. Balietti, M, Giorgetti, B, Di Stefano, G, et al. (2010) A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and recovers age-related decrease in numeric density of SDH-positive mitochondria in cerebellar Purkinje cells of late-adult rats. Micron 41, 143148.
34. Morris, TJ, Vickers, M, Gluckman, P, et al. (2009) Transcriptional profiling of rats subjected to gestational undernourishment: implications for the developmental variations in metabolic traits. PLoS ONE 4, e7271.
35. Turner, N, Hariharan, K, TidAng, J, et al. (2009) Enhancement of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and alterations in insulin action are lipid species dependent potent tissue-specific effects of medium-chain fatty acids. Diabetes 58, 25472554.
36. Thomas, PJ, Garboczi, DN & Pedersen, PL (1992) Mutational analysis of the consensus nucleotide binding sequences in the rat liver mitochondrial ATP synthase beta-subunit. J Biol Chem 267, 2033120338.
37. Theys, N, Bouckenooghe, T, Ahn, MT, et al. (2009) Maternal low-protein diet alters pancreatic islet mitochondrial function in a sex-specific manner in the adult rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297, R1516R1525.
38. Huss, JM & Kelly, DP (2005) Mitochondrial energy metabolism in heart failure: a question of balance. J Clin Invest 115, 547555.
39. Ekstrand, MI, Falkenberg, M, Rantanen, A, et al. (2004) Mitochondrial transcription factor A regulates mtDNA copy number in mammals. Hum Mol Genet 13, 935944.
40. Lefebvre, P, Chinetti, G, Fruchart, JC, et al. (2006) Sorting out the roles of PPARα in energy metabolism and vascular homeostasis. J Clin Invest 116, 571580.
41. Magee, TR, Han, G, Cherian, B, et al. (2008) Down-regulation of transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in programmed hepatic lipid dysregulation and inflammation in intrauterine growth-restricted offspring. Am J Obstet Gynecol 199, 271.e1271.e5.
42. Cannino, G, Di Liegro, CM & Rinaldi, AM (2007) Nuclear-mitochondrial interaction. Mitochondrion 7, 359366.
43. Kim, JK, Fillmore, JJ, Chen, Y, et al. (2001) Tissue-specific overexpression of lipoprotein lipase causes tissue-specific insulin resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98, 75227527.
44. Pinney, SE, Han, Y & Simmons, RA (2009) Neonatal exendin-4 administration normalizes epigenetic modifications at the proximal promoter of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC1-alpha) in the adult IUGR liver. Horm Res 72, 34.
45. Xu, HE, Lambert, MH, Montana, VG, et al. (1999) Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Mol Cell 3, 397403.
46. Okamoto, Y, Kihara, S, Funahshi, T, et al. (2006) Adiponectin: a key adipocytokine in metabolic syndrome. Clin Sci 110, 267278.
47. Takeuchi, H, Noguchi, O, Sekine, S, et al. (2006) Lower weight gain and higher expression and blood levels of adiponectin in rats fed medium-chain TAG compared with long-chain TAG. Lipids 41, 207212.
48. Rodgers, JT, Lerin, C, Haas, W, et al. (2005) Nutrient control of glucose homeostasis through a complex of PGC-1alpha and SIRT1. Nature 434, 113118.
49. Nishi, Y, Hiejima, H, Hosoda, H, et al. (2005) Ingested medium-chain fatty acids are directly utilized for the acyl modification of ghrelin. Endocrinology 146, 22552264.
50. Barazzoni, R, Zanetti, M, Cattin, MR, et al. (2007) Ghrelin enhances in vivo skeletal muscle but not liver AKT signaling in rats. Obesity 15, 26142623.
51. Bayliss, JA & Andrews, ZB (2013) Ghrelin is neuroprotective in Parkinson’s disease: molecular mechanisms of metabolic neuroprotection. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 4, 2536.
52. Weitzel, JM & Iwen, KA (2011) Coordination of mitochondrial biogenesis by thyroid hormone. Mol Cell Endocrinol 342, 17.
53. Rustin, P, Munnich, A & Rotig, A (2002) Succinate dehydrogenase and human diseases: new insights into a well-known enzyme. Eur J Hum Genet 10, 289291.
54. Ishii, N, Ishii, T & Hartman, P (2006) The role of the electron transport gene SDHC on lifespan and cancer. Exp Gerontol 41, 952956.
55. Lepine, AJ, Boyd, RD, Welch, JA, et al. (1989) Effect of colostrum or medium-chain triglyceride supplementation on the pattern of plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and survival of neonatal pigs. J Anim Sci 67, 983990.
56. Casellas, J, Casas, X, Piedrafita, J, et al. (2005) Effect of medium- and long-chain triglyceride supplementation on small newborn-pig survival. Prev Vet Med 67, 213221.
57. Yen, H, Lai, W, Lin, C, et al. (2014) Medium-chain triglyceride as an alternative of in-feed colistin sulfate to improve growth performance and intestinal microbial environment in newly weaned pigs. Anim Sci J 86, 99104.
58. Chiang, SH, Pettigrew, JE, Clarke, SD, et al. (1990) Limits of medium-chain and long-chain triacylglycerol utilization by neonatal piglets. J Anim Sci 68, 16321638.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Zhang supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (32 KB)
32 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Zhang supplementary material
Table S2

 Word (43 KB)
43 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed