Billeter, M & Martius, C (1960) Über die Umwandlung von Phylloquinon (Vitamin K1) in Vitamin K2(20) im Tierkörper (About the conversion of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) in to vitamin K2(20) in animal tissue). Biochemisches Zeitschrift 333, 430–439.
Boersma, ER, Offringa, PJ, Muskiet, FAJ, Chase, WM & Simmons, IJ (1991) Vitamin E, lipid fractions in, and fatty acid composition of colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk: an international comparative study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 1197–1204.
Booth, SL & Suttie, JW (1998) Dietary intake and adequacy of vitamin K. Journal of Nutrition 128, 785–788.
Bosiletty, S, Gupta, JM, Graham, GG, Salonikas, C & Naidoo, D (1998) Vitamin K in preterm breastmilk with maternal supplementation. Acta Paediatrica 87, 960–962.
Buitenhuis, HC, Soute, BAM & Vermeer, C (1990) Comparison of the vitamins K1, K2, and K3 as cofactors for the hepatic vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1034, 170–175.
Chappell, JE, Francis, T & Clandinin, MT (1985) Vitamin A and E content of human milk at early stages of lactation. Early Human Development 11, 157–167.
Conly, JM & Stein, K (1992) The production of menaquinones (vitamin K2) by intestinal bacteria and their role in maintaining coagulation homeostasis. Progress in Food and Nutrition Science 16, 307–343.
Cornelissen, EAM, von Kries, R, Loughnan, P & Schubiger, G (1997) Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding: efficacy of different multiple oral dose schedules of vitamin K. European Journal of Pediatry 156, 126–130.
Davidson, RT, Foley, AL, Engelke, JA & Suttie, JW (1998) Conversion of dietary phylloquinone to tissue menaquinone-4 in rats is not dependent on gut bacteria. Journal of Nutrition 128, 220–223.
Dialameh, GH, Taggart, WV, Matshiner, JT & Olson, RE (1971) Isolation and characterization of menaquinone-4 as a product of menadione metabolism in chicks and rats. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 41, 391–400.
Fournier, B, Sann, L, Guillaumont, M & Leclercq, M (1987) Variations of phylloquinone concentration in human milk at various stages of lactation and in cow's milk at various seasons. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 551–558.
Greer, FR (1995) Vitamin K deficiency and hemorrhage in infancy. Clinical Perinatology 22, 759–777.
Greer, FR, Marshall, SP, Foley, AL & Suttie, JW (1997) Improving the vitamin K status of breastfeeding infants with maternal vitamin K supplements. Pediatry 99, 88–92.
Hachey, DL, Thomas, MR, Emken, EA, Garza, C, Brown-Booth, L, Adlof, RO & Klein, PD (1987) Human lactation: maternal transfer of dietary triglycerides labeled with stable isotopes. Journal of Lipid Research 28, 1185–1192.
Hagstrom, JN, Bovill, EG, Soll, RF, Davidson, KW & Sadowski, JA (1995) The pharmacokinetics and lipoprotein fraction distribution of intramuscular vs oral vitamin K1 supplementation in women of childbearing age: effects on hemostasis. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 74, 1486–1490.
Haroon, Y, Bacon, DS & Sadowski, JA (1986) Liquid-chromatographic determination of vitamin K1 in plasma, with fluorometric detection. Clinical Chemistry 32, 1925–1929.
Harzer, G, Haug, M, Dieterich, I & Gentner, PR (1983) Changing patterns of human milk lipids in the course of lactation and during the day. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 37, 612–621.
Hiraike, H, Kimura, M & Itokawa, Y (1988) Distribution of K vitamins (phylloquinone and menaquinones) in human placenta and maternal and umbilical cord plasma. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 158, 564–569.
Indyk, HE & Woollard, DC (1997) Vitamin K in milk and infant formulas: determination and distribution of phylloquinone and menaquinone-4. Analyst 122, 465–469.
Jie, K-SG, Bots, ML, Vermeer, C, Witteman, JCM & Grobbee, DE (1995) Vitamin K intake and osteocalcin levels in women with and without aortic atherosclerosis: a population-based study. Atherosclerosis 116, 117–123.
Kindberg, C, Suttie, JW, Uchida, K, Hirauchi, K & Nakao, H (1987) Menaquinone production and utilization in germ-free rats after inoculation with specific organisms. Journal of Nutrition 117, 1032–1035.
King, JC (2000) Physiology of pregnancy and nutrient metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71S, 218S–225S.
Kohlmeier, M, Salomon, A, Saupe, J & Shearer, M (1996) Transport of vitamin K to bone in humans. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1192S–1196S.
Meydan, M (1995) Vitamin E. Lancet 345, 170–175.
Neville, MC, Keller, R, Seacat, J, Lutes, V, Neifert, M, Casey, C, Allen, J & Archer, P (1988) Studies in human lactation: milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 1375–1386.
Ronden, JE (1998) Absorption, tissue distribution and bioactivity of vitamin K and related compounds in the rat. PhD Thesis, University of Maastricht.
Ronden, JE, Drittij-Reijnders, MJ, Vermeer, C & Thijssen, HHW (1998) Intestinal flora is not an intermediate in the phylloquinone–menaquinone-4 conversion in the rat. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1379, 69–75.
Ramotar, K, Conly, JM, Chubb, H & Louie, TJ (1984) Production of menaquinones by intestinal anaerobes. Journal of Infectious Disease 150, 213–218.
Shearer, MJ (1992) Vitamin K metabolism and nutriture. Blood Reviews 6, 92–104.
Sutor, AH, Von Kries, R, Cornelissen, EAM & McNinh, AW (1999) Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in infancy. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 81, 456–461.
Suttie, JW (1995) The importance of menaquinones in human nutrition. Annual Reviews of Nutrition 15, 399–417.
The Netherlands Nutrition Centre (1998) Dutch Food Intake in 1997–1998. Den Haag: Voedingscentrum.
Thijssen, HHW & Drittij-Reijnders, MJ (1994) Vitamin K distribution in rat tissue: dietary phylloquinone is a source of tissue menaquinone-4. British Journal of Nutrition 72, 415–425.
Thijssen, HHW & Drittij-Reijnders, MJ (1996) Vitamin K status in human tissues: tissue-specific accumulation of phylloquinone and menaquinone-4. British Journal of Nutrition 75, 121–127.
Thijssen, HHW, Drittij-Reijnders, MJ & Fischer, MAJG (1996) Phylloquinone and menaquinone-4 distribution in rats: synthesis rather than uptake determines menaquinone-4 organ concentrations. Journal of Nutrition 126, 537–543.
Trumbo, P, Yates, AA, Schlicker, S & Poos, M (2001) Dietary reference intakes: Vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium and zinc. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101, 294–301.
Will, BH, Usui, Y & Suttie, JW (1992) Comparative metabolism and requirement of vitamin K in chicks and rats. Journal of Nutrition 122, 2354–2360.
Von Kries, R, Shearer, M, McCarthy, PT, Haug, M, Harzer, G & Gobel, U (1987) Vitamin K1 content of maternal milk: influence of the stage of lactation, lipid composition, and vitamin K1 supplements given to the mother. Pediatric Research 22, 513–517.