Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Open access
  • Cited by 23
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Sentko, Anke 2013. Innovative low-glycaemic carbohydrates: an update. Nutrafoods, Vol. 12, Issue. 4, p. 127.

    Sentko, Anke and Bernard, Jörg 2011. Alternative Sweeteners, Fourth Edition.

    Varzakas, Theodoros and Chryssanthopoulos, Costas 2012. Sweeteners.

    Scano, Paola Murgia, Antonio Demuru, Martina Consonni, Roberto and Caboni, Pierluigi 2016. Metabolite profiles of formula milk compared to breast milk. Food Research International, Vol. 87, p. 76.

    Sentko, Anke and Willibald-Ettle, Ingrid 2012. Sweeteners and Sugar Alternatives in Food Technology.

    Ruxton, Carrie 2012. Advances in functional fibres and carbohydrates. Nutrafoods, Vol. 11, Issue. 3, p. 95.

    Murgia, Antonio Scano, Paola Contu, Marino Ibba, Ignazio Altea, Maurizio Bussu, Michele Demuru, Martina Porcu, Alessandra and Caboni, Pierluigi 2016. Characterization of donkey milk and metabolite profile comparison with human milk and formula milk. LWT - Food Science and Technology, Vol. 74, p. 427.

    Nam, Cheon-Hyeon Seo, Dong-Ho Jung, Jong-Hyun Koh, Young-Jin Jung, Jae-Sung Heu, Sunggi Oh, Chang-Sik and Park, Cheon-Seok 2014. Functional characterization of the sucrose isomerase responsible for trehalulose production in plant-associated Pectobacterium species. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Vol. 55, p. 100.

    Brunner, S. Holub, I. Theis, S. Gostner, A. Melcher, R. Wolf, P. Amann-Gassner, U. Scheppach, W. and Hauner, H. 2012. Metabolic Effects of Replacing Sucrose by Isomaltulose in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes: A randomized double-blind trial. Diabetes Care, Vol. 35, Issue. 6, p. 1249.

    Lansink, Mirian van Laere, Katrien M.J. Vendrig, Lizeth and Rutten, Guy E.H.M. 2011. Lower postprandial glucose responses at baseline and after 4 weeks use of a diabetes-specific formula in diabetes type 2 patients. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Vol. 93, Issue. 3, p. 421.

    Morimoto, Kenji Yoshihara, Akihide Furumoto, Toshio and Takata, Goro 2015. Production and application of a rare disaccharide using sucrose phosphorylase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol. 119, Issue. 6, p. 652.

    König, Daniel Zdzieblik, Denise Holz, Anja Theis, Stephan and Gollhofer, Albert 2016. Substrate Utilization and Cycling Performance Following Palatinose™ Ingestion: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 7, p. 390.

    Pranckutė, Raminta Kaunietis, Arnoldas Kuisienė, Nomeda and Čitavičius, Donaldas J. 2016. Combining prebiotics with probiotic bacteria can enhance bacterial growth and secretion of bacteriocins. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Vol. 89, p. 669.

    Keyhani-Nejad, Farnaz Kemper, Margrit Schueler, Rita Pivovarova, Olga Rudovich, Natalia and Pfeiffer, Andreas F.H. 2016. Effects of Palatinose and Sucrose Intake on Glucose Metabolism and Incretin Secretion in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, Vol. 39, Issue. 3, p. e38.

    Ang, Meidjie Müller, Andreas S. Wagenlehner, Florian Pilatz, Adrian and Linn, Thomas 2012. Combining protein and carbohydrate increases postprandial insulin levels but does not improve glucose response in patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism, Vol. 61, Issue. 12, p. 1696.

    Devitt, Amy A. Williams, Jennifer A. Choe, Yong S. Hustead, Deborah S. and Mustad, Vikkie A. 2013. Glycemic responses to glycemia-targeted specialized-nutrition beverages with varying carbohydrates compared to a standard nutritional beverage in adults with type 2 diabetes. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, Vol. 04, Issue. 09, p. 1.

    Young, Hayley and Benton, David 2015. The effect of using isomaltulose (Palatinose™) to modulate the glycaemic properties of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 54, Issue. 6, p. 1013.

    Mu, Wanmeng Li, Wenjing Wang, Xiao Zhang, Tao and Jiang, Bo 2014. Current studies on sucrose isomerase and biological isomaltulose production using sucrose isomerase. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 98, Issue. 15, p. 6569.

    Gubica, Tomasz Stępień, Dorota K. Pisklak, Dariusz M. Ostrowski, Andrzej and Cyrański, Michał K. 2013. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, 13C CP/MAS NMR, and DFT-GIAO calculations of methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-galactopyranosyl)-α-d-glucopyranoside and methyl 2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-3-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-galactopyranosyl)-α-d-glucopyranoside. Journal of Molecular Structure, Vol. 1036, p. 407.

    Sekartini, Rini Wiguna, Tjhin Bardosono, Saptawati Novita, Dian Arsianti, Tiana Calame, Wim and Schaafsma, Anne 2013. The effect of lactose–isomaltulose-containing growing-up milks on cognitive performance of Indonesian children: a cross-over study. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 110, Issue. 06, p. 1089.


Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose™)

  • Ines Holub (a1), Andrea Gostner (a1), Stephan Theis (a2), Leszek Nosek (a3), Theodor Kudlich (a1), Ralph Melcher (a1) and W. Scheppach (a4)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 09 March 2010

The slow digestible disaccharide isomaltulose (iso; Palatinose™) is available as novel functional carbohydrate ingredient for manufacturing of low glycaemic foods and beverages. Although basically characterised, various information on physiological effects of iso are still lacking. Thus, the objective of the present study was to expand scientific knowledge of physiological characteristics of iso by a set of three human intervention trials. Using an ileostomy model, iso was found to be essentially absorbed, irrespective of the nature of food (beverage and solid food). Apparent digestibility of 50 g iso from two different meals was 95·5 and 98·8 %; apparent absorption was 93·6 and 96·1 %, respectively. In healthy volunteers, a single dose intake of iso resulted in lower postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses than did sucrose (suc), while showing prolonged blood glucose delivery over 3 h test. In a 4-week trial with hyperlipidaemic individuals, regular consumption of 50 g/d iso within a Western-type diet was well tolerated and did not affect blood lipids. Fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance were lower after the 4-week iso intervention compared with baseline. This would be consistent with possible beneficial metabolic effects as a consequence of the lower and prolonged glycaemic response and lower insulinaemic burden. However, there was no significant difference at 4 weeks after iso compared with suc. In conclusion, the study shows that iso is completely available from the small intestine, irrespective of food matrix, leading to a prolonged delivery of blood glucose. Regular iso consumption is well tolerated also in subjects with increased risk for vascular diseases.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose™)
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose™)
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Novel findings on the metabolic effects of the low glycaemic carbohydrate isomaltulose (Palatinose™)
      Available formats
The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence <>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Ines Holub, fax +49 931 201 45887, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

2S Dickinson & J Brand-Miller (2005) Glycemic index, postprandial glycemia and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 16, 6975.

3LS Augustin , S Franceschi , DJ Jenkins , (2002) Glycemic index in chronic disease: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 10491071.

5D Benton & S Nabb (2003) Carbohydrate, memory, and mood. Nutr Rev 61, S61S67.

6PM Siu & SH Wong (2004) Use of the glycemic index: effects on feeding patterns and exercise performance. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 23, 16.

7BAR Lina , D Jonker & G Kozianowski (2002) Isomaltulose (Palatinose): a review of biological and toxicological studies. Food Chem Toxicol 40, 13831389.

13D Jonker , BAR Lina & G Kozianowski (2002) 13-Week oral toxicity study with isomaltulose (Palatinose) in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 40, 13831389.

14FS Atkinson , K Foster-Powell & JC Brand-Miller (2008) International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care 31, 22812283.

16JH Cummings & HS Wiggings (1976) Transit through the gut measured by analysis of a single stool. Gut 17, 219223.

18DR Matthews , JP Hosker , AS Rudenski , (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412419.

26Y Amano , K Kawakubo , JS Lee , (2004) Correlation between dietary glycemic index and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Japanese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 14721478.

31J Brand-Miller , S Hayne , P Petocz , (2003) Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Care 26, 22612267.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *