Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas for term infants: a double-blind randomised controlled trial

  • Shao J. Zhou (a1) (a2) (a3), Thomas Sullivan (a4), Robert A. Gibson (a3), Bo Lönnerdal (a5), Colin G. Prosser (a6), Dianne J. Lowry (a6) and Maria Makrides (a1) (a2) (a7)...
Abstract

The safety and nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas have been questioned. The primary aim of the present study was to compare the growth and nutritional status of infants fed a goat milk infant formula with those of infants fed a typical whey-based cow milk infant formula. The secondary aim was to examine a range of health- and allergy-related outcomes. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial with 200 formula-fed term infants randomly assigned to receive either goat or cow milk formula from 2 weeks to at least 4 months of age was conducted. A cohort of 101 breast-fed infants was included for comparison. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Nutritional status was assessed from serum albumin, urea, creatinine, Hb, ferritin, and folate and plasma amino acid concentrations at 4 months. Z-scores for weight, length, head circumference and weight for length were not different between the two formula-fed groups. There were differences in the values of some amino acids and blood biomarkers between the formula-fed groups, but the mean values for biomarkers were within the normal reference range. There were no differences in the occurrence of serious adverse events, general health, and incidence of dermatitis or medically diagnosed food allergy. The incidence of parentally reported blood-stained stools was higher in the goat milk formula-fed group, although this was a secondary outcome and its importance is unclear. Goat milk formula provided growth and nutritional outcomes in infants that did not differ from those provided by a standard whey-based cow milk formula.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas for term infants: a double-blind randomised controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas for term infants: a double-blind randomised controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Nutritional adequacy of goat milk infant formulas for term infants: a double-blind randomised controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Professor M. Makrides, fax +61 8 8239 0267, email maria.makrides@health.sa.gov.au
References
Hide All
1 AAP (2012) Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 129, e827e841.
2 Raiha, NC, Fazzolari-Nesci, A, Cajozzo, C, et al. (2002) Whey predominant, whey modified infant formula with protein/energy ratio of 1·8 g/100 kcal: adequate and safe for term infants from birth to four months. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 35, 275281.
3 Hernell, O (2011) Human milk vs. cow's milk and the evolution of infant formulas. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 67, 1728.
4 Ziegler, DS, Russell, SJ, Rozenberg, G, et al. (2005) Goats' milk quackery. J Paediatr Child Health 41, 569571.
5 Basnet, S, Schneider, M, Gazit, A, et al. (2010) Fresh goat's milk for infants: myths and realities – a review. Pediatrics 125, e973e977.
6 Taitz, LS & Armitage, BL (1984) Goats' milk for infants and children. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 288, 428429.
7 Baur, LA & Allen, JR (2005) Goat milk for infants: yes or no? J Paediatr Child Health 41, 543.
8 Rutherfurd, S, Moughan, P, Lowry, D, et al. (2008) Amino acid composition determined using multiple hydrolysis times for three goat milk formulations. Int J Food Sci Nutr 59, 679690.
9 Koletzko, B, Baker, S, Cleghorn, G, et al. (2005) Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 41, 584599.
10 Codex Alimentarius Commission (2007) Standard for infant formula and formulas for special medical purposes intended for infants CODEX STAN 72-1981 (amended 2007). http://www.codexalimentarius.org/input/download/standards/288/CXS_072e.pdf (accessed March 2013).
11 Rutherfurd, SM, Darragh, AJ, Hendriks, WH, et al. (2006) True ileal amino acid digestibility of goat and cow milk infant formulas. J Dairy Sci 89, 24082413.
12 Koletzko, B, Ashwell, M, Beck, B, et al. (2002) Characterisation of infant food modifications in the European Union. Ann Nutr Metab 46, 231242.
13 Silanikove, N, Leitner, G, Merin, U, et al. (2010) Recent advances in exploiting goat's milk: quality, safety and production aspects. Small Rum Res 89, 110124.
14 Razafindrakoto, O, Ravelomanana, N, Rasolofo, A, et al. (1994) Goat's milk as a substitute for cow's milk in undernourished children: a randomised double-blind clinical trial. Pediatrics 94, 6569.
15 Haenlein, GFW (2004) Goat milk in human nutrition. Small Rum Res 51, 155163.
16 Grant, C, Rotherham, B, Sharpe, S, et al. (2005) Randomized, double-blind comparison of growth in infants receiving goat milk formula versus cow milk infant formula. J Paediatr Child Health 41, 564568.
17 EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies (2004) Scientific opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant formulae and in follow-on formulae. EFSA J 30, 115.
18 Koletzko, B, von Kries, R, Closa, R, et al. (2009) Lower protein in infant formula is associated with lower weight up to age 2 y: a randomised clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 18361845.
19 Bang, H, Ni, L & Davis, CE (2004) Assessment of blinding in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 25, 143156.
20 European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (1993) Severity scoring of atopic dermatitis: the SCORAD index. Dermatology 186, 2331.
21 Lewis, SJ & Heaton, KW (1997) Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time. Scand J Gastroenterol 32, 920924.
22 Matthey, S (2001) The sleep and settle questionnaire for parents of infants: psychometric properties. J Paediatr Child Health 37, 470475.
23 World Health Organisation (2006) WHO child growth standards based on length/height, weight and age. Acta Paediatr Suppl 450, 7685.
24 Himes, R & Shulman, R (2008) Use of laboratory measurements in nutritional assessment. In Pediatric Nutrition in Practice, pp. 2730 [Koletzko, B, editor]. Basel: Karger.
25 Kramer, MS, Guo, T, Platt, RW, et al. (2004) Feeding effects on growth during infancy. J Pediatr 145, 600605.
26 Dewey, KG, Heinig, MJ, Nommsen, LA, et al. (1992) Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from 0 to 18 months – the DARLING Study. Pediatrics 89, 10351041.
27 Agostoni, C, Grandi, F, Gianni, ML, et al. (1999) Growth patterns of breast fed and formula fed infants in the first 12 months of life: an Italian study. Arch Dis Child 81, 395399.
28 Janas, LM, Picciano, MF & Hatch, TF (1987) Indices of protein metabolism in term infants fed either human milk or formulas with reduced protein concentration and various whey casein ratios. J Pediatr 110, 838848.
29 Janas, LM, Picciano, MF & Hatch, TF (1985) Indices of protein metabolism in term infants fed human milk, whey predominant formula or cow's milk formula. Pediatrics 75, 775784.
30 Lonnerdal, B & Hernell, O (1998) Effects of feeding ultrahigh-temperature (UHP)-treated infant formula with different protein concentrations or powdered formula, as compared with breast-feeding, on plasma amino acids, hematology, and trace element status. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 350356.
31 Sandstrom, O, Lonnerdal, B, Graverholt, G, et al. (2008) Effects of alpha-lactalbumin-enriched formula containing different concentrations of glycomacropeptide on infant nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 921928.
32 Wijesinha-Bettoni, R & Burlingame, B (2013) Milk and dairy product composition. In Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition, Chapter 3 , pp. 4190 [Muehlhoff, E, Bennett, A and McMahon, D, editors]. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed