Agudo, A, Amiano, P, Barcos, A, et al. (1999) Dietary intake of vegetables and fruits among adults in five regions of Spain. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 174–180.
AIR Study Final Report (1997) AIR2-CT93-0888 (DG12), CEC, Final Consolidation Report Project. Brussels, Belgium.
Albanes, D (1999) B-carotene and lung cancer: A case study. Am J Clin Nutr 69, Suppl., 1345S–1351S.
Aleman, TS, Duncan, JL, Bieber, ML, et al. (2001) Macular pigment and lutein supplementation in retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42, 1873–1881.
Ascherio, A, Rimm, EB, Hernán, M, et al. (1999) Relation of consumption of vitamin E, vitamin C and carotenoids to risk for stroke among men in the United States. Ann Intern Med 130, 963–970.
Ascherio, A, Stampfer, M, Colditz, GA, Rimm, EB, Litin, L & Willett, WC (1992) Correlations of vitamin A and E intakes with plasma concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols among American men and women. J Nutr 122, 1792–1801.
Bates, CJ, Chen, SJ, MacDonald, A & Holden, R (1996) Quantitation of vitamin E and a carotenoid pigment in cataractous human lenses and the effect of a dietary supplement. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 66, 316–321.
Beatty, S, Boulton, M, Henson, D, Koh, HH & Murray, IJ (1999) Macular pigment and age-related macular degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol 83, 867–877.
Beatty, S, Murray, IJ, Henson, DB, Carden, D, Koh, HH & Boulton, ME (2001) Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42, 439–446.
Bendich, A & Olson, JA (1989) Biological actions of carotenoids. FASEB J 3, 1927–1932.
Bernstein, PS, Khachik, F, Carvalho, LS, et al. (2001) Identification and quantitation of carotenoids and their metabolites in the tissues of the human eye. Exp Eye Res 72, 215–223.
Bernstein, PS, Yoshida, MD, Katz, NB, McClane, RW & Gellermann, W (1998) Raman detection of macular carotenoid pigments in intact human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 39, 2003–2011.
Bernstein, PS, Zhao, DY, Wintch, SW, Ermakov, IV, McClane, RW & Gellermann, W (2002) Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in normal subjects and in age-related macular degeneration patients. Ophthalmology 109, 1780–1787.
Bertram, JS (1994) The chemoprevention of cancer by dietary carotenoids: Studies in mouse and human cells. Pure Appl Chem 66, 1025–1032.
Bone, RA, Landrum, JT, Friedes, LM, et al. (1997) Distribution of lutein and zeaxanthin stereoisomers in the human retina. Exp Eye Res 64, 211–218.
Bone, RA, Landrum, JT & Tarsis, SL (1985) Preliminary identification of the human macular pigment. Vision Res 25, 1531–1535.
Botterweck, AAM, van den Brandt, PA & Goldbohm, RA (2000) Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma. Cancer 88, 737–748.
Broekmans, WMR, Berendschot, TTJM, Klöpping-Ketelaars, IAA, et al. (2002) Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 595–603.
Brown, L, Rimm, EB, Seddon, JM, et al. (1999) A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 517–524.
Bruch-Gerharz, D, Stahl, W, Gerharz, CD, et al. (2001) Accumulation of the xanthophyll lutein in skin amyloid deposits of systemic amyloidosis (al type). J Invest Dermatol 116, 196–197.
Castenmiller, JJM & West, C (1998) Bioavailability and biocon-version of carotenoids. Annu Rev Nutr 18, 19–39.
Chasan-Traber, L, Willett, WC, Seddon, JM, et al. (1999) A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 509–516.
Chopra, M & Thurnham, DI (1993) In vitro antioxidant activity of lutein. In Food and Cancer Prevention: Chemical and Biological Aspects, pp. 125–129 [Waldron,, KW, Johnson, IT and Fenwick, GR, editors]. London: Royal Society of Chemistry.
Chug-Ahuja, JK, Holden, JM, Forman, MR, Mangels, AR, Beecher, GR & Lanza, E (1993) The development and application of a carotenoid database for fruits, vegetables and selected multicomponent foods. J Am Diet Assoc 93, 318–323.
Collins, AR (2001) Carotenoids and genomic stability. Mutat Res 475, 21–28.
Collins, AR, Gedik, CM, Olmedilla, B, Southon, S & Bellizzi, M (1998 a) Oxidative DNA damage measured in human lymphocytes: large differences between sexes and between countries, and correlations with heart disease mortality rates. FASEB J 12, 1397–1400.
Collins, AR, Olmedilla, B, Southon, S, Granado, F & Duthie, S (1998 b) Serum carotenoids and oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Carcinogenesis 9, 2159–2162.
Curran-Celentano, J, Hammond, BR, Ciulla, TA, Cooper, DA, Pratt, LM & Danis, RB (2001) Relation between dietary intake, serum concentrations and retinal concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in adults in a Midwest population. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 796–802.
Dagnelie, G, Zorge, IS & McDonald, TM (2000) Lutein improves visual function in some patients with retinal degeneration: a pilot study via the Internet. Optometry 71, 147–164.
Deharveng, G, Charrondiere, UR, Slimani, N, Southgate, DAT & Riboli, E (1999) Comparison of nutrients in the Food Composition Tables available in the nine European countries participating in the EPIC. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 60–79.
D'Odorico, A, Martines, D, Kiechl, S, et al. (2000) High plasma levels of alpha- and beta-carotene are associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis: Results from the Bruneck Study. Atherosclerosis 153, 231–239.
Dorgan, JF, Sowell, A, Swanson, CA, et al. (1998) Relationships of serum carotenoids, retinol, a-tocopherol and selenium with breast cancer risk: Results from a prospective study in Columbia, Missouri (United States). Cancer Causes Control 9, 89–97.
Dwyer, JH, Navab, M, Dwyer, KM, et al. (2001) Oxygenated carotenoid lutein and progression of early atherosclerosis. The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study. Circulation 103, 2922–2927.
Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group (1993) Antioxidant status and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 111, 104–109.
Erdman, JW Jr, Bierer, TL & Gugger, ET (1993) Absorption and transport of carotenoids. Ann N Y Acad Sci 691, 76–85.
Flood, V, Smith, W, Wang, JJ, Manzi, F, Webb, K & Mitchell, P (2002) Dietary antioxidant intake and incidence of early age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 109, 2272–2278.
Gale, CR, Hall, NF, Phillips, DIW & Martyn, CN (2001) Plasma antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids and age-related cataract. Ophthalmology 108, 1992–1998.
García, R, González, CA, Agudo, A & Riboli, E (1999) High intake of specific carotenoids and flavonoids does not reduce the risk of bladder cancer. Nutr Cancer 35, 212–214.
Giovannucci, E, Ascherio, A, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA & Willett, WC (1995) Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 87, 1767–1776.
Goodwin, TW & Britton, G (1988) Distribution and analysis of carotenoids. In Plant Pigments, pp. 61–127 [Goodwin, TW, editor].] New York, NY: Academic Press Limited.
Granado, F, Olmedilla, B, Blanco, I, Gil-Martínez, E & Rojas-Hidalgo, E (1997) Variability in the intercomparison of food carotenoid content data: A user's point of view. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37, 621–633.
Granado, F, Olmedilla, B, Blanco, I & Rojas-Hidalgo, E (1992) Carotenoid composition in raw and cooked Spanish vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 40, 2135–2140.
Granado, F, Olmedilla, B, Blanco, I & Rojas-Hidalgo, E (1996) Major fruit and vegetables contributors to the main serum carotenoids in Spanish diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, 246–250.
Granado, F, Olmedilla, B, Gil-Martínez, E & Blanco, I (1998) Lutein ester in serum after lutein supplementation in human subjects. Br J Nutr 80, 445–459.
Guerra-Romero, L (1996) La medicina basada en la evidencia: Un intento de acercar la ciencia al arte de la práctica clínica (Medicine based on the evidence: An attempt to approach science with the art of clinical practice). Med Clin (Barc) 107, 377–382.
Hammond, BR Jr, Jonhson, EJ, Russell, RM, et al. (1997) Dietary modification of human macular pigment density. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 38, 1795–1801.
Hammond, BR, Wooten, BR & Snodderly, DM (1998) Preservation of visual sensitivity of older subjects: association with macular pigment density. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 39, 397–406.
Handelman, GJ, Dratz, EA, Reay, CC & van, Kuijk JGM (1988) Carotenoids in the human macula and whole retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 29, 850–855.
Hart, DJ & Scott, KJ (1995) Development and evaluation of an HPLC method for the analysis of carotenes in vegetables and fruits in the UK. Food Chem 54, 101–111.
Heinonen, M, Ollilainen, V, Linkola, EK, Varo, PT & Koivistoinen, PE (1989) Carotenoids in Finnish foods. Vegetables, fruits and berries. J Agric Food Chem 37, 655–659.
Hercberg, S, Preziosi, P, Galán, P, et al. (1994) Vitamin status of a healthy French population: dietary intakes and biochemical markers. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 64, 220–232.
Hininger, I, Meyer-Werner, A, Moser, U, et al. (2001) No significant effects of lutein, lycopene or b-carotene supplementation on biological markers of oxidative stress and LDL oxidability in healthy adult subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 20, 232–238.
Hirvonen, T, Virtamo, J, Khorhonen, P, Albanes, D & Pietinen, P (2000) Intake of flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins C and E and risk of stroke in male smokers. Stroke 31, 2301.
Holden, JM, Eldridge, AL, Beecher, GR, et al. (1999) Carotenoid content of U.S. foods: An update of the database. J Food Comp Anal 12, 169–196.
Howard, AN, Williams, NR, Palmer, CR, et al. (1996) Do hydroxycarotenoids prevent coronary heart disease? A comparison between Belfast and Toulouse. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 66, 113–118.
Iribarren, C, Folsom, AR, Jacobs, DR Jr, Gross, MD, Belcher, JD & Eckfeldt, JH (1997) Association of serum vitamin levels, LDL susceptibility to oxidation and autoantibodies against MDA-LDL with carotid atherosclerosis. A case-control study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17, 1171–1177.
Ito, Y, Ochiai, J, Sasaki, R, Suzuki, S, Kasuhara, Y & Morimitsu, Y (1990) Serum concentrations of carotenoids, retinol and a-tocopherol in healthy persons determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Clin Chim Acta 194, 131–144.
Johnson, E, Hammond, BR, Yeum, KJ, et al. (2000) Relation among serum and tissue concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin and macular pigment density. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1555–1562.
Johnson-Down, L, Saundy-Unterberger, H & Gray-Donald, K (2002) Food habits of Canadians: lutein and lycopene intake in the Canadian population. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 988–991.
Kaplan, LA, Lau, JM & Stein, EA (1990) Carotenoid composition, concentrations and relationships in various human organs. Clin Physiol Biochem 8, 1–10.
Khachik, F, Beecher, GR, Goli, MB, Lusby, WR & Smith, JC Jr (1992) Separation and identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in the extracts of human plasma. Anal Chem 64, 211–222.
Khachik, F, Beecher, GR & Lusby, WR (1989) Separation, identification and quantification of the major carotenoids in extracts of apricots, peaches, cantaloupe and pink grapefruit by liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 37, 1465–1473.
Khachik, F, Beecher, G & Smith, JC Jr (1995) Lutein, lycopene and their oxidative metabolites in chemoprevention of cancer. J Cell Biochem 22, 236–246.
Khachik, F, Bernstein, PS & Garland, DL (1997 a) Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 38, 1802–1811.
Khachik, F, Spangler, CJ, Smith, JC, Canfield, LM, Steck, A & Pfander, H (1997 b) Identification, quantification and relative concentrations of carotenoids and their metabolites in human milk, and serum. Anal Chem 69, 1873–1881.
King, TJ, Khachik, F, Bortkiewicz, H, Fukushima, LH, Morioka, S & Bertram, JS (1997) Metabolites of dietary carotenoids as potential cancer preventive agents. Pure Appl Chem 69, 2135–2140.
Klaui, H & Bauerfeind, JC (1981) Carotenoids as food colors. In Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors. Techological and Nutritional Applications, pp. 48–292 [Bauerfeind, JC, editor]. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Klipstein-Grobush, K, Launer, LJ, Geleijnse, JM, Boeing, H, Hofman, A & Witteman, JC (2000) Serum antioxidant and atherosclerosis. The Rotterdam Study. Atherosclerosis 148, 49–56.
Kohlmeier, L, Kark, JD, Gómez-Aracena, E, et al. (1997) Lycopene and myocardial infarction risk in EURAMIC Study. Am J Epidemiol 146, 618–626.
Kushi, LH (1999) Vitamin E and heart disease: A case study. Am J Clin Nutr 69, Suppl., 1322S-1329S.
Landrum, JT, Bone, RA, Joa, H, Kilburn, MD, Moore, L & Sprague, K (1997) A one year study of the macular pigment: The effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement. Exp Eye Res 65, 57–62.
Landrum, JT, Bone, RA, Moore, LL & Gomez, CM (1999) Analysis of zeaxanthin distribution within individual human retinas. Meth Enzymol 299, 457–467.
Lee, CM, Boileau, AC, Boileau, TWM, et al. (1999) Review of animal models in carotenoid research. J Nutr 129, 2271–2277.
Lindsay, DG (2002) Food chemical safety. Limitations in current approaches to its assessment. Free Radic Res 36, Suppl. 1, 25–27.
Lyle, BJ, Mares-Perlman, JA, Klein, BEK, Palta, M, Bowen, P & Greger, JL (1999) Serum carotenoids and tocopherols and incidence of age-related nuclear cataract. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 272–277.
Mangels, AR, Holden, JM, Beecher, GR, Forman, MR & Lanza, E (1993) Carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables: An evaluation of analytical data. J Am Diet Assoc 93, 284–296.
Mares-Perlman, JA, Brady, WE, Klein, BE, et al. (1995 a) Serum carotenoids and tocopherols and severity of nuclear and cortical opacities. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36, 276–288.
Mares-Perlman, JA, Brady, WE, Klein, R, et al. (1995 b) Serum antioxidants and age-related macular degeneration in a population-based case-control study. Arch Ophthalmol 113, 1518–1523.
Michaud, DS, Feskanich, D, Rimm, EE, et al. (2000) Intake of specific carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in 2 prospective US cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 990–997.
Murkovic, M, Gams, K, Draxl, S & Pfannhauser, W (2000) Development of an Austrian Carotenoid Database. J Food Comp Anal 13, 435–440.
National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intake for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Nieremberg, DW & Nann, SL (1992) A method for determination of concentrations of retinol, tocopherol and five carotenoids in human plasma and tissue samples. Am J Clin Nutr 56, 417–426.
Nussbaum, JJ, Pruett, RC & Delori, FC (1981) Macular yellow pigment. The first 200 years. Retina 1, 296–310.
Olmedilla, B, Granado, F, Blanco, I, Gil-Martínez, E & Rojas-Hidalgo, E (1996) Contenido de Carotenoides en Verduras y Frutas de Mayor Consumo en España. Instituto Nacional de la Salud (INSALUD). Madrid, Spain: Secretaría General.
Olmedilla, B, Granado, F, Blanco, I & Rojas-Hidalgo, E (1994) Seasonal and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol and a-tocopherol. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 106–110.
Olmedilla, B, Granado, F, Blanco, I, Vaquero, M & Cagigal, C (2001 a) Lutein in patients with cataracts and age-related macular degeneration: A long-term supplementation study. J Sci Food Agric 81, 904–909.
Olmedilla, B, Granado, F, Blanco, I & Vaquero, M (2003) Lutein, but not a-tocopherol, supplementation improves visual function in patients with age-related cataracts: A 2-y double blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutrition 19, 21–25.
Olmedilla, B, Granado, F, Gil-Martínez, E & Blanco, I (1997 a) Supplementation with lutein (4 months) and a-tocopherol (2 months), in separate or combined oral doses, in control men. Cancer Lett 114, 179–181.
Olmedilla, B, Granado, F, Gil-Martínez, E, Blanco, I & Rojas-Hidalgo, E (1997 b) Reference levels of retinol, a-tocopherol and main carotenoids in serum of control and insulin-dependent diabetic Spanish subjects. Clin Chem 43, 1066–1071.
Olmedilla, B, Granado, F, Southon, S, et al. (2001 b) Baseline serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamins A, E and C in control subjects from five European countries. Br J Nutr 85, 227–238.
Olmedilla, B, Granado, F, Southon, S, et al. (2002) A European multicentre, placebo-controlled supplementation study with a-tocopherol, carotene-rich palm oil, lutein or lycopene: Analysis of serum responses. Clin Sci 102, 447–456.
Omenn, GS (1998) Chemoprevention of lung cancer: the rise and demise of b-carotene. Ann Rev Public Health 19, 73–99.
O'Neill, ME, Carroll, Y, Corridan, B, et al. (2001) A European Carotenoid Database to assess carotenoid intakes and its use in a five-country comparative study. Br J Nutr 85, 499–507.
Park, JS, Chew, BP & Wong, TS (1998) Dietary lutein from marigold extract inhibits mammary tumor development in BALB/c mice. J Nutr 128, 1650–1656.
Parker, RS (1996) Absorption, metabolism, and transport of carotenoids. FASEB J 10, 542–551.
Parker, RS, Swanson, JE, You, C, Edwards, AJ & Huang, T (1999) Bioavailability of carotenoids in human subjects. Proc Nutr Soc 58, 155–162.
Poorvliet, EJ & West, CE (1993) The Carotenoid Content of Foods with Special Reference to Developing Countries. Vitamin A Field Support Project (VITAL). Arlington, VA: International Science and Technology Institute, Inc.
Rapp, LM, Maple, SS & Choi, JH (2000) Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in rod outer segment membranes from perifo-veal and peripheral human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41, 1200–1209.
Ratnasinghe, D, Forman, MR, Tangrea, JA, et al. (2000) Serum carotenoids are associated with increased lung cancer risk among alcohol drinkers, but not among non-drinkers in a cohort of tin miners. Alcohol Alcohol 35, 355–360.
Richer, S (1999) Part II. ARMD-pilot (case series) environmental intervention data. J Am Optom Assoc 70, 24–36.
Rodriguez-Amaya, DB (1997) Carotenoids and Food Preparation: The Retention of Provitamin A Carotenoids in Prepared, Processed and Stored Foods. Arlington, VA: U.S. Agency for International Development.
Rojas-Hidalgo, E (1987) Alteraciones metabólicas (Metabolic alterations). In La Mano del Diabético, pp. 57–61Madrid, Spain: ARAN Ediciones.
Schmitz, HH, Poor, CL, Gugger, ET & Erdman, JW (1993) Analysis of carotenoids in human and animal tissues. Methods Enzymol 213, 102–117.
Scott, KJ, Thurham, DI, Hart, D, et al. (1996) The correlation between the intake of lutein, lycopene and β-carotene from vegetables and fruits and blood plasma concentrations in a group of women aged 50-66 years in the UK. Br J Nutr 75, 409–418.
Seddon, JM, Ajani, UA, Sperduto, RD, et al. (1994) Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E and age-related macular degeneration. Eye disease case-control study group. J Am Diet Assoc 272, 1413–1420.
Seddon, JM & Hennekens, CH (1994) Vitamins, minerals and macular degeneration. Promising but unproven hypothesis. Arch Ophthalmol 112, 176–179.
Sharpless, D & Duewer, DL (1995) Population distributions and intralaboratory reproducibility for fat-soluble vitamin-related compounds in human serum. Anal Chem 67, 4416–4422.
Sies, H, Stahl, W & Sundquist, A (1992) Antioxidant functions of vitamins: Vitamins E and C, b-carotene and other carotenoids. Ann N Y Acad Sci 669, 7–21.
Simpson, KLS (1983) Relative value of carotenoids as precursors of vitamin A. Proc Nutr Soc 42, 7–17.
Slattery, ML, Benson, J, Curtin, K, Ma, K-N, Schaeffer, D & Potter, JD (2000) Carotenoids and colon cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 575–582.
Sommerburg, O, Keunen, JEE, Bird, AC & van, Kuijk FJGM (1998) Fruits and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes. Br J Ophthalmol 82, 907–910.
Stahl, W, Schwarz, W & Sundquist, A (1992) Cis-trans isomers of lycopene and β-carotene in human serum and tissues. Arch Biochem Biophys 294, 173–177.
Stahl, W, Sundquist, AR, Hanusch, M, Schwarz, W & Sies, H (1993) Separation of b-carotene and lycopene geometrical isomers in biological samples. Clin Chem 39, 810–814.
Street, DA, Comstock, GW, Salkeld, RM, Schuep, W & Klag, M (1994) Serum antioxidants and myocardial infarction: Are low levels of carotenoids and a-tocopherol risk factors for myocardial infarction? Circulation 90, 1154–1161.
Su, LC, Bui, M, Kardinaal, A, et al. (1998) Differences between plasma and adipose tissue biomarkers of carotenoids and tocopherols. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, 1043–1048.
Surai, PF, MacPherson, A, Speake, BK & Sparks, NHC (2000) Designer egg evaluation in a controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 298–305.
Taylor, A & Hobbs, M (2001) 2001 Assessment of nutritional influences on risk for cataract. Nutrition 17, 845–858.
Taylor, A, Jacques, PF, Chylack, LT, et al. (2002) Long-term intake of vitamins and carotenoids and odds of early age-related cortical and posterior subcapsular lens opacities. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 540–549.
Tee, ES & Lim, CL (1991) Carotenoid composition and content of Malaysian vegetables and fruits by AOAC and HPLC methods. Food Chem 41, 309–339.
Thurnham, DI (1988) Do higher vitamin A requirements in men explain the difference between sexes in plasma provitamin A carotenoids and retinal? Proc Nutr Soc 47, 181.
Thurnham, DI, Northrop-Clewes, CA & Chopra, M (1998) Bio-markers of vegetable and fruit intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 756–757.
Toniolo, P, Van Poppel, AL, Akhmedkhanov, A, et al. (2001) Serum carotenoids and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 153, 1142–1147.
Tos, TJM, Berendschot, R, Goldbohm, A, et al. (2000) Influence of lutein supplementation macular pigment assessed with two objective techniques. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41, 3322–3326.
Van den, Berg H, Faulks, R, Granado, F, et al. (2000) The potential for the improvement of carotenoid levels in foods and the likely systemic effects. J Sci Food Agric 80, 880–913.
Van den, Berg H, Heseker, H, Lamand, M, et al. (1993) Flair concerted action No 10 status papers. Introduction, conclusions and recomendations. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 63, 247–251.
Van't, Veer P & Kok, FJ (2000) Human studies to substantiate health effects of antioxidants: What is needed. Free Radic Res 33, S109–S115.
Voorrips, LA, Goldbohm, A, Brants, HAM, et al. (2000) A prospective cohort study on antioxidant and folate intake and male lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9, 357–365.
Yemelyanov, AY, Katz, NB & Bernstein, PS (2001) Ligand-binding characterization of xanthophyll carotenoids to solubilized membrane proteins derived from human retina. Exp Eye Res 72, 381–392.
Yeum, K-J, Ahn, S-H, Rupp, de, Paiva, SA, Lee-Kim, Y-Ch, Krinsky, NI & Russell, RM (1998) Correlation between carotenoid concentrations in serum and normal breast adipose tissue of women with benign breast tumor or breast cancer. J Nutr 128, 1920–1926.
Yeum, K-J, Taylor, A, Tang, G & Russell, RM (1995) Measurement of carotenoids, retinoids and tocopherols in human lenses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36, 2756–2761.
Yong, L-Ch., Forman, M, Beecher, GR, et al. (1994) Relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids in premenopausal women: Application of the USDA-NCI carotenoid food-composition database. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 223–230.
Zechmeister, L (1962) Cis-trans Isomeric Carotenoids and Arylpolyenes. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Zeegers, MPA, Goldbohm, RA & van den Brandt, PA (2001) Are retinal, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and carotenoids intake associated with bladder cancer risk? Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 85, 977–983.