Abbey, M, Noakes, M, Belling, GB & Nestel, PJ (1994) Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 995–999.
Albert, CM, Gaziano, JM, Willett, WC & Manson, JE (2002) Nut consumption and decreased risk of sudden cardiac death in the Physicians' Health Study. Arch Intern Med 162, 1382–1387.
Almario, RU, Vonghavaravat, V, Wong, R & Kasim-Karakas, SE (2001) Effects of walnut consumption on plasma fatty acids and lipoproteins in combined hyperlipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 72–79.
Alper, CM & Mattes, RD (2002) Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 1129–1137.
Chisholm, A, Mann, J, Skeaff, M, Frampton, C, Sutherland, W, Duncan, A & Tiszavari, S (1998) A diet rich in walnuts favourably influences plasma fatty acid profile in moderately hyperlipidaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 12–16.
Colquhoun, DM, Humphries, JA, Moores, D & Somerset, SM (1996) Effects of a macadamia nut enriched diet on serum lipids and lipoproteins compared to a low fat diet. Food Aus 48, 216–222.
Curb, JD, Wergowske, G, Dobbs, JC, Abbott, RD & Huang, B (2000) Serum lipid effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet based on macadamia nuts. Arch Intern Med 160, 1154–1158.
Durak, I, Koksal, I, Kacmaz, M, Buyukkocak, S, Cimen, BM & Ozturk, HS (1999) Hazelnut supplementation enhances plasma antioxidant potential and lowers plasma cholesterol levels. Clin Chim Acta 284, 113–115.
Edwards, K, Kwaw, I, Matud, J & Kurtz, I (1999) Effect of pistachio nuts on serum lipid levels in patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Nutr 18, 229–232.
Ellis, PR, Kendall, CW, Ren, Y, Parker, C, Pacy, JF, Waldron, KW & Jenkins, DJ (2004) Role of cell walls in the bioaccessibility of lipids in almond seeds. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 604–613.
Fraser, GE, Bennett, HW, Jaceldo, KB & Sabate, J (2002) Effect on body weight of a free 76 Kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 275–283.
Fraser, GE, Sabaté, J, Beeson, WL & Strahan, TM (1992) A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study. Arch Intern Med 152, 1416–1424.
Garcia-Lorda, P, Megias, Rangil I & Salas-Salvado, J (2003) Nut consumption, body weight and insulin resistance. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, Suppl. 1, S8–S11.
Garg, ML, Blake, RJ & Wills, RB (2003) Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men. J Nutr 133, 1060–1063.
Holt, SH, Miller, JC, Petocz, P & Farmakalidis, E (1995) A satiety index of common foods. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 675–690.
Hu, FB, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE, Rimm, EB, Colditz, GA, Rosner, BA, Speizer, FE, Hennekens, CH & Willett, WC (1998) Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 317, 1341–1345.
Hu, FB, van Dam, RM & Liu, S (2001) Diet and risk of Type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate. Diabetologia 44, 805–817.
Hyson, DA, Schneeman, BO & Davis, PA (2002) Almonds and almond oil have similar effects on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in healthy men and women. J Nutr 132, 703–707.
Iwamoto, M, Imaizumi, K, Sato, M, Hirooka, Y, Sakai, K, Takeshita, A & Kono, M (2002) Serum lipid profiles in Japanese women and men during consumption of walnuts. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 629–637.
Jaceldo-Siegl, K, Sabate, J, Rajaram, S & Fraser, GE (2004) Long-term almond supplementation without advice on food replacement induces favourable nutrient modifications to the habitual diets of free-living individuals. Br J Nutr 92, 533–540.
Jenkins, DJ, Kendall, CW, Marchie, A, Parker, TL, Connelly, PW, Qian, W, Haight, JS, Faulkner, D, Vidgen, E, Lapsley, KG & Spiller, GA (2002) Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Circulation 106, 1327–1332.
Jiang, R, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, Liu, S, Willett, WC & Hu, FB (2002) Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA 288, 2554–2560.
Krauss, RM, Eckel, RH, Howard, B, Appel, LJ, Daniels, SR, Deckelbaum, RJ, Erdman, JW Jr, Kris-Etherton, P, Goldberg, IJ, Kotchen, TA, Lichtenstein, AH, Mitch, WE, Mullis, R, Robinson, K, Wylie-Rosett, J, St Jeor, S, Suttie, J, Tribble, DL & Bazzarre, TL (2000) AHA Dietary Guidelines: revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 102, 2284–2299.
Kushi, LH, Folsom, AR, Prineas, RJ, Mink, PJ, Wu, Y & Bostick, RM (1996) Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 334, 1156–1162.
Lopez-Ridaura, R, Willett, WC, Rimm, EB, Liu, S, Stampfer, MJ, Manson, JE & Hu, FB (2004) Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Diabetes Care 27, 134–140.
Lovejoy, JC, Most, MM, Lefevre, M, Greenway, FL & Rood, JC (2002) Effect of diets enriched in almonds on insulin action and serum lipids in adults with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1000–1006.
McManus, K, Antinoro, L & Sacks, F (2001) A randomized controlled trial of a moderate-fat, low-energy diet compared with a low fat, low-energy diet for weight loss in overweight adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 1503–1511.
Morgan, JM, Horton, K, Reese, D, Carey, C, Walker, K & Capuzzi, DM (2002) Effects of walnut consumption as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet on serum cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 72, 341–347.
Morgan, WA & Clayshulte, BJ (2000) Pecans lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in people with normal lipid levels. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 312–318.
Paolisso, G, Scheen, A, D'Onofrio, F & Lefebvre, P (1990) Magnesium and glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia 33, 511–514.
Rajaram, S, Burke, K, Connell, B, Myint, T & Sabate, J (2001) A monounsaturated fatty acid-rich pecan-enriched diet favorably alters the serum lipid profile of healthy men and women. J Nutr 131, 2275–2279.
Rocca, AS, LaGreca, J, Kalitsky, J & Brubaker, PL (2001) Monounsaturated fatty acid diets improve glycemic tolerance through increased secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1. Endocrinology 142, 1148–1155.
Sabaté, J (1993) Does nut consumption protect against ischaemic heart disease? Eur J Clin Nutr 47, Suppl. 1S71–S75.
Sabaté, J (2003) Nut consumption and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 647S–650S.
Sabaté, J, Cordero-Macintyre, Z, Siapco, G, Torabian, S & Haddad, E (2005) Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain? Br J Nutr 94, 859–864.
Sabaté, J, Fraser, GE, Burke, K, Knutsen, SF, Bennett, H & Lindsted, KD (1993) Effects of walnuts on serum lipid levels and blood pressure in normal men. N Engl J Med 328, 603–607.
Sabaté, J, Haddad, E, Tanzman, JS, Jambazian, P & Rajaram, S (2003) Serum lipid response to the graduated enrichment of a Step I diet with almonds: a randomized feeding trial. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 1379–1384.
Salas-Salvado, J, Bullo, M, Perez-Haras, A & Ros, E (2006) Dietary Fibre, Nuts and Cardiovascular Disease. Br J Nutr 96, S45 – S51.
Salmeron, J, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Wing, AL & Willett, WC (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 277, 472–477.
Schroder, H, Marrugat, J, Vila, J, Covas, MI & Elosua, R (2004) Adherence to the traditional mediterranean diet is inversely associated with body mass index and obesity in a spanish population. J Nutr 134, 3355–3361.
Soriguer, FJ, Gonzalez-Romero, S, Esteva, I, Garcia-Arnes, JA, Tinahones, F, Ruiz de Adana, MS, Olveira, G, Mancha, I & Vazques, F (1995) Does the intake of nuts and seeds alter the appearance of menarche? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 74, 455–461.
Spiller, GA, Jenkins, DA, Bosello, O, Gates, JE, Cragen, LN & Bruce, B (1998) Nuts and plasma lipids: an almond-based diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C. J Am Coll Nutr 17, 285–290.
Spiller, GA, Jenkins, DJ, Cragen, LN, Gates, JE, Bosello, O, Berra, K, Rudd, C, Stevenson, M & Superko, R (1992) Effect of a diet high in monounsaturated fat from almonds on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins. J Am Coll Nutr 11, 126–130.
St-Onge, MP (2005) Dietary fats, teas, dairy, and nuts: potential functional foods for weight control? Am J Clin Nutr 81, 7–15.
Storlien, LH, Pan, DA, Kriketos, AD, O'Connor, J, Caterson, ID, Cooney, GJ, Jenkins, AB & Baur, LA (1996) Skeletal muscle membrane lipids and insulin resistance. Lipids 31, Suppl.S261–S265.
Tapsell, LC, Gillen, LJ, Patch, CS, Batterham, M, Owen, A, Bare, M & Kennedy, M (2004) Including walnuts in a low-fat/modified-fat diet improves HDL cholesterol-to-total cholesterol ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 27, 2777–2783.
US Department of Agriculture & Agricultural & Research Service (2000). Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals 1994–96 & 1998. CSFFI CD-ROM
van Marken Lichtenbelt, WD, Mensink, RP & Westerterp, KR (1997) The effect of fat composition of the diet on energy metabolism. Z Ernahrungswiss 36, 303–305.
Vessby, B, Unsitupa, M, Hermansen, K, Riccardi, G, Rivellese, AA, Tapsell, LC, Nalsen, C, Berglund, L, Louheranta, A, Rasmussen, BM, Calvert, GD, Maffetone, A, Pedersen, E, Gustafsson, IB & Storlien, LH (2001) Substituting dietary saturated for monounsaturated fat impairs insulin sensitivity in healthy men and women: The KANWU Study. Diabetologia 44, 312–319.
Wien, MA, Sabate, JM, Ikle, DN, Cole, SE & Kandeel, FR (2003) Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 1365–1372.
Zambon, D, Sabate, J, Munoz, S, Campero, B, Casals, E, Merlos, M, Laguna, JC & Ros, E (2000) Substituting walnuts for monounsaturated fat improves the serum lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic men and women. A randomized crossover trial. Ann Intern Med 132, 538–546.
Zemaitis, J & Sabaté, J (2001) Effect of almond consumption on stool weight and stool fat. FASEB J 15, A602.