Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Patterns of food consumption among vegetarians and non-vegetarians

  • Michael J. Orlich (a1) (a2), Karen Jaceldo-Siegl (a1), Joan Sabaté (a1) (a3), Jing Fan (a1), Pramil N. Singh (a1) and Gary E. Fraser (a1) (a2) (a3)...
Abstract

Vegetarian dietary patterns have been reported to be associated with a number of favourable health outcomes in epidemiological studies, including the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2). Such dietary patterns may vary and need further characterisation regarding foods consumed. The aims of the present study were to characterise and compare the food consumption patterns of several vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ among more than 89 000 members of the AHS-2 cohort. Vegetarian dietary patterns were defined a priori, based on the absence of certain animal foods in the diet. Foods were categorised into fifty-eight minor food groups comprising seventeen major food groups. The adjusted mean consumption of each food group for the vegetarian dietary patterns was compared with that for the non-vegetarian dietary pattern. Mean consumption was found to differ significantly across the dietary patterns for all food groups. Increased consumption of many plant foods including fruits, vegetables, avocados, non-fried potatoes, whole grains, legumes, soya foods, nuts and seeds was observed among vegetarians. Conversely, reduced consumption of meats, dairy products, eggs, refined grains, added fats, sweets, snack foods and non-water beverages was observed among vegetarians. Thus, although vegetarian dietary patterns in the AHS-2 have been defined based on the absence of animal foods in the diet, they differ greatly with respect to the consumption of many other food groups. These differences in food consumption patterns may be important in helping to explain the association of vegetarian diets with several important health outcomes.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Patterns of food consumption among vegetarians and non-vegetarians
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Patterns of food consumption among vegetarians and non-vegetarians
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Patterns of food consumption among vegetarians and non-vegetarians
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Dr M. J. Orlich, fax +1 909 558 0126, email morlich@llu.edu
References
Hide All
1 Hu, FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 39.
2 Fraser, GE (2003) A search for truth in dietary epidemiology. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 521S525S.
3 Tonstad, S, Butler, TL, Yan, R, et al. (2009) Type of vegetarian diet, body weight, and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 32, 791796.
4 Rizzo, NS, Sabate, J, Jaceldo-Siegl, K, et al. (2011) Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome: The Adventist Health Study 2. Diabetes Care 34, 12251227.
5 Tonstad, S, Stewart, K, Oda, K, et al. (2013) Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23, 292299.
6 Pettersen, BJ, Anousheh, R, Fan, J, et al. (2012) Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Public Health Nutr 15, 19091916.
7 Orlich, MJ, Singh, PN, Sabate, J, et al. (2013) Vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med 173, 12301238.
8 Rizzo, NS, Jaceldo-Siegl, K, Sabate, J, et al. (2013) Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. J Acad Nutr Diet 113, 16101619.
9 Butler, TL, Fraser, GE, Beeson, WL, et al. (2008) Cohort profile: The Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Int J Epidemiol 37, 260265.
10 Jaceldo-Siegl, K, Fan, J, Sabate, J, et al. (2011) Race-specific validation of food intake obtained from a comprehensive FFQ: the Adventist Health Study-2. Public Health Nutr 14, 19881997.
11 Jaceldo-Siegl, K, Knutsen, SF, Sabate, J, et al. (2010) Validation of nutrient intake using an FFQ and repeated 24 h recalls in black and white subjects of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Public Health Nutr 13, 812819.
12 Fieller, EC (1940) The biological standardization of insulin. J R Stat Soc Suppl. 7, 164.
13 Fraser, GE & Yan, R (2007) Guided multiple imputation of missing data: using a subsample to strengthen the missing-at-random assumption. Epidemiology 18, 246252.
14 Fraser, GE, Yan, R, Butler, TL, et al. (2009) Missing data in a long food frequency questionnaire: are imputed zeroes correct? Epidemiology 20, 289294.
15 R Development Core Team (2012) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, 2nd ed. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
16 Harrell, FE Jr, Dupont, C, et al. (2014) Hmisc: Harrell Miscellaneous, 3rd ed. Nashville, TN. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/Hmisc/Hmisc.pdf.
17 Sabate, J (1993) Does nut consumption protect against ischaemic heart disease? Eur J Clin Nutr 47, S71S75.
18 Sabate, J (1999) Nut consumption, vegetarian diets, ischemic heart disease risk, and all-cause mortality: evidence from epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 500S503S.
19 Fraser, GE & Shavlik, DJ (2001) Ten years of life: is it a matter of choice? Arch Intern Med 161, 16451652.
20 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR.
21 U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010) Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, 7th ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
22 Baum, SJ, Kris-Etherton, PM, Willett, WC, et al. (2012) Fatty acids in cardiovascular health and disease: a comprehensive update. J Clin Lipidol 6, 216234.
23 Willett, WC (2012) Dietary fats and coronary heart disease. J Intern Med 272, 1324.
24 Stanhope, KL, Schwarz, JM, Keim, NL, et al. (2009) Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest 119, 13221334.
25 Vos, MB & Lavine, JE (2013) Dietary fructose in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology 57, 25252531.
26 Tappy, L & , K-A (2010) Metabolic effects of fructose and the worldwide increase in obesity. Physiol Rev 90, 2346.
27 Stanhope, KL & Havel, PJ (2009) Fructose consumption: considerations for future research on its effects on adipose distribution, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in humans. J Nutr 139, 1236S1241S.
28 Fraser, GE (2009) Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1607S1612S.
29 Agudo, A, Slimani, N, Ocké, MC, et al. (2002) Consumption of vegetables, fruit and other plant foods in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts from 10 European countries. Public Health Nutr 5, 11791196.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Orlich Supplementary Material
Supplemental Table 1

 PDF (116 KB)
116 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed