Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Postprandial carbohydrate metabolism in healthy subjects and those with type 2 diabetes fed starches with slow and rapid hydrolysis rates determined in vitro

  • Chris J. Seal (a1), Mark E. Daly (a2), Lois C. Thomas (a2), Wendy Bal (a2), Anne M. Birkett (a3), Roger Jeffcoat (a3) and John C. Mathers (a2)...
Abstract

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of starches with differing rates of hydrolysis on exposure to pancreatin in vitro on postprandial carbohydrate metabolism in healthy subjects and in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Two test starches, prepared from uncooked native granular starch products, and naturally enriched with 13C, were consumed in a randomized crossover design by eight healthy and thirteen type 2 diabetic subjects. One starch was characterized in vitro as being rapidly hydrolysed (R, 94% after 180min), and the other was more slowly hydrolysed (S, 51% after 180min). Each subject consumed 50g of each test starch. In addition, the type 2 diabetic subjects consumed 89·7g of the S starch on a separate occasion. Blood samples were taken at 10min intervals for 3h, and at 20min intervals for a further 3h during a 6h postprandial period. Breath 13CO2 enrichment was measured at the same time points, and indirect calorimetry was performed for seven 20min sessions immediately before and during the 6h postprandial period. With the R starch, plasma glucose concentrations and serum insulin concentrations rose faster and the maximum glucose change was approximately 1·8 times that for the S starch, averaged across both subject groups. The areas under the curves for glucose and insulin were, respectively, 1·7 and 1·8 times higher for the R starch compared with the S starch, averaged across both subject groups. The rate of 13CO2 output and the proportion of 13C recovered in breath after consumption of the R starch was similar for both subject groups. The results provide evidence that starches which have different rates of hydrolysis in vitro result in different patterns of glycaemia and insulinaemia in both healthy adults and in diet-controlled type 2 diabetic subjects. Data from the hydrolysis of novel starch products in vitro, therefore, are useful in predicting glycaemic responses in vivo.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Postprandial carbohydrate metabolism in healthy subjects and those with type 2 diabetes fed starches with slow and rapid hydrolysis rates determined in vitro
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Postprandial carbohydrate metabolism in healthy subjects and those with type 2 diabetes fed starches with slow and rapid hydrolysis rates determined in vitro
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Postprandial carbohydrate metabolism in healthy subjects and those with type 2 diabetes fed starches with slow and rapid hydrolysis rates determined in vitro
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr C. J. Seal, fax +44 191 222 8684, email chris.seal@ncl.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Achour, L, Flourie, B & Briet, F (1997) Metabolic effects of digestible and partially indigestible cornstarch: a study in the absorptive and postabsorptive periods in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 11511159.
Åkerberg, AKE, Liljeberg, HGM, Granfeldt, YE, Drews, AW & Björck, IME (1998) An in vitro method, based on chewing, to predict resistant starch content in foods allows parallel determination of potentially available starch and dietary fiber. J Nutr 128, 651660.
Bingham, S & Cummings, JH (1983) The use of 4-aminobenzoic acid as a marker to validate the completeness of 24?hr urine collections in man. Clin Sci 64, 629635.
Bingham, SA & Cummings, JH (1985) Urine nitrogen as an independent validatory measure of dietary intake: a study of N balance in individuals consuming their normal diet. Am J Clin Nutr 42, 12761289.
Bornet, FR, Fontvieille, AM & Rizkalla, S (1989) Insulin and glycemic responses in healthy humans to native starches processed in different ways: correlation with in vitro alpha-amylase hydrolysis. Am J Clin Nutr 50, 315323.
Cassidy, A, Bingham, SA & Cummings, JH (1994) Starch intake and colorectal cancer risk: an international comparison. Br J Cancer 69, 937942.
Daly, ME, Vale, C, Littlefield, A, Alberti, KGMM & Mathers, JC (1998) Acute effects on insulin sensitivity and diurnal metabolic profiles of a high-sucrose compared with a high-starch diet. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 11861196.
Daly, ME, Vale, C, Walker, M, Alberti, KGMM & Mathers, JC (1997) Dietary carbohydrates and insulin sensitivity: a review of the evidence and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 10721085.
Daly, ME, Vale, C, Walker, M, Littlefield, A, Alberti, KGMM & Mathers, JC (2000) Acute fuel selection in response to high-sucrose and high-starch meals in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 15161524.
Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. London: HM Stationery Office.
Durnin, JVGA & Womersley, J (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16–72 years. Br J Nutr 32, 7797.
Englyst, H, Kingman, SM & Cummings, JH (1992) Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, Suppl., S33S50.
Englyst, HN, Veenstra, J & Hudson, GJ (1996) Measurement of rapidly available glucose (RAG) in plant foods: a potential in vitro predictor of the glycaemic response. Br J Nutr 75, 327337.
Englyst, KN, Englyst, HN, Hudson, GJ, Cole, TJ & Cummings, JH (1999) Rapidly available glucose in foods: an in vitro measurement that reflects the glycemic response. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 448454.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (1998) Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Rome, 1418 April 1997 Rome: FAO.
Foster-Powell, K, Brand-Miller, J (1995) International tables of glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 871S893S.
Frost, G, Leeds, A, Trew, G, Magara, R & Dornhorst, A (1998) Insulin sensitivity in women at risk of coronary heart disease and the effect of a low GI food. Metabolism 47, 12451251.
Frost, G, Leeds, AA, Doré, CJ, Maderios, S, Brading, S & Dornhorst, A (1999) Glycaemic index as a determinant of serum HDL-cholesterol concentration. Lancet 353, 10451048.
Goldberg, GR, Black, AE & Jebb, SA (1991) Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-reporting. Eur J Clin Nutr 45, 569581.
Gregory, J, Foster, K, Tyler, H & Wiseman, M (1994) The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults – Further Analysis. London: HM Stationery Office.
Hatch, MD & Slack, CR (1966) Photosynthesis by sugar-cane leaves. A new carboxylation reaction and the pathway of sugar formation. Biochem J 101, 103111.
Hylla, S, Gostner, A & Dusel, G (1998) Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 136142.
Jenkins, DJ, Kendall, CW & Augustin, LS (2002) Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 226S273S.
Jenkins, DJ, Wolever, TM & Taylor, RH (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34, 362366.
Jeukendrup, AE, Mensink, M, Saris, WHM & Wagenmakers, AJM (1997) Exogenous glucose oxidation during exercise in endurance-trained and untrained subjects. J Appl Physiol 82, 835840.
Mathers, JC & Daly, ME (1998) Dietary carbohydrate and insulin sensitivity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1, 553557.
Mathers, JC & Daly, ME (2001) Food polysaccharides, glucose absorption and insulin sensitivity. In Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology, pp. 186196[McCleary, DBV and Prosky, L, editors]. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.
Nelson, M, Atkinson, M & Meyer, J (1997) A Photographic Atlas of Food Portion Sizes. London: MAFF Publications.
Noah, L, Krempf, M, Lecannu, G, Maugère, P & Champ, M (2000) Bioavailability of starch and postprandial changes in splanchnic glucose metabolism in pigs. Am J Physiol 278, E181E188.
Normand, S, Pachiaudi, C, Khalfallah, Y, Guilluy, R, Mornex, R & Riou, JP (1992) 13C appearance in plasma glucose and breath CO2 during feeding with naturally 13C-enriched starchy food in normal humans. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 430435.
Reaven, GM (1995) Pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human disease. Physiol Rev 75, 473486.
Salmerón, J, Ascherio, A & Rimm, EB (1997 a) Dietary fibre, glycemic load and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20, 545550.
Salmerón, J, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Wing, AL & Willett, WC (1997 b) Dietary fibre, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 277, 472477.
Seal, CJ (1997) Stable isotopes in human metabolic studies. Nutr Abstr Rev 67, 809814.
Siri, WS (1956) The gross composition of the body. In Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, pp. 239280[Lawrence, TH and Tobias, CA, editors]. New York: Academic Press.
Vonk, RJ, Hagedoorn, RE & de Graaff, R et al. (2000) Digestion of so-called resistant starch sources in the human small intestine. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 432438.
Wolever, TMS (1991) Small intestinal effects of starchy foods. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 69, 9399.
Wolever, TMS (2000) Dietary carbohydrates and insulin action in humans. Br J Nutr 83, Suppl. 1, S97S102.
Wolever, TMS, Bentum-Williams, A & Jenkins, DJA (1995) Physiological modulation of plasma FFA concentrations by diet: metabolic implications in non-diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 18, 962970.
Wolever, TMS & Bolognesi, C (1996) Prediction of glucose and insulin responses of normal subjects after consuming mixed meals varying in energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate and glycemic index. J Nutr 126, 28072812.
Wolever, TMS & Jenkins, DJA (1986) The use of the glycemic index in predicting the blood glucose response to mixed meals. Am J Clin Nutr 43, 167172.
Wolever, TMS, Jenkins, DJA, Jenkins, AL & Josse, RG (1991) The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 846854.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed