Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-x24gv Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-27T05:59:44.129Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Postprandial carbohydrate metabolism in healthy subjects and those with type 2 diabetes fed starches with slow and rapid hydrolysis rates determined in vitro

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Chris J. Seal*
Human Nutrition Research Centre, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Faculty of Science, Agriculture and Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
Mark E. Daly
School of Clinical Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
Lois C. Thomas
School of Clinical Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
Wendy Bal
School of Clinical Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
Anne M. Birkett
National Starch and Chemical Company, 10 Finderne Avenue, Bridgewater, NJ 08807, USA
Roger Jeffcoat
National Starch and Chemical Company, 10 Finderne Avenue, Bridgewater, NJ 08807, USA
John C. Mathers
School of Clinical Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK
*Corresponding author: Dr C. J. Seal, fax +44 191 222 8684, email
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]


Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of starches with differing rates of hydrolysis on exposure to pancreatin in vitro on postprandial carbohydrate metabolism in healthy subjects and in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Two test starches, prepared from uncooked native granular starch products, and naturally enriched with 13C, were consumed in a randomized crossover design by eight healthy and thirteen type 2 diabetic subjects. One starch was characterized in vitro as being rapidly hydrolysed (R, 94% after 180min), and the other was more slowly hydrolysed (S, 51% after 180min). Each subject consumed 50g of each test starch. In addition, the type 2 diabetic subjects consumed 89·7g of the S starch on a separate occasion. Blood samples were taken at 10min intervals for 3h, and at 20min intervals for a further 3h during a 6h postprandial period. Breath 13CO2 enrichment was measured at the same time points, and indirect calorimetry was performed for seven 20min sessions immediately before and during the 6h postprandial period. With the R starch, plasma glucose concentrations and serum insulin concentrations rose faster and the maximum glucose change was approximately 1·8 times that for the S starch, averaged across both subject groups. The areas under the curves for glucose and insulin were, respectively, 1·7 and 1·8 times higher for the R starch compared with the S starch, averaged across both subject groups. The rate of 13CO2 output and the proportion of 13C recovered in breath after consumption of the R starch was similar for both subject groups. The results provide evidence that starches which have different rates of hydrolysis in vitro result in different patterns of glycaemia and insulinaemia in both healthy adults and in diet-controlled type 2 diabetic subjects. Data from the hydrolysis of novel starch products in vitro, therefore, are useful in predicting glycaemic responses in vivo.

Research Article
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2003


Achour, L, Flourie, B & Briet, F (1997) Metabolic effects of digestible and partially indigestible cornstarch: a study in the absorptive and postabsorptive periods in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 11511159.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Åkerberg, AKE, Liljeberg, HGM, Granfeldt, YE, Drews, AW & Björck, IME (1998) An in vitro method, based on chewing, to predict resistant starch content in foods allows parallel determination of potentially available starch and dietary fiber. J Nutr 128, 651660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bingham, S & Cummings, JH (1983) The use of 4-aminobenzoic acid as a marker to validate the completeness of 24?hr urine collections in man. Clin Sci 64, 629635.Google Scholar
Bingham, SA & Cummings, JH (1985) Urine nitrogen as an independent validatory measure of dietary intake: a study of N balance in individuals consuming their normal diet. Am J Clin Nutr 42, 12761289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bornet, FR, Fontvieille, AM & Rizkalla, S (1989) Insulin and glycemic responses in healthy humans to native starches processed in different ways: correlation with in vitro alpha-amylase hydrolysis. Am J Clin Nutr 50, 315323.Google Scholar
Cassidy, A, Bingham, SA & Cummings, JH (1994) Starch intake and colorectal cancer risk: an international comparison. Br J Cancer 69, 937942.Google Scholar
Daly, ME, Vale, C, Littlefield, A, Alberti, KGMM & Mathers, JC (1998) Acute effects on insulin sensitivity and diurnal metabolic profiles of a high-sucrose compared with a high-starch diet. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 11861196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daly, ME, Vale, C, Walker, M, Alberti, KGMM & Mathers, JC (1997) Dietary carbohydrates and insulin sensitivity: a review of the evidence and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 10721085.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daly, ME, Vale, C, Walker, M, Littlefield, A, Alberti, KGMM & Mathers, JC (2000) Acute fuel selection in response to high-sucrose and high-starch meals in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 15161524.Google Scholar
Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. London: HM Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Durnin, JVGA & Womersley, J (1974) Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16–72 years. Br J Nutr 32, 7797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Englyst, H, Kingman, SM & Cummings, JH (1992) Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, Suppl., S33S50.Google ScholarPubMed
Englyst, HN, Veenstra, J & Hudson, GJ (1996) Measurement of rapidly available glucose (RAG) in plant foods: a potential in vitro predictor of the glycaemic response. Br J Nutr 75, 327337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Englyst, KN, Englyst, HN, Hudson, GJ, Cole, TJ & Cummings, JH (1999) Rapidly available glucose in foods: an in vitro measurement that reflects the glycemic response. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 448454.Google Scholar
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (1998) Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Rome, 1418 April 1997 Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
Foster-Powell, K, Brand-Miller, J (1995) International tables of glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 871S893S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frost, G, Leeds, A, Trew, G, Magara, R & Dornhorst, A (1998) Insulin sensitivity in women at risk of coronary heart disease and the effect of a low GI food. Metabolism 47, 12451251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frost, G, Leeds, AA, Doré, CJ, Maderios, S, Brading, S & Dornhorst, A (1999) Glycaemic index as a determinant of serum HDL-cholesterol concentration. Lancet 353, 10451048.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goldberg, GR, Black, AE & Jebb, SA (1991) Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-reporting. Eur J Clin Nutr 45, 569581.Google Scholar
Gregory, J, Foster, K, Tyler, H & Wiseman, M (1994) The Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults – Further Analysis. London: HM Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Hatch, MD & Slack, CR (1966) Photosynthesis by sugar-cane leaves. A new carboxylation reaction and the pathway of sugar formation. Biochem J 101, 103111.Google Scholar
Hylla, S, Gostner, A & Dusel, G (1998) Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 136142.Google Scholar
Jenkins, DJ, Kendall, CW & Augustin, LS (2002) Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 226S273S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jenkins, DJ, Wolever, TM & Taylor, RH (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34, 362366.Google Scholar
Jeukendrup, AE, Mensink, M, Saris, WHM & Wagenmakers, AJM (1997) Exogenous glucose oxidation during exercise in endurance-trained and untrained subjects. J Appl Physiol 82, 835840.Google Scholar
Mathers, JC & Daly, ME (1998) Dietary carbohydrate and insulin sensitivity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1, 553557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mathers, JC & Daly, ME (2001) Food polysaccharides, glucose absorption and insulin sensitivity. In Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology, pp. 186196[McCleary, DBV and Prosky, L, editors]. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
Nelson, M, Atkinson, M & Meyer, J (1997) A Photographic Atlas of Food Portion Sizes. London: MAFF Publications.Google Scholar
Noah, L, Krempf, M, Lecannu, G, Maugère, P & Champ, M (2000) Bioavailability of starch and postprandial changes in splanchnic glucose metabolism in pigs. Am J Physiol 278, E181E188.Google Scholar
Normand, S, Pachiaudi, C, Khalfallah, Y, Guilluy, R, Mornex, R & Riou, JP (1992) 13C appearance in plasma glucose and breath CO2 during feeding with naturally 13C-enriched starchy food in normal humans. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 430435.Google Scholar
Reaven, GM (1995) Pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human disease. Physiol Rev 75, 473486.Google Scholar
Salmerón, J, Ascherio, A & Rimm, EB (1997 a) Dietary fibre, glycemic load and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20, 545550.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salmerón, J, Manson, JE, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Wing, AL & Willett, WC (1997 b) Dietary fibre, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 277, 472477.Google Scholar
Seal, CJ (1997) Stable isotopes in human metabolic studies. Nutr Abstr Rev 67, 809814.Google Scholar
Siri, WS (1956) The gross composition of the body. In Advances in Biological and Medical Physics, pp. 239280[Lawrence, TH and Tobias, CA, editors]. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Vonk, RJ, Hagedoorn, RE & de Graaff, R et al. (2000) Digestion of so-called resistant starch sources in the human small intestine. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 432438.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolever, TMS (1991) Small intestinal effects of starchy foods. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 69, 9399.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolever, TMS (2000) Dietary carbohydrates and insulin action in humans. Br J Nutr 83, Suppl. 1, S97S102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolever, TMS, Bentum-Williams, A & Jenkins, DJA (1995) Physiological modulation of plasma FFA concentrations by diet: metabolic implications in non-diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 18, 962970.Google Scholar
Wolever, TMS & Bolognesi, C (1996) Prediction of glucose and insulin responses of normal subjects after consuming mixed meals varying in energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate and glycemic index. J Nutr 126, 28072812.Google ScholarPubMed
Wolever, TMS & Jenkins, DJA (1986) The use of the glycemic index in predicting the blood glucose response to mixed meals. Am J Clin Nutr 43, 167172.Google Scholar
Wolever, TMS, Jenkins, DJA, Jenkins, AL & Josse, RG (1991) The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 846854.Google Scholar