Adam, J, Banet, A & Banet-Bellet, C (1977) Essais cliniques contrôlés en double insu de l'Ultralevure lyophylisée (Double-blind controlled trials with Saccharomyces boulardii – Ultralevure). Gazette Médicale de France 84, 2072–2078.
Armuzzi, A, Cremonini, F, Bartolozzi, F, Canducci, F, Candelli, M, Ojetti, V, Cammarota, G, Anti, M, De Lorenzo, A, Pola, P, Gasbarrini, G & Gasbarrini, A (2001) The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 15, 163–169.
Arrigoni, E, Marteau, P, Briet, F, Pochart, P, Rambaud, JC & Messing, B (1994) Tolerance and absorption of lactose from milk and yoghurt during short bowel syndrome in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 926–929.
Arvola, T, Laiho, K, Torkkeli, S, Mykkanen, H, Salminen, S, Maunula, L & Isolauri, E (1999) Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomized study. Pediatrics 104, 5, e64.
Bergogne-Berezin, E (2000) Treatment and prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 16, 521–526.
Borgia, M, Sepe, N, Brancato, V, Costa, G, Simone, P, Borgia, R & Lugli, R (1982) A controlled clinical study on Streptococcus faecium preparation for the prevention of side reactions during long-term antibiotic treatments. Current Therapeutic Research 31, 265–271.
Boutron, MC, Faivre, J, Marteau, P, Couillault, C, Senesse, P & Quipourt, V (1996) Calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, dairy products and colorectal carcinogenesis: a French case–control study. British Journal of Cancer 74, 145–151.
Bouvier, M, Méance, S, Bouley, C, Berta, JL & Grimaud, JC (2001) Effects of consumption of a milk fermented with the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis DN-173 010 on colonic transit times in healthy humans. Bioscience and Microflora 20, 43–48.
Campieri, M, Rizzello, F, Venturi, A, Poggioli, G, Ugolini, F, Helwig, U, Amadini, C, Romboli, E & Gionchetti, P (2000) Combination of antibiotic and probiotic treatment is efficacious in prophylaxis of post-operative recurrence of Crohn's disease: a randomized controlled study vs mesalamine. Gastroenterology 118, G4179
Canducci, F, Armuzzi, A, Cremonini, F, Cammarota, G, Bartolozzi, F, Pola, P, Gasbarrini, G & Gasbarrini, A (2000) A lyophilized and inactivated culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 14, 1625–1629.
Czerucka, D, Dahan, S, Mograbi, B, Rossi, B & Rampal, P (2000) Saccharomyces boulardii preserves the barrier function and modulates the signal transduction pathway induced in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli-infected T84 cells. Infection and Immunity 68, 5998–6004.
Drouault, S, Juste, C, Marteau, P, Renault, P & Corthier, G (2001) Oral treatment with genetically modified Lactococcus lactis expressing Staphylococcus hyicus lipase enhances lipid digestion in pigs with experimental pancreatic insufficiency. Gastroenterology 120, A3642 (abstract).
Elmer, GW, Surawicz, CM & McFarland, LV (1996) Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. Journal of the American Medical Association 275, 870–876.
Felley, CP, Corthesy-Theulaz, I, Rivero, JL, Sipponen, P, Kaufmann, M, Bauerfeind, P, Wiesel, PH, Brassart, D, Pfeifer, A, Blum, AL & Michetti, P (2001) Favourable effect of an acidified milk (LC-1) on Helicobacter pylori gastritis in man. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 13, 25–29.
Gionchetti, P, Rizzello, F, Venturi, A, Brigidi, P, Matteuzzi, D, Bazzocchi, G, Poggioli, G, Miglioli, M & Campieri, M (2000a) Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 119, 305–309.
Gionchetti, P, Rizzello, F, Venturi, A, Helwig, U, Amadini, C, Lammers, KM, Ugolini, F, Poggioli, G & Campieri, M (2000b) Prophylaxis of pouchitis onset with probiotic therapy: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Gastroenterology 118, G1214.
Guandalini, S, Pensabene, L, Zikri, MA, Dias, JA, Casali, LG, Hoekstra, H, Kolacek, S, Massar, K, Micetic-Turk, D, Papadopoulou, A, de Sousa, JS, Sandhu, B, Szajewska, H & Weizman, Z (2000) Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 30, 54–60.
Guslandi, M, Mezzi, G, Sorghi, M & Testoni, PA (2000) Saccharomyces boulardii in maintenance treatment of Crohn's disease. Digestive Disease and Science 45, 1462–1464.
Halpern, GM, Prindiville, T, Blanckenburg, M, Hsia, T & Gerschwin, ME (1996) Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Lacteol fort: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. American Journal of Gastroenterology 91, 1579–1585.
Hatakka, K, Savilahti, E, Ponka, A, Meurman, JH, Poussa, T, Nase, L, Saxelin, M & Korpela, R (2001) Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double-blind, randomised trial. British Medical Journal 322, 1327.
Hentschel, C, Bauer, J, Dill, N, Blaut, B, Jahnel, M, Lindner, M, Brinkhaus, B, Shönekäs, H, Kohnen, R, Ernst, E & Hahn, E (1997) Complementary medicine in non-ulcer dyspepsia: is alternative medicine a real alternative? A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial with two probiotic agents – HylacŴ and HylacŴ forte. Gastroenterology 112, A146
Hilton, E, Kolakowski, P, Singer, C & Smith, M (1997) Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrheal preventive in travellers. Journal of Travel Medicine 4, 41–43.
Kaila, M, Isolauri, E, Saxelin, M, Arvilommi, H & Vesikari, T (1995) Viable versus inactivated lactobacillus strain GG in acute rotavirus diarrhoea. Archives of Diseases of Childhood 72, 51–53.
Kollaritsch von, H, Holst, H, Grobara, P & Wiedermann, G (1993) Prophylaxe der Reisediarrhoe mit Saccharomyces boulardii Prevention of traveler's diarrhea with Saccharomyces boulardii. Ergebnisse einer Plazebokontrollierten Doppelblindstudie (Results of a placebo controlled double-blind study). Forstchritt Medizin 111, 153–156.
Kruis, W, Fric, P & Stolte, M (2001) Maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis is equally effective with Escherichia coli Nissle 1997 and with standard mesalamine. Gastroenterology 120, A139.
Kruis, W, Schütz, E, Fric, P, Fixa, B, Judmaier, G & Stolte, M (1997) Double-blind comparison of an oral Escherichia coli preparation and mesalazine in maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 1, 853–858.
Lewis, SJ, Potts, LF & Barry, RE (1998) The lack of therapeutic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-related diarrhoea in elderly patients. Journal of Infection 36, 171–174.
Malchow, HA (1997) Crohn's disease and Escherichia coli. A new approach in therapy to maintain remission of colonic Crohn's disease? Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 25, 653–658.
Marteau, P, Flourié, B, Pochart, P, Chastang, C, Desjeux, JF & Rambaud, JC (1990) Role of the microbial lactase (EC 3.2.123) activity from yogurt on the intestinal absorption of lactose: an in vivo study in lactase deficient humans. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 71–79.
Marteau, P, Pochart, P, Bouhnik, Y & Rambaud, JC (1993) Fate and effects of some transiting microorganisms in the human gastrointestinal tract. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics 74, 1–21.
Marteau, P, Vesa, T & Rambaud, JC (1997) Lactose maldigestion. In Probiotics, pp. 65–88 [Fuller, R, editor]. London: Chapman & Hall.
Marteau, PR, Vrese, MD, Cellier, CJ & Schrezenmeir, J (2001) Protection from gastrointestinal diseases with the use of probiotics. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73, Suppl. 2, 430S–436S.
Marteau, P, Cuillerier, E, Mèance, S, Gerhardt, MF, Myara, A, Bouvier, M, Bouley, C, Tondu, F, Bommelaer, G & Grimaud, JC (2002) Bifidobacterium animalis strain DN-173 010 shortens the colonic transit time in healthy women: A double-blind randomised controlled study. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. In press.
Mastretta, E, Longa, P, Laccisaglia, A, Balbo, L, Russo, R, Mazzaccara, A & Gianino, P (2002) Rotavirus nosocomal infections in infants: is Lactobacillus GG effective in prevention? Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. In press.
McFarland, LV, Surawicz, CM, Greenberg, RN, Fekety, R, Elmer, GW, Moyer, KA, Melcher, SA, Bowen, KE, Cox, JL, Noorani, Z, Harrington, G, Rubin, M & Greenwald, D (1994) A randomized placebo-controlled trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in combination with standard antibiotics for Clostridium difficile disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 271, 1913–1918.
McFarland, LV, Surawicz, CM, Greenberg, RN, Elmer, GW, Moyer, KA, Melcher, SA, Brown, KE & Cox, JL (1995) Prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo. American Journal of Gastroenterology 90, 439–448.
Méance, S, Cayuela, C, Turchet, P, Raimondi, A, Lucas, C & Antoine, JM (2001) A fermented milk with a Bifidobacterium probiotic strain DN-173 010 shortened oro-fecal gut transit time in elderly. Microbiology and Ecology in Health and Disease. In press.
Mercenier, A, Muller-Alouf, H & Grangette, C (2000) Lactic acid bacteria as live vaccines. Current Issues of Molecular Biology 2, 17–25.
Michetti, P, Dorta, G, Wiesel, PH, Brassart, D, Verdu, E, Herranz, M, Felley, C, Porta, N, Rouvet, M, Blum, AL & Corthesy-Theulaz, I (1999) Effect of whey-based culture supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus (johnsonii) La1 on Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. Digestion 60, 203–209.
Michetti, P (2001) Lactobacilli for the management of Helicobacter pylori. Nutrition 17, 268–269.
Oberhelman, RA, Gilman, RH, Sheen, P, Taylor, DN, Black, RE, Cabrera, L, Lescano, AG, Meza, R & Madico, GA (1999) Placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. Journal of Pediatrics 134, 15–20.
Oksanen, PJ, Salminen, S, Saxelin, M, Hamalainen, P, Ihantola-Vormisto, A, Muurasniemi-Isoviita, L, Nikkari, S, Oksanen, T, Porsti, I, Salminen, E, Siitonen, S, Stuckey, H, Toppila, A & Vapaatalo, H (1990) Prevention of traveller's diarrhea by Lactobacillus GG. Annals of Medicine 22, 53–56.
O'Sullivan, MA & O'Morain, CA (2000) Bacterial supplementation in the irritable bowel syndrome. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Digestive and Liver Disease 32, 294–301.
Pant, AR, Graham, SM, Allen, SJ, Harikul, S, Sabchareon, A, Cuevas, L & Hart, CA (1996) Lactobacillus GG and acute diarrhoea in young children in the tropics. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 42, 162–165.
Raza, S, Graham, SM, Allen, SJ, Sultana, S, Cuevas, L & Hart, CA (1995) Lactobacillus GG promotes recovery from acute non-bloody diarrhea in Pakistan. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 14, 107–111.
Reid, G, Howard, J & Gan, BS (2001) Can bacterial interference prevent infection? Trends in Microbiology 9, 424–428.
Rembacken, BJ, Snelling, AM, Hawkey, PM, Chalmers, DM & Axon, AT (1999) Non-pathogenic Escherichia coli versus mesalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a randomised trial. Lancet 354, 635–639.
Saavedra, JM, Bauman, NA, Oung, I, Perman, JA & Yolken, RH (1994) Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diahrroea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 344, 1046–1049.
Sartor, RB (1997) Role of the enteric microflora in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation and arthritis. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 11, Suppl. 3, 17–22.
Schrezenmeir, J & de Vrese, M (2001) Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics – approaching a definition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73, 2 Suppl, 361s–364s.
Shornikova, AV, Casas, IA, Mykkanen, H, Salo, E & Vesikari, T (1997a) Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 16, 1103–1107.
Shornikova, AV, Isolauri, E, Burkanova, L, Lukovnikova, S & Vesikari, T (1997b) A trial in the Karelian Republic of oral rehydration and Lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute diarrhoea. Acta Paediatrica 86, 460–465.
Sugita, T & Togawa, M (1994) Efficacy of lactobacillus preparation biolactis powder in children with rotavirus enteritis. Japanese Journal of Pediatrics 47, 2755–2762.
Surawicz, CM, Elmer, GW, Speelman, P, McFarland, LV, Chinn, J & van Belle, G (1989) Prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospective study. Gastroenterology 96, 981–988.
Surawicz, CM, McFarland, LV, Greenberg, RN, Rubin, M, Fekety, R, Mulligan, ME, Garcia, RJ, Brandmarker, S, Bowen, K, Borjal, D & Elmer, GW (2000) The search for a better treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile disease: use of high-dose vancomycin combined with Saccharomyces boulardii. Clinical Infectious Disease 31, 1012–1017.
Szajewska, H, Kotowska, M, Mrukowicz, JZ, Armanska, M & Mikolajczyk, W (2001) Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in infants. Journal of Pediatrics 138, 361–365.
Thomas, MR, Litin, SC, Osmon, DR, Corr, AP, Weaver, AL & Lohse, CM (2001) Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 76, 883–889.
Vanderhoof, JA, Whitney, DB, Antonson, DL, Hanner, TL, Lupo, JV & Young, RJ (1999) Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Journal of Pediatrics 135, 564–568.
Wollowski, I, Rechkemmer, G & Pool-Zobel, BL (2001) Protective role of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73, Suppl. 2, 451S–455S.
Wunderlich, PF, Braun, L, Fumagalli, I, D'Apuzzo, V, Heim, F, Karly, M, Lodi, R, Politta, G, Vonbank, F & Zeltner, L (1989) Double-blind report on the efficacy of lactic acid-producing Enterococcus SF68 in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. Journal of Internal Medicine Research 17, 333–338.