Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial

  • Elaine Rush (a1), Stephanie McLennan (a2), Victor Obolonkin (a1), Alain C. Vandal (a3) (a4), Michael Hamlin (a5), David Simmons (a6) and David Graham (a7)...
Abstract

Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004–6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15 %, respectively, than that among ‘unEnergized’ children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0 % (95 % CI − 5·8, − 1·3) and 2·4 % (95 % CI − 4·3, − 0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550 m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3 %, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous Māori and non-Māori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Professor E. Rush, fax +64 29 921 9960, email elaine.rush@aut.ac.nz
References
Hide All
1 Cole TJ, Flegal KM, Nicholls D, et al. (2007) Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ 335, 194.
2 Ministry of Health (2008) A Portrait of Health: Key Results of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
3 Ministry of Health (2003) A Portrait of Health: Key Results of the 2002/2003 New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
4 Sharma M (2006) School-based interventions for childhood and adolescent obesity. Obes Rev 7, 261269.
5 Waters E, de Silva-Sanigorski A, Hall Belinda J, et al. (2011) Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 12 , 1212.
6 Sharma M (2007) International school-based interventions for preventing obesity in children. Obes Rev 8, 155167.
7 Glasgow RE, Magid DJ, Beck A, et al. (2005) Practical clinical trials for translating research to practice: design and measurement recommendations. Med Care 43, 551557.
8 Green LW, Glasgow RE, Atkins D, et al. (2009) Making evidence from research more relevant, useful, and actionable in policy, program planning, and practice slips “twixt cup and lip”. Am J Prev Med 37, S187S191.
9 Glasgow RE (2008) What types of evidence are most needed to advance behavioral medicine? Ann Behav Med 35, 1925.
10 Graham D, Appleton S, Rush E, et al. (2008) Increasing activity and improving nutrition through a schools-based programme: Project Energize. 1. Design, programme, randomisation and evaluation methodology. Public Health Nutr 11, 10761084.
11 Cole TJ, Freeman JV & Preece MA (1995) Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73, 2529.
12 Rush E, Reed P, McLennan S, et al. (2012) A school-based obesity control programme: Project Energize. Two-year outcomes. Br J Nutr 107, 581587.
13 Olds TS, Tomkinson GR, Ferrar KE, et al. (2010) Trends in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Australia between 1985 and 2008. Int J Obes 34, 5766.
14 Townsend N, Rutter H & Foster C (2012) Evaluating the evidence that the prevalence of childhood overweight is plateauing. Pediatr Obes 7, 343346.
15 University of Otago and Ministry of Health (2011) A Focus on Nutrition: Key Findings of the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
16 Simmons D, Rowan J, Reid R, et al. (2008) Screening, diagnosis and services for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in New Zealand: a technical report from the National GDM Technical Working Party. N Z Med J 121, 7486.
17 National Women's and Auckland District Health Board (2011) National Women's Hospital Annual Clinical Report 2010. Auckland: National Women's, Auckland District Health Board.
18 Albon HM, Hamlin MJ & Ross JJ (2010) Secular trends and distributional changes in health and fitness performance variables of 10–14-year-old children in New Zealand between 1991 and 2003. Br J Sports Med 44, 263269.
19 Hong SW & Hamlin MJ (2005) Secular trends and contemporary differences in physique and health-related fitness levels of 11–12 year-old South Korean and New Zealand children. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36, 13391345.
20 Kessler R & Glasgow RE (2011) A proposal to speed translation of healthcare research into practice: dramatic change is needed. Am J Prev Med 40, 637644.
21 Ministry of Education (2011) Deciles information. http://www.educationcounts.govt.nz/directories/list-of-nz-schools (accessed February 2011).
22 Cureton KJ, Boileau RA, Lohman TG, et al. (1977) Determinants of distance running performance in children: analysis of a path model. Res Q 48, 270279.
23 Disch J, Frankiewicz R & Jackson A (1975) Construct validation of distance run tests. Res Q 46, 169176.
24 Krahenbuhl GS, Pangrazi RP, Burkett LN, et al. (1977) Field estimation of VO2 max in children eight years of age. Med Sci Sports 9, 3740.
25 Mitchell B, McLennan S, Latimer K, et al. (2011) Improvement of fundamental movement skills through support and mentorship of class room teachers. Obes Res Clin Pract 7, e230e234.
26 Freeman JV, Cole TJ, Chinn S, et al. (1995) Cross sectional stature and weight reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73, 1724.
27 R Development Core Team (2011) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna: R Development Core Team.
28 Doak CM, Visscher TL, Renders CM, et al. (2006) The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes. Obes Rev 7, 111136.
29 Ministry of Health (2003) NZ Food NZ Children, Key Results of the 2002 National Children's Nutrition Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
30 Clinical Trials Research Unit and Synovate (2010) A National Survey of Children and Young People's Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviours in New Zealand: 2008/09 – Key Findings. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
31 Ministry of Health (2012) The Health of New Zealand Children 2011/12: Key Findings of the New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
32 Tomkinson GR & Olds TS (2007) Secular changes in pediatric aerobic fitness test performance: the global picture. Med Sport Sci 50, 4666.
33 Perry B (2012) Household Incomes in New Zealand: Trends in Indicators of Inequality and Hardship 1982 to 2011. Wellington: Ministry of Social Development.
34 Rush EC, Graham D, McLennan S, et al. (2011) An evaluation of nutrition and physical activity in Waikato schools. Project Energize: June 2008 to June 2011. http://www.sportwaikato.org.nz/files/PE%20June%2008 %20to%20June%2011 %20final%20exec%20summary.pdf (accessed May 2013).
35 Shonkoff JP, Boyce WT & McEwen BS (2009) Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. JAMA 301, 22522259.
36 Sallis JF & Glanz K (2009) Physical activity and food environments: solutions to the obesity epidemic. Milbank Q 87, 123154.
37 Foster GD, Linder B, Baranowski T, et al. (2010) A school-based intervention for diabetes risk reduction. N Engl J Med 363, 443453.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 52
Total number of PDF views: 214 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 495 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.