Skip to main content Accessibility help

Protein quality evaluation twenty years after the introduction of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score method

  • Joyce Boye (a1) (a2), Ramani Wijesinha-Bettoni (a1) and Barbara Burlingame (a1)


In 1989 the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Protein Quality Evaluation recommended the use of the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) method for evaluating protein quality. In calculating PDCAAS, the limiting amino acid score (i.e., ratio of first limiting amino acid in a gram of target food to that in a reference protein or requirement) is multiplied by protein digestibility. The PDCAAS method has now been in use for 20 years. Research emerging during this time has provided useful data on various aspects of protein quality evaluation that has made a review of the current methods used in assessing protein quality necessary. This paper provides an overview of the use of the PDCAAS method as compared to other methods and addresses some of the key challenges that remain in regards to protein quality evaluation. Furthermore, specific factors influencing protein quality including the effects of processing conditions and preparation methods are presented. Protein quality evaluation methods and recommended protein intakes currently used in different countries vis-à-vis the WHO/FAO/UNU standards are further provided. As foods are frequently consumed in complement with other foods, the significance of the PDCAAS of single protein sources may not be evident, thus, protein quality of some key food groups and challenges surrounding the calculation of the amino acid score for dietary protein mixtures are further discussed. As results from new research emerge, recommendations may need to be updated or revised to maintain relevance of methods used in calculating protein quality.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Protein quality evaluation twenty years after the introduction of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score method
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Protein quality evaluation twenty years after the introduction of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score method
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Protein quality evaluation twenty years after the introduction of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score method
      Available formats


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: J. Boye, fax (1) 450 773 8461, email


Hide All
1FAO (1957) Protein requirements. Report of the FAO Committee. FAO Nutritional Studies, No. 16, Rome.
2FAO (1965) Protein requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Group, Geneva, World Health Organization, WHO Technical Report Series, No. 301, Geneva.
3FAO/WHO (1973) Energy and protein requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO ad hoc Expert Committee. WHO Technical Report Series, No. 522, Geneva.
4FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation (1985) Energy and Protein Requirements. WHO Technical Report Series 724, Geneva.
5FAO/WHO Expert Consultation (1991) Protein Quality Evaluation Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation held in Bethseda, Md., USA, in 1989. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 51, Rome.
6WHO/FAO/UNU (2007) Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition: report of a joint WHO/FAO/UNU expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 935. Geneva. FAO/WHO/UNU, 276.
7Millward, DJ, Layman, DK, Tomé, D, et al. (2008) Protein quality assessment: Impact of expanding understanding of protein and amino acid needs for optimal health. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 1576S1581S.
8Sarwar, G (1997) The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method overestimates quality of proteins containing antinutritional factors and of poorly digestible proteins supplemented with limiting amino acids in rats. J Nutr 127, 758764.
9Gilani, GS & Sepehr, E (2003) Protein digestibility and quality in products containing antinutritional factors are adversely affected by old age in rats. J Nutr 133, 220225.
10Stein, HH, Sève, B, Fuller, MF, et al. (2007) Invited review: Amino acid bioavailability and digestibility in pig feed ingredients: Terminology and application. J Anim Sci 85, 172180.
11Levesque, CL, Moehn, S, Pencharz, PB, et al. (2010) Review of advances in metabolic bioavailability of amino acids. Livestock Sci 133, 49.
12Uppal, V & Bains, K (2012) Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes. J Food Sci Technol 49, 184191.
13Nalle, CL, Ravindran, G & Ravindran, V (2010) Influence of dehulling on the apparent metabolisable energy and ileal amino acid digestibility of grain legumes for broilers. J Sci Food Agric 90, 12271231.
14Tavano, OL, Da Silva, SI Jr, Démonte, A, et al. (2008) Nutritional responses of rats to diets based on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seed meal or its protein fractions. J Agric Food Chem 56, 1100611010.
15Khattab, RY, Arntfield, SD & Nyachoti, CM (2009) Nutritional quality of legume seeds as affected by some physical treatments. Part 1: Protein quality evaluation. LWT – Food Science Technol 42, 11071112.
16Abu, EG, Ahmed, Y & Abdalla Abdelsamad, A (2007) Effect of domestic processing methods on chemical composition, in vitro digestibility of protein and starch and functional properties of Bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea). Seed Res J Agric Biol Sci 3, 1, 2434.
17Kannan, S, Nielsen, SS & Mason, AC (2001 a) Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores for bean and bean – rice infant weaning food products. J Agric Food Chem 49, 50705074.
18Jirapa, P, Normah, H, Zamaliah, MM, et al. (2001) Nutritional quality of germinated cowpea flour (Vigna unguiculata) and its application in home prepared powdered weaning foods. Plant Foods Human Nutr 56, 203216.
19Correia, I, Nunes, A, Barros, AS, et al. (2010) Comparison of the effects induced by different processing methods on sorghum proteins. J Cereal Sci 51, 146151.
20Ramakrishna, V, Jhansi Rani, P & Ramakrishna Rao, P (2008) Nutritional quality of storage proteins during germination of indian bean (Dolichos lablab. var. lignosus) seeds. Int J Food Sci Technol 43, 944949.
21Ghavidel, RA & Prakash, J (2007) The impact of germination and dehulling on nutrients, antinutrients, in vitro iron and calcium bioavailability and in vitro starch and protein digestibility of some legume seeds. LWT – Food Sci Technol 40, 12921299.
22Osman, MA (2007) Effect of different processing methods, on nutrient composition, antinutrional factors, and in vitro protein digestibility of dolichos lablab bean [Lablab purpuresus (L) sweet]. Pakistan J Nutr 6, 299303.
23Shimelis, EA & Rakshit, SK (2007) Effect of processing on antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties grown in East Africa. Food Chem 103, 161172.
24Saleh, AA & El-Adawy, TA (2006) Nutritional composition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as affected by microwave cooking and other traditional cooking methods. J Food Comp Anal 19, 806812.
25Duodu, KG, Taylor, JRN, Belton, PS, et al. (2003) Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility. J Cereal Sci 38, 117131.
26Scalbert, A (1991) Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochem 30, 38753883.
27Boschi, V, Traisci, MV, Siervo, M, et al. (2002) Protein quality assessment in milk after technological treatment. Progress Nutr 4, 3, 221225.
28Andersson, I & Öste, R (1994) Nutritional quality of pasteurized milk. Vitamin B12, folate and ascorbic acid content during storage. Int Dairy J 4, 161172.
29Yeung, CY, Lee, HC, Lin, SP, et al. (2006) Negative effect of heat sterilization on the free amino acid concentrations in infant formula. Euro J Clin Nutr 60, 136141.
30El, SN & Kavas, A (1996) Determination of protein quality of rainbow trout (Salmo irideus) by in vitro protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Food Chem 55, 221223.
31Bender, A (1992) Meat and meat products in human nutrition in developing countries. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 53.
32Okonkwo, TM, Obanu, ZA & Ledward, DA (1992) Characteristics of some intermediate moisture smoked meats. Meat Sci 31, 135145.
33Evans, E, Carruthers, SC & Witty, R (1979) Effects of cooking methods on the protein quality of meats as determined using a Tetrahymena pyriformis W GRoWTlj ASSAY. J Food Sci 44, 1678.
34Burvall, A, Asp, N-G, Dahlqvist, A, et al. (1977) Nutritional value of lactose-hydrolysed milk: protein quality after some industrial processes. J Dairy Res 44, 549553.
35Abdul-Hamid, A, Bakar, J & Bee, GH (2002) Nutritional quality of spray dried protein hydrolysate from Black Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Food Chem 78, 6974.
36Frias, J, Giacomino, S, Peñas, E, et al. (2011) Assessment of the nutritional quality of raw and extruded pisum sativum L. var. laguna seeds. LWT – Food Sci Technol 44, 13031308.
37Batista, KA, Prudêncio, SH & Fernandes, KF (2010 a) Changes in the biochemical and functional properties of the extruded hard-to-cook cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. walp). Int J Food Sci Technol 45, 794799.
38Batista, KA, Prudêncio, SH & Fernandes, KF (2010 b) Changes in the functional properties and antinutritional factors of extruded hard-to-cook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Food Sci 75, C286C290.
39Bertipaglia, LMA, DeMelo, GMP, Sugohara, A, et al. (2008) Chemical changes in soyabean and corn processed by extrusion. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 37, 11, 20032010.
40Pérez-Navarrete, C, Betancur-Ancona, D, Casotto, M, et al. (2007) Effect of extrusion on protein and starch bioavailability in corn and lima bean flour blends. [Efecto de la extrusión sobre la biodisponibilidad de proteína y almidón en mezclas de harinas de maíz y frijol lima]. Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutricion 57, 278286.
41Silva, ACCE, Cruz, RJD & Arêas, JAG (2010) Influence of thermoplastic extrusion on the nutritive value of bovine rumen protein. Meat Sci 84, 409412.
42Bhat, R & Sridhar, KR (2008) Nutritional quality evaluation of electron beam-irradiated lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) seeds. Food Chem 107, 174184.
43Cuevas-Rodríguez, EO, Verdugo-Montoya, NM, Angulo-Bejarano, PI, et al. (2006) Nutritional properties of tempeh flour from quality protein maize (Zea mays L.). LWT – Food Sci Technol 39, 10721079.
44Angulo-Bejarano, PI, Verdugo-Montoya, NM, Cuevas-Rodríguez, EO, et al. (2008) Tempeh flour from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) nutritional and physicochemical properties. Food Chem 106, 106112.
45Nicolau, AL, Georgescu, LA, Segal, R (2009) The impact of bioprocessing on rice nutritional quality. Paper presented at the 5th International Technical Symposium on Food Processing, Monitoring Technology in Bioprocesses and Food Quality Management 236–243.
46Paredes-López, O & Harry, GI (1989) Changes in Selected Chemical and Antinutritional Components during Tempeh Preparation Using Fresh and Hardened Common Beans. J Food Sci 54, 968970.
47Fagbemi, TN, Oshodi, AA & Ipinmoroti, KO (2005) Processing effects on some antinutritional factors and in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility (IVPD) of three tropical seeds: breadnut (Artocarpus altilis), cashewnut (Anacardium occidentale) and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). Pakistan J Nutr 4, 4, 250256.
48Lee, H, Friend, BA & Shahani, KM (1988) Factors affecting the protein quality of yogurt and acidophilus milk. J Dairy Sci 71, 32033213.
49Adolfsson, O, Meydani, SN & Russell, RM (2004) Yogurt and gut function. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 245256.
50National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (1991) Recommended Dietary Intakes for use in Australia. Canberra.
51Nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes (2006) Australian Government, Ministry of Health, Department of Health and Ageing, National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia; available (accessed accessed April 2011).
52Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (2011) Title 21 Food and Drugs (FDA, 21 CFR 101·9(c)(7)(iii)); available at = fa782cad5643525c2be020a4d560c005&c = ecfr&tpl = /ecfrbrowse/Title21/21tab_02.tpl (accessed April 2011).
53Codex Alimentarius (1985) Guidelines on Nutrition labelling CAC/GL 2-1985 Adopted 1985. Revision 1993. Amendment 2003, 2006, 2009, 2010.
54American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2003) Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets. J Amer Diet Assoc 103, 748765.
55Hsu, HW, Vavak, DL, Satterlee, LD, et al. (1977) A multienzyme technique for estimating protein digestibility. J Food Sci 42, 12691273.
56Satterlee, DL, Marshall, HF & Tennyson, JM (1979) Measuring protein quality. J Am Oil Chem Soc 56, 103109.
57Pedersen, B & Eggum, BO (1983) Prediction of protein digestibility by an in vitro enzymatic pH-stat procedure. Zt Tierphysiol Tierernahr Furtermitt 4, 265277.
58McDonough, FE, Sarwar, G, Steinke, FH, et al. (1990) In vitro assay for protein digestibility: interlaboratory study. J Ass Analyt Chem 13, 622625.
59Bodwell, EC, Satterlee, DL & Hackler, RL (1980) Protein digestibility of the same protein preparations by human and rat assays and by in vitro enzymic digestion methods. Am J Clin Nutr 33, 677686.
60Rich, N, Satterlee, DL & Smith, LJ (1980) A comparison of in vivo apparent protein digestibility in man and rat to in vitro protein digestibility as determined using human and rat pancreatins and commercially available proteases. Nutr Rep Int 21, 285300.
61Eggum, BO, Kreft, I & Javornik, B (1980) Chemical composition and protein quality of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Qualitas Plantarum Plant Foods Human Nutr 30, 3–4, 175179.
62Marletta, L, Carbonara, M & Carnovale, E (1992) In vitro protein and sulphur amino acid availability as a measure of bean protein quality. J Sci Food Agric 59, 497504.
63Carias, D, Cioccia, AM & Hevia, P (1995) Agreement between animal and vegetable protein digestibility measured in vivo and in vitro and its effect on the chemical score. Arch Latinoam Nutr 45, 111116.
64Riedl, KM & Hagerman, AE (2001) Tannin-protein complex as radical scavengers and radical sinks. J Agric Food Chem 49, 49174923.
65Shamsuddin, AM (2002) Anti-cancer function of phytic acid. Int J Food Sci Technol 37, 769782.
66Campos-Vega, R, Loarca-Pina, G & Oomah, BD (2010) Minor components of pulses and their potential impact on human health. Food Res Int 43, 461482.
67Ribeiro, JKC, Cunha, DDS, Fook, JMSLL, et al. (2010) New properties of the soybean trypsin inhibitor: Inhibition of human neutrophil elastase and its effect on acute pulmonary injury. European J Pharmacol 644, 238244.
68Kong, B & Xiong, YL (2006) Antioxidant activity of zein hydrolysates in a liposome system and the possible mode of action. J Agric Food Chem 54, 60596068.
69Li, HM, Ping, G, Xin, H, et al. (2007) Preparation of corn (Zea mays) peptides and their protective effect against alcohol-induced acute hepatic injury in NH mice. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 47, 169174.
70Guo, H, Sun, J, He, H, et al. (2009) Antihepatotoxic effect of corn peptides against Bacillus Calmette-Guerin/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice. Food Chem Toxicol 47, 24312435.
71De Leo, F, Panarese, S, Gallerani, R, et al. (2009) Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides: Production and implementation of functional food. Curr Pharm Des 15, 31, 36223643.
72Regazzo, D, Da Dalt, L, Lombardi, A, et al. (2010) Fermented milks from enterococcus faecalis TH563 and lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LA2 manifest different degrees of ACE-inhibitory and immunomodulatory activities. Dairy Sci Technol 90, 469476.
73Atanasova, J & Ivanova, I (2010) Antibacterial peptides from goat and sheep milk proteins. Biotechnol Biotechnolog Equip 24, 17991803.
74Boye, JI, Roufik, S, Pesta, N, et al. (2010 a) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory properties and SDS-PAGE of red lentil protein hydrolysates. LWT-Food Sci Technol 43, 987991.
75Barbana, C & Boye, JI (2010) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of enzymatic chickpea and pea protein hydrolysates. Food Res Int 43, 16421649.
76Barbana, C & Boye, JI (2011) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory properties of enzymatic lentil protein hydrolysates. Food Chem 127, 94101.
77Barbana, C, Boucher, AC & Boye, JI (2011) In vitro binding of bile salts by lentil flours, lentil protein concentrates and lentil protein hydrolysates. Food Res Int 44, 1, 174180.
78Pupovac, J & Anderson, GH (2002) Dietary peptides induce satiety via cholecystokinin-A and peripheral opioid receptors in rats. J Nutr 132, 27752780.
79Erdmann, K, Cheung, BWY & Schröder, H (2008) The possible roles of food-derived bioactive peptides in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. J Nutr Biochem 19, 643654.
80Hochstenbach-Waelen, A, Nieuwenhuizen, A & Westerterp-Plantenga, M (2008) Effects of alpha-lactalbumin, gelatin with or without added tryptophan-protein breakfasts on hunger, ‘satiety’ hormones, and protein kinetics. Appetite 51, 373.
81Katsanos, CS, Kobayashi, H, Sheffield-Moore, M, et al. (2006) A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E381E386.
82Millward, DJ (2004) Protein and amino acid requirements of athletes. J Sports Sci 22, 143145.
83Alsmeyer, RH, Cunningham, AE & Happich, ML (1974) Equations predict PER from amino acid analysis. Food Technol 28, 3440.
84Buamah, TF & Singsen, EP (1975) Studies on the protein efficiency ratio method for the evaluation of poultry feed supplements. Modifications associated with choice of dietary protein level for assay. J Nutr 105, 688700.
85Addo, K, Lykins, S & Cotton, C (1996) Indigenous fermentation and soy fortification: effects on protein quality and carbohydrate digestibility of a traditional Ghanaian corn meal. Food Chem 51, 377380.
86Schaafsma, G (2000) The Protein Digestibility–Corrected Amino Acid Score. J Nutr 130, 1865S1867S.
87Srikantia, SG (1981) The use of biological value of a protein in evaluating its quality for human requirements; available (accessed accessed April 2011).
88FDA (1993) Food labeling: Reference Daily Intakes and Daily Reference Values. Part IV, final rule. Fed Regist 58, 22062228.
89IOM (2003) Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding principles for nutrition labeling and fortification. Committee on Use of Dietary Reference Intakes in Nutrition Labeling. Washington, USA: Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, The National Academic Press.
90Health Canada (2011) Dietary Reference Intakes; available
91USDA Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) (2010) Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, DC. May 2010. (accessed accessed April 2011).
92Report on Health and Social Subjects 41 (1991) Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) The Stationary Office. and cited reference (accessed April 2011).
93Hackl, W, Pieper, B, Pieper, R, et al. (2010) Effects of ensiling cereal grains (barley, wheat, triticale and rye) on total and pre-caecal digestibility of proximate nutrients and amino acids in pigs. J Anim Phys Anim Nutr 94, 729735.
94Eggum, BO, Hansen, I & Larsen, T (1989) Protein quality and digestibility energy of selected foods determined in balance trials with rats. Plant Foods Human Nutr 39, 1321.
95Pires, CV, Almeida Oliveira, MGD, Cesar Rosa, J, et al. (2006) Nutritional quality and chemical score of amino acids from different protein sources. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos 26, 179187.
96Milán-Carrillo, J, Valdéz-Alarcón, C, Gutiérrez-Dorado, R, et al. (2007) Nutritional properties of quality protein maize and chickpea extruded based weaning food. Plant Foods Human Nutr 62, 3137.
97Pettersson, Å, Lindberg, JE, Thomke, S, et al. (1996) Nutrient digestibility and protein quality of oats differing in chemical composition evaluated in rats and by an in vitro technique. Animal Feed Sci Technol 62, 203213.
98Sarwar, G & Peace, RW (1986) Comparisons between true digestibility of total nitrogen and limiting amino acids in vegetable proteins fed to rats. J Nutr 116, 11721184.
99Ali, MAM, El Tinay, AH, Mallasy, LO, et al. (2010) Supplementation of pearl millet flour with soybean protein: Effect of cooking on in vitro protein digestibility and essential Amino Acids composition. Int J Food Sci Technol 45, 740744.
100Ruales, J & Nair, BM (1992) Nutritional quality of the protein in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds. Plant Foods Human Nutr 42, 111.
101Hu, Y, Li, M, Piao, J, et al. (2010) Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified rice expressing human lactoferrin gene. J Cereal Sci 52, 350355.
102Anyango, JO, de Kock, HL & Taylor, JRN (2011) Impact of cowpea addition on the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score and other protein quality parameters of traditional African foods made from non-tannin and tannin sorghum. Food Chem 124, 775780.
103Serna Saldivar, SO, Abril-Dominguez, JR, López-Ahumada, G, et al. (1999) Nutritional evaluation of table bread fortified with defatted soybean and sesame meals. Archiv Latinoameric Nutr 49, 3, 260264.
104Negrão, CC, Mizubuti, IY, Morita, MC, et al. (2005) Biological evaluation of mechanically deboned chicken meat protein quality. Food Chem 90, 579583.
105Usydus, Z, Szlinder-Richert, J & Adamczyk, M (2009) Protein quality and amino acid profiles of fish products available in Poland. Food Chem 112, 139145.
106Jørgensen, H, Brandt, K & Lauridsen, C (2008) Year rather than farming system influences protein utilization and energy value of vegetables when measured in a rat model. Nutr Res 28, 866878.
107Ahrens, S, Venkatachalam, M, Mistry, AM, et al. (2005) Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) protein quality. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 60, 123128.
108Fernandes, DC, Freitas, JB, Czeder, LP, et al. (2010) Nutritional composition and protein value of the baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) almond from the Brazilian Savanna. J Sci Food Agric 90, 16501655.
109Ezeokonkwo, CA & Dodson, WL (2004) The potential of Terminalia catappa (tropical almond) seed as a source of dietary protein. J Food Qual 27, 207219.
110Kannan, S, Nielsen, SS, Rodriguez-Burger, AP, et al. (2001 b) Iron and zinc bioavailability in rats fed intrinsically labeled bean and bean – rice infant weaning food products. J Agric Food Chem 49, 50635069.
111Campos-Mondragón, MG, De La Barca, AMC, Durán-Prado, A, et al. (2009) Nutritional composition of new peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars. Grasas y Aceites 60, 2, 161167.
112Ijarotimi, OS & Olopade, AJ (2009) Determination of amino acid content and protein quality of complementary food produced from locally available food materials in Ondo State, Nigeria. Malaysian J Nutr 15, 8795.
113Malleshi, NG, Hadimani, NA, Chinnaswamy, R, et al. (1996) Physical and nutritional qualities of extruded weaning foods containing sorghum, pearl millet, or finger millet blended with mung beans and nonfat dried milk. Plant Foods Human Nutr 49, 181189.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Protein quality evaluation twenty years after the introduction of the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score method

  • Joyce Boye (a1) (a2), Ramani Wijesinha-Bettoni (a1) and Barbara Burlingame (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.