1Erdman, JW Jr, Balentine, D, Arab, L, et al. (2007) Flavonoids and heart health: Proceedings of the ILSI North America Flavonoids Workshop, May 31–June 1, 2005, Washington, DC. J Nutr 137, Suppl., 718S–737S.
2Knekt, P, Kumpulainen, J, Jarvinen, R, et al. (2002) Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 560–568.
3Linseisen, J, Radtke, J & Wolfram, G (1997) Flavonoidzufuhr Erwachsener in einem Bayrischen Teilkollektiv der Nationalen Verzehrsstudie (Flavonoid intake of adults in a Bavarian subgroup of the national food consumption survey). Z Ernahrungswiss 36, 403–412.
4Böhm, H, Boeing, H, Hempel, J, et al. (1998) Flavonols, flavone and anthocyanins as natural antioxidants of food and their possible role in the prevention of chronic diseases (article in German). Z Ernahrungswiss 37, 147–163.
5Williamson, G & Manach, C (2005) Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 243S–255S.
6Hooper, L, Kroon, PA, Rimm, EB, et al. (2008) Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 38–50.
7Cassidy, A, de Pascual, TS & Rimbach, G (2003) Molecular mechanisms by which dietary isoflavones potentially prevent atherosclerosis. Expert Rev Mol Med 5, 1–15.
8Rimbach, G, Boesch-Saadatmandi, C, Frank, J, et al. (2008) Dietary isoflavones in the prevention of cardiovascular disease – a molecular perspective. Food Chem Toxicol 46, 1308–1319.
9Egert, S, Wolffram, S, Bosy-Westphal, A, et al. (2008) Daily quercetin supplementation dose-dependently increases plasma quercetin concentrations in healthy humans. J Nutr 138, 1615–1621.
10Danielzik, S, Czerwinski-Mast, M, Langnase, K, et al. (2004) Parental overweight, socioeconomic status and high birth weight are the major determinants of overweight and obesity in 5–7 y-old children: baseline data of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 1494–1502.
11Scales, DC & Rubenfeld, GD (2005) Estimating sample size in critical care clinical trials. J Crit Care 20, 6–11.
12Bosy-Westphal, A, Danielzik, S, Becker, C, et al. (2005) Need for optimal body composition data analysis using air-displacement plethysmography in children and adolescents. J Nutr 135, 2257–2262.
13World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894. Geneva: WHO.
14Pickering, TG, Hall, JE, Appel, LJ, et al. (2005) Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: Part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension 45, 142–161.
15Cao, G, Alessio, HM & Cutler, RG (1993) Oxygen-radical absorbance capacity assay for antioxidants. Free Radic Biol Med 14, 303–311.
16Bieger, J, Cermak, R, Blank, R, et al. (2008) Tissue distribution of quercetin in pigs after long-term dietary supplementation. J Nutr 138, 1417–1420.
17Kenward, MG & Jones, B (1987) The analysis of data from 2 × 2 cross-over trials with baseline measurements. Stat Med 6, 911–926.
18Chobanian, AV, Bakris, GL, Black, HR, et al. (2003) The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 289, 2560–2572.
19Conquer, JA, Maiani, G, Azzini, E, et al. (1998) Supplementation with quercetin markedly increases plasma quercetin concentration without effect on selected risk factors for heart disease in healthy subjects. J Nutr 128, 593–597.
20Edwards, RL, Lyon, T, Litwin, SE, et al. (2007) Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. J Nutr 137, 2405–2411.
21Williams, B, Lindholm, LH & Sever, P (2008) Systolic pressure is all that matters. Lancet 371, 2219–2221.
22Landmesser, U, Hornig, B & Drexler, H (2004) Endothelial function: a critical determinant in atherosclerosis? Circulation 109, II27–II33.
23Loke, WM, Hodgson, JM, Proudfoot, JM, et al. (2008) Pure dietary flavonoids quercetin and ( − )-epicatechin augment nitric oxide products and reduce endothelin-1 acutely in healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 1018–1025.
24Perez-Vizcaino, F, Duarte, J & Andriantsitohaina, R (2006) Endothelial function and cardiovascular disease: effects of quercetin and wine polyphenols. Free Radic Res 40, 1054–1065.
25Morris, MC, Sacks, F & Rosner, B (1993) Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 88, 523–533.
26Lotito, SB & Frei, B (2006) Dietary flavonoids attenuate tumor necrosis factor α-induced adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells. Structure–function relationships and activity after first pass metabolism. J Biol Chem 281, 37102–37110.
27Stocker, R & Keaney, JF (2004) Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis. Physiol Rev 84, 1381–1478.
28Holvoet, P, Kritchevsky, SB, Tracy, RP, et al. (2004) The metabolic syndrome, circulating oxidized LDL, and risk of myocardial infarction in well-functioning elderly people in the health, aging, and body composition cohort. Diabetes 53, 1068–1073.
29Holvoet, P (2008) Relations between metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress and inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg 70, 193–219.
30Ruel, G, Pomerleau, S, Couture, P, et al. (2005) Changes in plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidized low-density ipoprotein levels in men after short-term cranberry juice consumption. Metabolism 54, 856–861.
31Loke, WM, Proudfoot, JM, McKinley, AJ, et al. (2008) Quercetin and its in vivo metabolites inhibit neutrophil-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. J Agric Food Chem 56, 3609–3615.
32Kawai, Y, Nishikawa, T, Shiba, Y, et al. (2008) Macrophage as a target of quercetin glucuronides in human atherosclerotic arteries: implication in the anti-atherosclerotic mechanism of dietary flavonoids. J Biol Chem 283, 9424–9434.
33Nair, MP, Mahajan, S, Reynolds, JL, et al. (2006) The flavonoid quercetin inhibits proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor α) gene expression in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells via modulation of the NF-κB system. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13, 319–328.
34Rivera, L, Moron, R, Sanchez, M, et al. (2008) Quercetin ameliorates metabolic syndrome and improves the inflammatory status in obese Zucker rats. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16, 2081–2087.
35Hotamisligil, GS, Arner, P, Caro, JF, et al. (1995) Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in human obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 95, 2409–2415.
36Esposito, K, Nappo, F, Giugliano, F, et al. (2003) Meal modulation of circulating interleukin 18 and adiponectin concentrations in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 1135–1140.
37Galisteo, M, Sanchez, M, Vera, R, et al. (2005) A diet supplemented with husks of Plantago ovata reduces the development of endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and obesity by affecting adiponectin and TNF-α in obese Zucker rats. J Nutr 135, 2399–2404.
38Boots, AW, Wilms, LC, Swennen, EL, et al. (2008) In vitro and ex vivo anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin in healthy volunteers. Nutrition 24, 703–710.
39Boesch-Saadatmandi, C, Wolffram, S, Minihane, AM, et al. (2008) Effect of apoE genotype and dietary quercetin on blood lipids and TNF-α levels in apoE3 and apoE4 targeted gene replacement mice. Br J Nutr .
40Berube-Parent, S, Pelletier, C, Dore, J, et al. (2005) Effects of encapsulated green tea and guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men. Br J Nutr 94, 432–436.
41Dulloo, AG, Duret, C, Rohrer, D, et al. (1999) Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 1040–1045.
42Venables, MC, Hulston, CJ, Cox, HR, et al. (2008) Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 778–784.
43Nagao, T, Komine, Y, Soga, S, et al. (2005) Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 122–129.
44Igarashi, K & Ohmuma, M (1995) Effects of isorhamnetin, rhamnetin, and quercetin on the concentrations of cholesterol and lipoperoxide in the serum and liver and on the blood and liver antioxidative enzyme activities of rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 59, 595–601.
45Yugarani, T, Tan, BK, Teh, M, et al. (1992) Effects of polyphenolic natural products on the lipid profiles of rats fed high fat diets. Lipids 27, 181–186.
46Castilla, P, Echarri, R, Davalos, A, et al. (2006) Concentrated red grape juice exerts antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiinflammatory effects in both hemodialysis patients and healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 252–262.
47Zern, TL, Wood, RJ, Greene, C, et al. (2005) Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre- and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress. J Nutr 135, 1911–1917.
48Theriault, A, Wang, Q, Van Iderstine, SC, et al. (2000) Modulation of hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and secretion by taxifolin, a plant flavonoid. J Lipid Res 41, 1969–1979.