This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1D Gifford (2002) Dietary Fats, Eating Guides and Public Policy: History, Critique, and Recommendations. Am J Med 113, 89S–106S, .
4AA Yates (1998) Overview of Key Nutrients: Energy and Macronutrient Aspects. Nutr Rev 56, S29–S33.
9LA Smit , D Mozaffarian & W Willett (2009) Review of Fat and Fatty Acid Requirements and Criteria for Developing Dietary Guidelines. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 44–55.
10D Moher , A Liberati , J Tetzlaff & DG Altman , (2009) Group Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med 6, .
13B Koletzko , E Lien , C Agostoni , (2008) The roles of longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. J Perinat Med 36, 5–14.
14American Heart Association Nutrition Committee, AH Lichtenstein , LJ Appel , M Brands , (2006) Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation 114, 82–96.
15WS Harris , D Mozaffarian , E Rimm , (2009) Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 119, 902–907.
19EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) (2010) Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol. The EFSA Journal 8, 1461.
20Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology (2007) European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehab 14, suppl 2, S1–S113.
21EL Doets , LS de Wit , RAM Dhonukshe-Rutten , (2008) Current micronutrient recommendations in Europe: towards understanding their differences and similarities. Eur J Nutr 47, Suppl. 1, 17–40.
22M Pavlovic , A Prentice , I Thörsdottir , (2007) Challenges in Harmonizing Energy and Nutrient Recommendations in Europe. Ann Nutr Metab 51, 108–114.
24I Iglesia , EL Doets , S Bel-Serrat , (2010) Physiological and public health basis for assessing micronutrient requirements in children and adolescents. The EURRECA network. Maternal & Child Nutr 6, 84–99.
26American Diabetes Association (2008) Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes. A position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 31, Suppl, S61–S78.
33W Becker , N Lyhne , AN Pedersen , (2004) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004/integrating nutrition and physical activity. Scan J Nutr 48, 178–187.
40I Elmadfa & M Kornsteiner (2009) Fats and Fatty Acid Requirements for Adults. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 56–75.
41R Uauy (2009) Dietary Fat Quality for Optimal Health and Well-Being: Overview of Recommendations. Ann Nutr Metab 54, Suppl. 1, 2–7.
42PR Marantz , ED Bird & MH Alderman (2008) A Call for Higher Standards of Evidence for Dietary Guidelines. Am J Prev Med 34, 234–240.
44AJ Nordmann , A Nordmann , M Briel , (2006) Effects of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 166, 285–293.
45BV Howard , L Van Horn , J Hsia , (2006) Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA 295, 655–666.
46EL Melanson , A Astrup & WT Donahoo (2009) The relationship between dietary fat and fatty acid intake and body weight, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 229–243.
47RM Krauss , RH Eckel , B Howard , (2000) AHA Dietary Guidelines : Revision 2000: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 102, 2284–2299.
49FB Hu & W Willet (2002) Optimal Diets for Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease. JAMA 288, 2569–2578.
50U Wahrburg (2004) What are the health effects of fat? Eur J Nutr 43, Suppl. 1, I/6–I/11.
55JI Mann (2002) Diet and risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Lancet 360, 783–789.
58MU Jakobsen , EJ O'Reilly , BL Heitmann , (2009) Major types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1425–1432.
59CM Skeaff & J Miller (2009) Dietary fat and coronary heart disease: summary of evidence from prospective cohort and randomized controlled trials. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 173–201.
61D Mozaffarian & EB Rimm (2006) Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA 296, 1885–1899.
64WS Harris , D Mozaffarian , M Lefevre , (2009) Towards Establishing Dietary Reference Intakes for Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids. J Nutr 139, 804S–819S.
65L Hooper , RL Thompson , RA Harrison , (2006) Risk and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a systematic review. BMJ .
66LA Horrocks & YK Yeo (1999) Health benefits of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Pharmacol Res 40, 211–225.
68AP Simopoulos (2001) n-3 Fatty Acids and Human Health: Defining Strategies for Public Policy. Lipids 36, S83–S89.
69GISSI-HF Investigators (2008) Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with chronic heart failure (the GISSI-HF trial): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 372, 1223–1230.
70JT Brenna (2009) Background Paper on Fat and Fatty Acid Requirements during Pregnancy and Lactation. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 97–122.
73A Lapillonne & CL Jensen (2009) Reevaluation of the DHA requirement for the premature infant. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 143–150.
74H Le , JA Meisel , VE deMeijer , (2009) The essentiality of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 165–170.
75M Makrides (2009) Is there a dietary requirement for DHA in pregnancy? Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 171–174.
77R Uauy & AD Dangour (2009) Fat and Fatty Acid Requirements and Recommendations for Infants of 0–2 Years and Children of 2–18 Years. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 76–96.
78M Gil-Campos , (2010) Importancia del ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA): funciones y recomendaciones para su ingesta en la infancia. An Pediatr (Barc) 73, 142e1–142e8.
82PC Calder & RJ Deckelbaum (2011) Harmful, harmless or helpful? The n-6 fatty acid debate goes on. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 14, 113–114.
83RJ Deckelbaum & PC Calder (2010) Dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: are there ‘bad’ polyunsaturated fatty acids? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13, 123–124.
84O Molendi-Coste , V Legry & IA Leclercq (2011) Why and How Meet n-3 PUFA Dietary Recommendations? Gastroenterol Res Pract, .
85PM Kris-Etherton , JA Grieger & TD Etherton (2009) Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA. Prostaglandins, Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 99–104.
87AR Ness , J Hughes , PC Elwood , (2002) The long-term effect of dietary advice in men with coronary disease: follow-up of the Diet and Reinfarction Trial (DART). Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 512–518.
88M Yokoyama , H Origasa , M Matsuzaki , (2007) Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 369, 1090–1098.
89PE Marik & J Varon (2009) Omega-3 Dietary Supplements and the Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Systematic Review. Clin. Cardiol 32, 7, 365–372.
90ML Burr , FDJ Dunstan & CH George (2005) Is Fish Oil Good or Bad for Heart Disease? Two Trials with Apparently Conflicting Results. J. Membrane Biol. 206, 155–163.
91B Rauch , R Schiele , S Schneider , (2010) OMEGA, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to test the effect of highly purified omega-3 fatty acids on top of modern guideline-adjusted therapy after myocardial infarction. Circulation 122, 21, .
92D Kromhout , EJ Giltay & JM Geleijnse for the Alpha Omega Trial Group (2010) n-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Events after Myocardial Infarction. N Engl J Med 363, 2015–2026.
93KB Filion , F El Khoury , M Bielinski , (2010) Omega- 3 fatty acids in high-risk cardiovascular patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 10, 24.
94S Nodari , M Triggiani , U Campia , (2011) n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrences after electrical cardioversion. A prospective, randomized study. Circulation 124, .
95T Liu , P Korantzopoulos , M Shehata , (2011) Prevention of atrial fibrillation with omega-3 fatty acids: a meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Heart 97, 13,
96MA Crawford , RP Bazinet & AJ Sinclair (2009) Fat intake and CNS functioning: ageing and disease. Ann Nutr Metab 55, 202–228.
97M Kornsteiner , I Singer & I Elmadfa (2008) Very low n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status in Austrian vegetarians and vegans. Ann Nutr Metab 52, 37–47.
100V Wijendran & KC Hayes (2004) Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid balance and cardiovascular health. Annu Rev Nutr 24, 597–615.
102JR Hibbeln & JM Davis (2009) Considerations regarding neuropsychiatric nutritional requirements for intakes of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandins, Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 179–186.
103WC Willett (2007) The role of dietary n-6 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 8, Suppl. 1, S42–S45.
105D Mozaffarian & WC Willett (2007) Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular risk: a unique cardiometabolic imprint? Curr Atheroscler Rep 9, 486–493.
106 D Mozaffarian & R Clarke (2009) Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 522–533.
108RH Eckel (2007) Understanding the Complexity of Trans Fatty Acid Reduction in the American Diet: American Heart Association Trans Fat Conference 2006: Report of the Trans Fat Conference Planning Group. Circulation 115, 2231–2246.
109W Marcanson (2006) How Many Grams of Trans-Fat Are Recommended per Day? J Am Diet Assoc 106, 1507.
110ML Fernandez & M Calle (2010) Revisiting Dietary Cholesterol Recommendations: Does the Evidence Support a Limit of 300 mg/d? Curr Atheroscler Rep 12, 377–383.