1Vellas, BJ, Hunt, WC, Romero, LJ, et al. (1997) Changes in nutritional status and patterns of morbidity among free-living elderly persons: a 10-year longitudinal study. Nutrition 13, 515–519.
2Campbell, WW, Johnson, CA, McCabe, GP, et al. (2008) Dietary protein requirements of younger and older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 1322–1329.
3Castaneda, C, Charnley, JM, Evans, WJ, et al. (1995) Elderly women accommodate to a low-protein diet with losses of body cell mass, muscle function, and immune response. Am J Clin Nutr 62, 30–39.
4Volpi, E, Sheffield-Moore, M, Rasmussen, BB, et al. (2001) Basal muscle amino acid kinetics and protein synthesis in healthy young and older men. JAMA 286, 1206–1212.
5Paddon-Jones, D & Rasmussen, BB (2009) Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12, 86–90.
6Campbell, WW, Barton, ML Jr, Cyr-Campbell, D, et al. (1999) Effects of an omnivorous diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian diet on resistance-training-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle in older men. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 1032–1039.
7Lord, C, Chaput, J-P, Aubertin-Leheudre, M, et al. (2007) Dietary animal protein intake: association with muscle mass index in older women. J Nutr Health Aging 11, 383–387.
8Louis, M, Poortmans, JR, Francaux, M, et al. (2003) No effect of creatine supplementation on human myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis after resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285, E1089–E1094.
9Roubenoff, R (2001) Origins and clinical relevance of sarcopenia. Can J Appl Physiol 26, 78–89.
10Baumgartner, RN, Waters, DL, Gallagher, D, et al. (1999) Predictors of skeletal muscle mass in elderly men and women. Mech Ageing Dev 107, 123–136.
11Evans, WJ (2004) Protein nutrition, exercise and aging. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 601S–609S.
12Campbell, WW, Crim, MC, Young, VR, et al. (1995) Effects of resistance training and dietary protein intake on protein metabolism in older adults. Am J Physiol 268, E1143–E1153.
14Goldin, BR, Adlercreutz, H, Gorbach, SL, et al. (1982) Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women. N Engl J Med 307, 1542–1547.
15Hämäläinen, E, Korpela, JT & Adlercreutz, H (1987) Effect of oxytetracycline administration on intestinal metabolism of oestrogens and on plasma sex hormones in healthy men. Gut 28, 439–445.
16Kuoppasalmi, K, Naveri, H, Rehunen, S, et al. (1976) Effect of strenuous anaerobic running exercise on plasma growth hormone, cortisol, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, androstenedione, estrone and estradiol. J Steroid Biochem 7, 823–829.
17Kuoppasalmi, K (1980) Plasma testosterone and sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity in physical exercise. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 40, 411–418.
18Wang, GJ, Lapcik, O, Hampl, R, et al. (2000) Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of plasma daidzein and genistein. Steroids 65, 339–348.
19Fotsis, T & Adlercreutz, H (1987) The multicomponent analysis of estrogens in urine by ion exchange chromatography and GC-MS – I. Quantitation of estrogens after initial hydrolysis of conjugates. J Steroid Biochem 28, 203–213.
20Adlercreutz, H, Kiuru, P, Rasku, S, et al. (2004) An isotope dilution gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous assay of estrogens and phytoestrogens in urine. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 92, 399–411.
21Wang, ZM, Sun, YG & Heymsfield, SB (1996) Urinary creatinine-skeletal muscle mass method: a prediction equation based on computerized axial tomography. Biomed Environ Sci 9, 185–190.
22Wang, ZM, Gallagher, D, Nelson, ME, et al. (1996) Total-body skeletal muscle mass: evaluation of 24-h urinary creatinine excretion by computerized axial tomography. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 863–869.
23Myers, VC & Fine, MJ (1913) The creatine content of muscle under normal conditions: its relation to the urinary creatinine. J Biol Chem 14, 9–26.
24Chinn, KS (1967) Prediction of muscle and remaining tissue protein in man. J Appl Physiol 23, 713–715.
25Heymsfield, SB, Arteaga, C, McManus, C, et al. (1983) Measurement of muscle mass in humans: validity of the 24-hour urinary creatinine method. Am J Clin Nutr 37, 478–494.
26Welle, S, Thornton, C, Totterman, S, et al. (1996) Utility of creatinine excretion in body-composition studies of healthy men and women older than 60 y. Am J Clin Nutr 63, 151–156.
27Luhrmann, PM, Herbert, BM, Gaster, C, et al. (1999) Validation of a self-administered 3-day estimated dietary record for use in the elderly. Eur J Nutr 38, 235–240.
28Volpi, E, Nazemi, R & Fujita, S (2004) Muscle tissue changes with aging. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 7, 405–410.
29Deschenes, MR (2004) Effects of aging on muscle fibre type and size. Sports Med 34, 809–824.
30Janssen, I, Heymsfield, SB & Ross, R (2002) Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc 50, 889–896.
31Marcell, TJ (2003) Sarcopenia: causes, consequences, and preventions. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 58, M911–M916.
32Tipton, KD & Wolfe, RR (2001) Exercise, protein metabolism, and muscle growth. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 11, 109–132.
33Proctor, DN, Balagopal, P & Nair, KS (1998) Age-related sarcopenia in humans is associated with reduced synthetic rates of specific muscle proteins. J Nutr 128, 351S–355S.
34Wilkinson, SB, Tarnopolsky, MA, Macdonald, MJ, et al. (2007) Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1031–1040.
35Hartman, JW, Tang, JE, Wilkinson, SB, et al. (2007) Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 373–381.
36Katsanos, CS, Kobayashi, H, Sheffield-Moore, M, et al. (2006) A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E381–E387.
37Volpi, E, Kobayashi, H, Sheffield-Moore, M, et al. (2003) Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 250–258.
38Garlick, PJ (2005) The role of leucine in the regulation of protein metabolism. J Nutr 135, 1553S–1556S.
39Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M, Babinska, K & Valachovicova, M (2005) Health benefits and risks of plant proteins. Bratisl Lek Listy 106, 231–234.
40American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada (2003) Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets. Can J Diet Pract Res 64, 62–81.
41Gersovitz, M, Motil, K, Munro, HN, et al. (1982) Human protein requirements: assessment of the adequacy of the current recommended dietary allowance for dietary protein in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 35, 6–14.
42Young, VR (1994) Adult amino acid requirements: the case for a major revision in current recommendations. J Nutr 124, 1517S–1523S.
43Adlercreutz, H, Honjo, H, Higashi, A, et al. (1991) Urinary excretion of lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens in Japanese men and women consuming a traditional Japanese diet. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 1093–1100.
44Messina, M, Nagata, C & Wu, AH (2006) Estimated Asian adult soy protein and isoflavone intakes. Nutr Cancer 55, 1–12.
45Fujita, S & Volpi, E (2006) Amino acids and muscle loss with aging. J Nutr 136, 277S–280S.
46Messina, M & Messina, V (1996) Nutritional implications of dietary phytochemicals. Adv Exp Med Biol 401, 207–212.
47Wolfe, RR & Miller, SL (2008) The recommended dietary allowance of protein: a misunderstood concept. JAMA 299, 2891–2893.
48Young, VR, Fajardo, L, Murray, E, et al. (1975) Protein requirements of man: comparative nitrogen balance response within the submaintenance-to-maintenance range of intakes of wheat and beef proteins. J Nutr 105, 534–542.
49Sarwar, G (1997) The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method overestimates quality of proteins containing antinutritional factors and of poorly digestible proteins supplemented with limiting amino acids in rats. J Nutr 127, 758–764.
50Wisker, E, Bach Knudsen, KE, Daniel, M, et al. (1996) Digestibilities of energy, protein, fat and nonstarch polysaccharides in a low fiber diet and diets containing coarse or fine whole meal rye are comparable in rats and humans. J Nutr 126, 481–488.
51Sarwar, G (1987) Digestibility of protein and bioavailability of amino acids in foods. Effects on protein quality assessment. World Rev Nutr Diet 54, 26–70.
52Proctor, DN, O'Brien, PC, Atkinson, EJ, et al. (1999) Comparison of techniques to estimate total body skeletal muscle mass in people of different age groups. Am J Physiol 277, E489–E495.
53Evans, W (1997) Functional and metabolic consequences of sarcopenia. J Nutr 127, 998S–1003S.