1 World Health Organisation (2003) Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
2 Bogers, RP, Bemelmans, WJ, Hoogenveen, RT, et al. (2007) Association of overweight with increased risk of coronary heart disease partly independent of blood pressure and cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies including more than 300 000 persons. Arch Intern Med 167, 1720–1728.
3 Hussain, A, Claussen, B, Ramachandran, A, et al. (2007) Prevention of type 2 diabetes: a review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 7, 317–326.
4 Must, A, Spadano, J, Coakley, E, et al. (1998) The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 282, 1523–1529.
5 Dai, Z, Xu, YC & Niu, L (2007) Obesity and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. World J Gastroenterol 13, 4199–4206.
6 Qian, Y & Fan, JG (2005) Obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 4, 173–177.
7 Walker, SP, Rimm, EB, Ascherio, A, et al. (1996) Body size and fat distribution as predictors of stroke among US men. Am J Epidemiol 144, 1143–1150.
8 Lakka, HM, Lakka, TA, Tuomilehto, J, et al. (2002) Abdominal obesity is associated with increased risk of acute coronary events in men. Eur Heart J 23, 706–713.
9 Molarius, A, Seidell, JC, Sans, S, et al. (2000) Educational level, relative body weight, and changes in their association over 10 years: an international perspective from the WHO MONICA Project. Am J Public Health 90, 1260–1268.
10 Rosmond, R & Bjorntorp, P (1999) Psychosocial and socio-economic factors in women and their relationship to obesity and regional body fat distribution. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 138–145.
11 Ball, K & Crawford, D (2005) Socioeconomic status and weight change in adults: a review. Soc Sci Med 60, 1987–2010.
12 Sobal, J & Stunkard, AJ (1989) Socioeconomic status and obesity: a review of the literature. Psychol Bull 105, 260–275.
13 Galobardes, B, Lynch, J & Smith, GD (2007) Measuring socioeconomic position in health research. Br Med Bull 81-82, 21–37.
14 Karasek, R, Brisson, C, Kawakami, N, et al. (1998) The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ): an instrument for internationally comparative assessments of psychosocial job characteristics. J Occup Health Psychol 3, 322–355.
15 Siegrist, J & Marmot, M (2004) Health inequalities and the psychosocial environment – two scientific challenges. Soc Sci Med 58, 1463–1473.
16 Lallukka, T, Lahelma, E, Rahkonen, O, et al. (2008) Associations of job strain and working overtime with adverse health behaviors and obesity: evidence from the Whitehall II Study, Helsinki Health Study, and the Japanese Civil Servants Study. Soc Sci Med 66, 1681–1698.
17 Brunner, EJ, Chandola, T & Marmot, MG (2007) Prospective effect of job strain on general and central obesity in the Whitehall II Study. Am J Epidemiol 165, 828–837.
18 Wamala, SP, Wolk, A & Orth-Gomer, K (1997) Determinants of obesity in relation to socioeconomic status among middle-aged Swedish women. Prev Med 26, 734–744.
19 Hellerstedt, WL & Jeffery, RW (1997) The association of job strain and health behaviours in men and women. Int J Epidemiol 26, 575–583.
20 Kunz-Ebrecht, SR, Kirschbaum, C & Steptoe, A (2004) Work stress, socioeconomic status and neuroendocrine activation over the working day. Soc Sci Med 58, 1523–1530.
21 Rosmond, R & Bjorntorp, P (2000) Occupational status, cortisol secretory pattern, and visceral obesity in middle-aged men. Obes Res 8, 445–450.
22 Reed, DM, LaCroix, AZ, Karasek, RA, et al. (1989) Occupational strain and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol 129, 495–502.
23 Brisson, C, Larocque, B, Moisan, J, et al. (2000) Psychosocial factors at work, smoking, sedentary behavior, and body mass index: a prevalence study among 6995 white collar workers. J Occup Environ Med 42, 40–46.
24 Hu, FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 3–9.
25 Engeset, D, Alsaker, E, Ciampi, A, et al. (2005) Dietary patterns and lifestyle factors in the Norwegian EPIC cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 675–684.
26 Arkkola, T, Uusitalo, U, Kronberg-Kippila, C, et al. (2008) Seven distinct dietary patterns identified among pregnant Finnish women – associations with nutrient intake and sociodemographic factors. Public Health Nutr 11, 176–182.
27 Kesse-Guyot, E, Bertrais, S, Peneau, S, et al. (2009) Dietary patterns and their sociodemographic and behavioural correlates in French middle-aged adults from the SU.VI.MAX cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 521–528.
28 Tseng, M & DeVellis, RF (2001) Fundamental dietary patterns and their correlates among US whites. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 929–932.
29 Martikainen, PT & Marmot, MG (1999) Socioeconomic differences in weight gain and determinants and consequences of coronary risk factors. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 719–726.
30 Purslow, LR, Young, EH, Wareham, NJ, et al. (2008) Socioeconomic position and risk of short-term weight gain: prospective study of 14,619 middle-aged men and women. BMC Public Health 8, 112.
31 Ball, K, Mishra, GD & Crawford, D (2003) Social factors and obesity: an investigation of the role of health behaviours. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 394–403.
32 Mackenbach, J (2006) Socio-economic inequalities in health in Western Europe. From description to explanation to intervention. In Social Inequalities in Health: New Evidence and Policy Implications, pp. 223–250 [Marmot, MG and Siegrist, J, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
33 Deurenberg-Yap, M, Schmidt, G, van Staveren, WA, et al. (2000) The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 1011–1017.
34 Mosdøl, A (2004) .
35 Erikson, R (1992) The Constant Flux: A Study of Class Mobility in Industrial Societies. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
36 Sogaard, AJ, Selmer, R, Bjertness, E, et al. (2004) The Oslo Health Study: the impact of self-selection in a large, population-based survey. Int J Equity Health 3, 3.
37 The Norwegian Departments (2007) Oppskrift for et sunnere kosthold: handlingsplan for bedre kosthold i befolkningen (2007–2011) (Recipe for a More Healthy Diet. Action Plan for a More Healthy Diet in the Population (2007–2011)). Oslo: The Norwegian Departments.
38 Roskam, AJ & Kunst, AE (2008) The predictive value of different socio-economic indicators for overweight in nine European countries. Public Health Nutr 29, 1–11.
39 Dahl, E, Fritzell, J, Lahelma, E, et al. (2006) Welfare state regimes and health inequalities. In Social Inequalities in Health: New Evidence and Policy Implications, pp. 193–222 [Marmot, MG and Siegrist, J, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
40 Martin, AR, Nieto, JM, Ruiz, JP, et al. (2008) Overweight and obesity: the role of education, employment and income in Spanish adults. Appetite 51, 266–272.
41 Overgaard, D, Gyntelberg, F & Heitmann, BL (2004) Psychological workload and body weight: is there an association? A review of the literature. Occup Med (Lond) 54, 35–41.
42 Wandel, M & Roos, G (2005) Work, food and physical activity. A qualitative study of coping strategies among men in three occupations. Appetite 44, 93–102.
43 Robinson, SM, Crozier, SR, Borland, SE, et al. (2004) Impact of educational attainment on the quality of young women's diets. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 1174–1180.
44 Watt, HC, Carson, C, Lawlor, DA, et al. (2009) Influence of life course socioeconomic position on older women's health behaviors: findings from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Am J Public Health 99, 320–327.
45 Wandel, M, Fagerli, R & Kjaernes, U (2001) Changes in potato consumption in different stages of life in Norway. Appetite 36, 211–223.
46 Newby, PK & Tucker, KL (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev 62, 177–203.
47 Shi, Z, Hu, X, Yuan, B, et al. (2008) Vegetable-rich food pattern is related to obesity in China. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 975–984.
48 Schulze, MB, Hoffmann, K, Kroke, A, et al. (2001) Dietary patterns and their association with food and nutrient intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) – Potsdam study. Br J Nutr 85, 363–373.
49 Newby, PK, Muller, D, Hallfrisch, J, et al. (2004) Food patterns measured by factor analysis and anthropometric changes in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 504–513.
50 Slattery, ML, Boucher, KM & Caan, BJ (1998) Eating patterns and risk of colon cancer. Am J Epidemiol 148, 4–16.
51 Murtaugh, MA, Herrick, JS, Sweeney, C, et al. (2007) Diet composition and risk of overweight and obesity in women living in the southwestern United States. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 1311–1321.
52 Newby, PK, Muller, D, Hallfrisch, J, et al. (2003) Dietary patterns and changes in body mass index and waist circumference in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 1417–1425.
53 Quatromoni, PA, Copenhafer, DL, D'Agostino, RB, et al. (2002) Dietary patterns predict the development of overweight in women: The Framingham Nutrition Studies. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 1239–1246.
54 Maskarinec, G, Novotny, R & Tasaki, K (2000) Dietary patterns are associated with body mass index in multiethnic women. J Nutr 130, 3068–3072.
55 Hu, FB, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, et al. (2000) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 912–921.
56 Newby, PK, Weismayer, C, Akesson, A, et al. (2006) Longitudinal changes in food patterns predict changes in weight and body mass index and the effects are greatest in obese women. J Nutr 136, 2580–2587.
57 Togo, P, Osler, M, Sorensen, TI, et al. (2001) Food intake patterns and body mass index in observational studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 1741–1751.
58 Welborn, TA, Dhaliwal, SS & Bennett, SA (2003) Waist–hip ratio is the dominant risk factor predicting cardiovascular death in Australia. Med J Aust 179, 580–585.
59 Hu, D, Xie, J, Fu, P, et al. (2007) Central rather than overall obesity is related to diabetes in the Chinese population: the InterASIA study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 2809–2816.