Abell PI (1982) Paleoclimates at Lake Turkana, Kenya, from oxygen isotope ratios of gastropod shells. Nature 297, 321–323.
Adam O, Taxacher G, Lemmen C, Wiseman M & Schattenkirchner M (1993) Lowering of eicosanoid formation, amelioration of clinical symptoms and laboratory findings in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on a vegetarian diet. In Omega 3 Fatty Acids: Metabolism and Biological Effects, pp. 285–291 [Drevon CA,, Baksaas I and Krokan HE, editors]. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag.
Adams PB, Lawson S, Sanigorski A & Sinclair AJ (1996) Arachidonic acid to eicosapentanoic acid ratio in blood correlates positively with clinical symptoms of depression. Lipids 31, S157–S161.
Agostoni C, Trojan S, Bellu R, Riva E & Giovannini M (1995) Neurodevelopmental quotient of healthy term infants at 4 months and feeding practice: the role of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Pediatric Research 38, 262–266.
Andrews PJ (1989) Paleoecology of Laetoli. Journal of Human Evolution 18, 173–181.
Arbuckle LD, Rioux FM, MacKinnon MJ, Hrboticky N & Innis SM (1991) Response of (n−3) and (n−6) fatty acids in piglet brain, liver, and plasma to increasing, but low, fish oil supp lementation of formula. Journal of Nutrition 121, 1536–1547.
Armstrong E (1983) Relative brain size and metabolism in mammals. Science 220, 1302–1304.
Bailey DK & Macdonald R (1987) Dry peralkaline felsic liquids and carbon dioxide flux through the Kenya rift zone. In Magmatic Processes: Physiochemical Principles, pp. 91–119 [Mysen BO, editor]. University Park, PA: The Geochemical Society.
Baker BH, Mohr PA & Williams LAJ (1972) Geology of the Eastern Rift System of Africa. Geological Society of America Special Paper no. 136.
Behrensmeyer AK (1975) Taphonomy and paleoecology in the hominid fossil record. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 19, 36–50.
Behrensmeyer AK, Potts R, Plummer T, Tauxe L, Opdyke N & Jorstad T (1995) The Pleistocene locality of Kanjera, Western Kenya: stratigraphy, chronology, and paleoenvironments. Journal of Human Evolution 29, 247–274.
Bestland EA, Thackray GD & Retallack GJ (1995) Cycles of doming and eruption in the Miocene Kisingiri Volcano, southwest Kenya. Journal of Geology 103, 598–607.
Blumenschine RJ (1987) Characteristics of an early hominid scavenging niche. Current Anthropology 28, 383–406.
Blumenschine RJ (1991) Hominid carnivory and foraging strategies, and the socio-economic function of early archaeological sites. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 334, 211–221.
Blumenschine RJ & Cavallo JA (1992) Scavenging and human evolution. Scientific American 267, 90–96.
Boaz NT, Bernor RL, Brooks AS et al. (1992) A new evaluation of the significance of the Late Neogene beds, Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Journal of Human Evolution 22, 505–517.
Boaz NT, Pavlakis PP, McDonnell M & Gatesy J (1994) Environments in the Late Pliocene of eastern Zaire: the Senga 13B excavation. Research and Exploration 10, 124–127.
Bohannon RG, Naeser CW, Schmidt DL & Zimmerman RA (1989) The timing of uplift, volcanism, and rifting peripheral to the Red Sea: a case for passing rifting? Journal of Geophysical Research B 94, 1683–1701.
Bonnefille R (1983) Evidence for a cooler and drier climate in the Ethiopian uplands towards 2.5 Myr ago. Nature 303, 487–492.
Bonnefille R, Vincens A & Buchet G (1987) Palynology, stratigraphy, and paleoenvironment of a Pliocene hominid site (2.9–3.3) m.y. at Hadar, Ethiopia. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, and Paleoecology 60, 249–281.
Broadhurst CL (1997) Balanced intakes of natural triglycerides for optimum nutrition: an evolutionary and phytochemical perspective. Medical Hypotheses 49, 247–261.
Brunet M, Beauvilain A, Coppens Y, Heintz E, Moutaye AHE & Pilbeam D (1995) The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometers west of the Rift Valley (Chad). Nature 378, 273–275.
Buchanan WF (1988) Shellfish in Prehistoric Diets. Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology no. 31, BAR International Series no. 455. Oxford: BAR.
Bunn HT & Ezzo JA (1993) Hunting and scavenging by Plio-Pleistocene hominids: nutritional constraints, archeological patterns, and behavioral implications. Journal of Archeological Science 20, 365–398.
Carlson SE, Cooke RJ, Werkman SH & Tolley EA (1992) First year growth of preterm infants fed standard compared to marine-oil n−3 supplemented formula. Lipids 27, 901–907.
Carlson SE, Werkman SH, Peeples JM, Cooke RJ & Tolley EA (1993 a) Arachidonic acid status correlates with first year growth in preterm infants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 90, 1073–1077.
Carlson SE, Werkman SH, Rhodes PG & Tolley EA (1993 b) Visual-acuity development in healthy preterm infants: effect of marine oil supplementation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 35–42.
Carnielli VP, Wattimena DJL, Luijendijk IHT, Boerlage A, Degenhart HJ & Sauer PJJ (1996) The very low birth weight premature infant is capable of synthesizing arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids from linoleic and linolenic acids. Pediatric Research 40, 169–171.
Caughey GE, Mantzioris E, Gibson RA, Cleland LG & James MJ (1996) The effect on human tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β production of diets enriched in n−3 fatty acids from vegetable oil or fish oil. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 116–122.
Cerling TE (1992) Development of grasslands and savannas in East Africa during the Neogene. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, and Paleoecology 97, 241–247.
Clandinin MT, Garg ML, Parrott A, Van Aerde J, Hervada A & Lien E (1992) Addition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to formula for very low birth weight infants. Lipids 27, 896–900.
Clark JD (1985) Leaving no stone unturned: archaeological advances and behavioral adaptation. In Hominids Evolution: Past, Present, and Future, pp. 65–88 [Tobias P, editor]. New York: Alan Liss.
Clark JD (1992) African and Asian perspectives on the origins of modern humans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 337, 201–215.
Conroy GC (1990) Primate Evolution. New York: W.W. Norton.
Conroy GC & Kuykendall K (1995) Paleopediatrics: or when did human infants really become human? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 98, 121–131.
Coppens Y (1994) East side story: the origin of human kind. Scientific American 271, 88–95.
Crawford MA (1993) The role of essential fatty acids in neural development: implications for perinatal nutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, 703S–710S.
Crawford MA, Casperd NM & Sinclair AJ (1976) The long chain metabolites of linoleic and linolenic acids in liver and brains of herbivores and carnivores. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 54B, 395–401.
Crawford MA, Costeloe K, Doyle W, Leaf A, Leighfield MJ, Meadows N & Phylactos A (1992) Essential fatty acids in early development. In Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition, pp. 93–110 [Bracco U and Deckelman RJ, editors]. New York: Raven Press.
Crawford MA, Gale MM & Woodford MH (1969) Linoleic acid and linolenic acid elongation products in muscle tissue of Syncerus caffer and other ruminant species. Biochemical Journal 115, 25–27.
Crawford MA & Marsh D (1995) Nutrition and Evolution. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing.
Crawford MA, Patterson J & Yardley L (1968) Nitrogen utilisation by the Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and other large mammals. Zoological Society of London Symposium no. 21. pp.367–379.
Crawford MA & Sinclair AJ (1972) Nutritional influences in the evolution of the mammalian brain. In Lipids, Malnutrition and the Developing Brain. Ciba Foundation Symposium pp. 267–292 [Elliot K and Knight J, editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Crawford MA, Williams G & Hassam AG (1986) Do developmental periods of high demand outstrip the rate of desaturation? A reduction in milk arachidonic acid with successive, short birth intervals. Progress in Lipid Research 25, 413–415.
Cunnane SC (1992) What is the nutritional and clinical significance of α-linolenic acid in humans? In Essential Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids: Invited Papers from the Third International Conference, pp. 379–382, [Sinclair A and Gibson R, editors]. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press.
Cunnane SC (1995) Metabolism and function of α-linolenic acid in humans. In Flaxseed in Human Nutrition, pp. 99–127 [Cunnane SC and Thompson LU, editors]. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press.
Cunnane SC & Anderson MJ (1997) The majority of dietary linoleate in growing rats is β-oxidized or stored in visceral fat. Journal of Nutrition 127, 146–152.
Cunnane SC, Harbige LS & Crawford MA (1993) The importance of energy and nutrient supply in human brain evolution. Nutrition and Health 9, 219–235.
Dawson JB (1992) Neogene tectonics and volcanicity in the north Tanzania sector of the Gregory rift valley: contrasts with the Kenya sector. Tectonophysics 204, 81–92.
Dawson JB, Pyle DM & Pinkerton H (1996) Evolution of a natrocarbonatite from a wollastonite nephelinite parent: evidence from the June 1993 eruption of Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Journal of Geology 104, 41–54.
Deacon HJ (1992) Southern Africa and modern human origins. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 337, 177–183.
Dowsett H, Thompson R, Barron J, Cronin T, Fleming F, Ishman S, Poore R, Willard D & Holtz T Jr (1994) Joint investigations of the Middle Pliocene climate I: PRISM paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Global and Planetary Change 9, 169–195.
Emken RA, Adlof RO, Rohwedder WK & Gulley RM (1992) Comparison of linolenic and linoleic acid metabolism in man: influence of dietary linoleic acid. In Essential Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids: Invited Papers from the Third International Conference, pp. 23–25 [Sinclair A and Gibson R, editors]. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press.
Farquharson J, Cockburn F, Patrick WA, Jamieson EC & Logan RW (1992) Infant cerebral cortex phospholipid fatty-acid composition and diet. Lancet 340, 810–813.
Foley RA (1994) Speciation, extinction, and climatic change in hominid evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 26, 275–289.
Foley RA & Lee PC (1991) Ecology and energetics of encephalization in hominid evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 334, 223–232.
Gerster H (1995) The use of n−3 PUFA's (fish oil) in enteral nutrition. International Journal of Vitamin and Mineral Research 65, 3–20.
Gibson RA, Makrides M, Neumann M, Hawkes J, Pramuk K, Lien E & Euler A (1997) A dose response study of arachidonic acid in formulas containing docosahexaenoic acid in term infants. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 57, 198 Abstr.
Hansen J, Schade D, Harris C, Merkel K, Adamkin D, Hall R & Lim M (1997) Docosahexanoic acid plus arachidonic acid enhance preterm infant growth. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 57, 196 Abstr.
Harris J (1993) Ecosystem structure and growth of the African savanna. Global and Planetary Change 8, 231–248.
Harrison T (1993) Cladistic concepts and the species problem in hominoid evolution. In Species, Species Concepts and Primate Evolution, pp. 345–371 [Kimbel WH and Martin LB, editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
Harrison T (1994) Paleoanthropological exploration in the Manoga Valley, Tanzania. Research and Exploration 10, 238–240.
Harvey PH & Clutton-Brock TH (1985) Life history variation in primates. Evolution 39, 557–581.
Hibbeln JR & Salem N (1995) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: when cholesterol does not satisfy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 1–9.
Holman RT, Johnson SB & Ogburn PL (1991) Deficiency of essential fatty acids and membrane fluidity during pregnancy and lactation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88, 4835–4839.
Horrobin DF (1995) Abnormal membrane concentrations of 20 and 22-carbon essential fatty acids: a common link between risk factors and coronary and peripheral vascular disease? Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 53, 385–396.
Huang M-C & Craig-Schmidt MC (1996) Arachidonate and docosahexaenoate added to infant formula influence fatty acid composition and subsequent eicosanoid production in neonatal pigs. Journal of Nutrition 126, 2199–2208.
Innis SM (1991) Essential fatty acids and growth and development. Progress in Lipid Research 30, 39–103.
Innis SM, Lupton B & Nelson CM (1994) Biochemical and functional approaches to study of fatty acids requirements for very premature infants. Nutrition 10, 72–76.
Innis SM, Rioux FM, Auestad N & Ackman R (1995) Marine and freshwater fish oil varying in arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids differ in their effects on organ lipids and fatty acids in growing rats. Journal of Nutrition 125, 2286–2293.
Jacobs B & Kabuye C (1987) A middle Miocene (12.2 my old) forest in the East African Rift Valley, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 16, 147–155.
Johansen DC & Edgar B (1996) From Lucy to Language. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Johnson TC, Scholz CA, Talbot MR, Kelts K, Ricketts RD, Ngobi G, Beuning K, Ssemmanda I & McGill JW (1996) Late Pleistocene dessication of Lake Victoria and rapid evolution of cichlid fishes. Science 273, 1091–1093.
Kappelman J, Swisher CC II, Bown TM & Feseha M (1996) Age of Australopithecus afarensis from Fejej, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Evolution 30, 139–146.
Kimbel WH & Rak Y (1993) The importance of species taxa in paleoanthropology and an argument for the phylogenetic concept of the species category. In Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution, pp. 461–484 [Kimbel WH and Martin LB, editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
Kimbel WK, White TD & Johanson DC (1984) Cranial morphology of Australopithecus afarensis: a comparative study based on composite reconstruction of the adult skull. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 64, 337–388.
Klein RG & Cruz-Oribe K (1996) Exploitation of large bovids and seals at Middle and Later Stone Age sites in South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 31, 315–334.
Lahr MM (1994) The multiregional model of modern human origins; a reassessment of its morphological basis. Journal of Human Evolution 26, 23–56.
Lands WEM, Morris A & Libelt B (1991) The function of essential fatty acids. In Health Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids, pp. 21–41 [Nelson GJ, editor]. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press.
Leakey MG (1971) Olduvai Gorge, Vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leakey MG (1979) Olduvai Gorge. London: Collins.
Leakey MG, Feibel CS & McDougall I (1995) New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya. Nature 376, 565–571.
Leakey MG & Harris JM (1987) Laetoli: A Pliocene Site in Northern Tanzania. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Leeder MR (1995) Continental rifts and proto-oceanic rift troughs. In Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins, pp. 119–148 [Busby CJ and Ingersoll RV, editors]. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science Publishing.
Lee-Thorpe JA, van der Merwe NJ & Brain CK (1994) Diet of Australopithecus robustus at Swartkrans from stable carbon isotope analysis. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 361–372.
Loiselle PV (1988) African Cichlids. Morris Plains, NJ: Tetra Press.
Lovejoy CO (1981) The origin of man. Science 211, 341–350.
McHenry HM (1994) Behavioral ecological implications of early hominid body size. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 77–87.
Makrides M (1997) Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy? Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 57, 184 Abstr.
Makrides M, Neumann M, Simmer K, Pater J & Gibson R (1995) Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essential nutrients in infancy? Lancet 345, 1463–1468.
Mann NJ, Johnson LG, Warrick GE & Sinclair AJ (1995) The arachidonic acid content of the Australian diet is lower than previously estimated. Journal of Nutrition 125, 2528–2535.
Mann NJ, Warrick GJ, O'Dea K, Knapp H & Sinclair AJ (1994) The effect of linoleic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation on prostacyclin production in rats. Lipids 3, 157–162.
Martin RD (1983) Human Brain Evolution in an Ecological Context. Fifty-second James Arthur Lecture on the Evolution of the Human Brain. New York: American Museum of Natural History.
Mercier N, Valladas H, Joron J-L, Reyss J-L, Leveque F & Vandermeersch B (1991) Thermoluminescence dating of the late Neanderthal remains from Saint-Cesaire. Nature 351, 737–739.
Milo RG (1997) Report from the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Paleoanthropology Society, St. Louis, MO. Science News 151, 222.
Monahan CM (1996) New zooarchaeological data from Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: implications for hominid behavior in the Early Pleistocene. Journal of Human Evolution 31, 93–128.
Nettleton JA (1995) Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health. New York: Chapman and Hall.
O'Dea K (1991) Traditional diet and food preferences of Australian Aboriginal hunter-gatherers. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 334, 233–241.
O'Dea K & Sinclair AJ (1982) Increased proportion of arachidonic acid in plasma lipids after 2 weeks on a diet of tropical seafood. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36, 868–872.
Pauletto P, Puato M, Angeli MT, Pessina AC, Munhambo A, Bittolo-Bon G & Galli C (1996 a) Blood pressure, serum lipids, and fatty acids in populations on a lake-fish diet or on a vegetarian diet in Tanzania. Lipids 31, S309–S312.
Pauletto P, Puato M, Caroli MG, Casiglia E, Munhambo AE, Cazzolato G, Bittolo Bon G, Angeli MT, Galli C & Pessina AC (1996 b) Blood pressure and atherogenic lipoprotein profiles of fish-diet and vegetarian villagers in Tanzania: the Lugalawa study. Lancet 348, 784–788.
Plummer TW & Bishop LC (1994) Hominid paleoecology at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania as indicated by antelope remains. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 47–75.
Potts RM & Deino A (1995) Mid-Pleistocene change in large mammal faunas of East Africa. Quaternary Research 43, 106–113.
Rak Y (1983) The Australopithecine Face. New York: Academic Press.
Rak Y (1991) Lucy's pelvic anatomy and its role in bipedal gait. Journal of Human Evolution 20, 283–290.
Ramirez-Rozzi FU (1993) Tooth development in East African Paranthropus. Journal of Human Evolution 24, 429–454.
Riehl R & Baensch HA (1986) Aquarium Atlas. Melle, Germany: Baensch.
Rosenberg KR (1992) The evolution of modern human childbirth. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 35, 89–124.
Ruff CB (1991) Climate and body shape in hominid evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 21, 81–105.
Ruff CB (1994) Morphological adaptations to climate in modern and fossil hominids. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 37, 65–107.
Ruff CB (1995) Mechanics of the hip and birth in early Homo. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 98, 527–574.
Scholz CA, Rosendahl BR & Scott DL (1990) Development of coarse grained facies in lacustrine rift basins: examples from East Africa. Geology 18, 140–144.
Scholz CA & Rosendahl BR (1988) Low lake stands in Lake Malawi and Tanganyika, East Africa, delineated with multifold sesmic data. Science 240, 1645–1648.
Schrag DP, Hampt G & Murray DW (1996) Pore fluid constraints on the temperature and oxygen isotope composition of the glacial ocean. Science 272, 1930–1932.
Schwarz HP & Grun R (1992) Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of the origin of modern man. In The Origin of Modern Humans and the Impact of Chronometric Dating, pp. 40–48 [Aitken MJ,, Stringer CB and Mellars PA, editors]. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Schwarz HP, Grun R & Tobias PV (1994) ESR dating studies of the australopithecine site of Sterkfontein, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 26, 175–181.
Schwarz HP & Schoeninger HJ (1991) Stable isotope analyses in human nutritional ecology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 34, 283–321.
Selvaggio MM (1994) Carnivore tooth marks and stone tool butchering marks on scavenged bones: archaeological implications. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 215–228.
Shackelton N, Backman J, Zimmerman H, Kent D, Hall M, Roberts D, Schnitkes D, Baldauf J, Desprairies A, Homrighausen R, Huddlestun P, Keene J, Kaltenback A, Krumsiek K, Morton A, Murray J & Westberg-Smith J (1984) Oxygen isotope calibration of the onset of ice-rafting and history of glaciation in the North Atlantic region. Nature 307, 620–623.
Shreeve J (1995) The Neanderthal Enigma: Solving the Mystery of Modern Human Origins. New York: William Morrow.
Sikes NE (1994) Early hominids habitat preferences in East Africa: paleosol carbon isotopic evidence. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 25–45.
Sillen A, Hall G & Armstrong R (1995) Strontium-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) and strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of Australopithecus robustus and Homo sp. from Swartkrans. Journal of Human Evolution 28, 277–285.
Simopoulos AP (1996) Omega-3 fatty acids part II: epidemiological aspects of omega-3 fatty acids in disease states. In Handbook of Lipids in Human Nutrition, pp. 75–89 [Spiller GA, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Sinclair A (1993) Was the hunter gather diet prothrombotic? In Essential Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids: Invited Papers from the Third International Conference, pp. 318–324 [Sinclair A and Gibson R, editors]. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press.
Skelton RK & McHenry HM (1992) Evolutionary relationships among early hominids. Journal of Human Evolution 20, 493–503.
Skinner M (1991) Bee brood consumption: an alternative explanation for hypervitaminosis A in KNM-ER 1808 (Homo erectus) from Koobi Fora, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution 20, 493–503.
Smith RJ, Gannon PJ & Smith BH (1995) Ontogeny of austra lopithecus and early homo: evidence from cranial capacity and dental eruption. Journal of Human Evolution 29, 155–168.
Speth JD (1989) Early hominid hunting and scavenging: the role of meat as an energy source. Journal of Human Evolution 18, 329–349.
Sprecher H (1991) Metabolism of dietary fatty acids. In Health Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids, pp. 12–20 [Nelson GJ, editor]. Champaign IL: AOCS Press.
Stager JC, Cumming B & Meeker L (1997) A high-resolution 11,400-Yr diatom record from Lake Victoria, East Africa. Quaternary Research 47, 81–89.
Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, Abate ML, Watkins BA, Lipp SR & Burgess JR (1995) Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 761–768.
Stewart KM (1989) Fishing sites in of North and East Africa in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology no. 34, BAR International Series no. 521. Oxford: BAR.
Stewart KM (1994) Early hominid utilisation of fish resources and implications for seasonality and behavior. Journal of Human Evolution 27, 229–245.
Stringer CB (1992) Reconstructing recent human evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London B 337, 217–241.
Suwa G, Wood B & White TD (1994) Further analysis of mandibular molar crown and cusp areas in Pliocene and Early Pleistocene hominids. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 93, 407–426.
Swisher CC III, Rink WJ, Anton SC, Schwarcz HP, Curtis GH, Suprijo A & Widiasmoro (1996) Latest Homo erectus of Java: potential contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in Southeast Asia. Science 274, 1870–1874.
Tattersall I (1997) Out of Africa again … and again. Scientific American 276, 60–67.
Tishkoff SA, Dietzsch E, Speed W, Pakstis AJ, Kidd JR, Cheung K, Bonné-Tamir B, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Moral P, Krings M, Pääbo S, Watson E, Risch N, Jenkins T & Kidd KK (1996) Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins. Science 271, 1380–1387.
Tobias PV, Vogel JC, Oschadleus HD, Partridge TC & McKee JK (1993) New isotopic and sedimentological measurements of the Thabaseek deposits (South Africa) and the dating of the Taung hominid. Quaternary Research 40, 360–367.
Versteegh GJM, Brinkhuis H, Visscher H & Zonneveld KAF (1996) The relationship between productivity and temperature in the Pliocene North Atlantic at the onset of northern hemisphere glaciation: a palynological study. Global and Planetary Change 11, 155–165.
Vrba ES, Denton GS, Partridge TC & Burckle LH (editors) (1995) In Paleoclimate and Evolution with Emphasis on Human Origins. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Walker A, Zimmerman M & Leakey R (1982) A possible case of hypervitaminosis A in Homo erectus. Nature 296, 248–250.
Waters MR, Forman SL & Pierson JM (1997) Diring Yuriakh: a lower Paleolithic site in central Siberia. Science 275, 1281–1283.
Wheland J, Broughton KS, Surette ME & Kinsella JE (1992) Dietary arachidonic and linoleic acids: comparative effects on tissue lipids. Lipids 27, 85–88.
Whelan J, Surette ME, Hardardotti I, Lu G, Golemboski KA, Larsen E & Kinsella JE (1993) Dietary arachidonate enhances tissue arachidonate levels and eicosanoid production in Syrian hamsters. Journal of Nutrition 123, 2174–2185.
White TD, Suwa G & Asfaw B (1995) Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 375, 88.
Wood B (1992) Early Homo species and speciation. Journal of Human Evolution 22, 351–365.
Wood B (1993) Early Homo: how many species? In Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution, pp. 485–522 [Kimbel WH and Martin LB, editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
Wood B, Wood L & Konigsberg L (1994) Paranthropus boisei: an example of evolutionary stasis? American Journal of Physical Anthropology 95, 117–136.