This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1 M Konner & SB Eaton (2010) Paleolithic nutrition: twenty-five years later. Nutr Clin Pract 25, 594–602.
3 AJ Nordmann , A Nordmann , M Briel , et al. (2006) Effects of Low-Carbohydrate vs Low-Fat Diets on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Arch Intern Med 166, 285–293.
4 M Hession , C Rolland , U Kulkarni , et al. (2009) Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities. Obes Rev 10, 36–50.
5 Y Song , JE Manson , JE Buring , et al. (2004) A prospective study of red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women: the women's health study. Diabetes Care 27, 2108–2115.
6 MB Schulze , M Schulz , C Heidemann , et al. (2008) Carbohydrate intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study. Br J Nutr 99, 1107–1116.
7 I Sluijs , JW Beulens , AD van der , et al. (2010) Dietary intake of total, animal, and vegetable protein and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-NL study. Diabetes Care 33, 43–48.
8 MA Pereira , DR Jacobs Jr, L Van Horn , et al. (2002) Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. JAMA 287, 2081–2089.
9 SC Larsson & A Wolk (2006) Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Int J Cancer 119, 2657–2664.
12 AM Bernstein , Q Sun , FB Hu , et al. (2010) Major dietary protein sources and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation 122, 876–883.
13 SR Preis , MJ Stampfer , D Spiegelman , et al. (2010) Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 1265–1272.
14 SR Preis , MJ Stampfer , D Spiegelman , et al. (2009) Lack of association between dietary protein intake and risk of stroke among middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 39–45.
15 C Sauvaget , J Nagano , N Allen , et al. (2003) Intake of animal products and stroke mortality in the Hiroshima/Nagasaki Life Span Study. Int J Epidemiol 32, 536–543.
16 LE Kelemen , LH Kushi , DR Jacobs Jr, et al. (2005) Associations of dietary protein with disease and mortality in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 161, 239–249.
17 W Altorf-van der Kuil , MF Engberink , EJ Brink , et al. (2010) Dietary protein and blood pressure: a systematic review. PLoS One 5, e12102.
18 AR Skov , S Toubro , B Ronn , et al. (1999) Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 528–536.
19 FF Samaha , N Iqbal , P Seshadri , et al. (2003) A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity. N Engl J Med 348, 2074–2081.
20 A Due , S Toubro , AR Skov , et al. (2004) Effect of normal-fat diets, either medium or high in protein, on body weight in overweight subjects: a randomised 1-year trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 1283–1290.
21 KA McAuley , CM Hopkins , KJ Smith , et al. (2005) Comparison of high-fat and high-protein diets with a high-carbohydrate diet in insulin-resistant obese women. Diabetologia 48, 8–16.
22 KA McAuley , KJ Smith , RW Taylor , et al. (2006) Long-term effects of popular dietary approaches on weight loss and features of insulin resistance. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 342–349.
23 M Claessens , MA Van Baak , S Monsheimer , et al. (2009) The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors. Int J Obes 33, 296–304.
24 KA McAuley , SM Williams , JI Mann , et al. (2002) Intensive lifestyle changes are necessary to improve insulin sensitivity: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 25, 445–452.
30 DA Lasker , EM Evans & DK Layman (2008) Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial. Nutr Metab (Lond) 5, 30.
31 GD Brinkworth , M Noakes , JB Keogh , et al. (2004) Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 661–670.
33 ML Dansinger , JA Gleason , JL Griffith , et al. (2005) Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. JAMA 293, 43–53.
34 CD Gardner , A Kiazand , S Alhassan , et al. (2007) Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA 297, 969–977.
35 GD Brinkworth , M Noakes , B Parker , et al. (2004) Long-term effects of advice to consume a high-protein, low-fat diet, rather than a conventional weight-loss diet, in obese adults with type 2 diabetes: one-year follow-up of a randomised trial. Diabetologia 47, 1677–1686.
36 NH Baba , S Sawaya , N Torbay , et al. (1999) High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergetic diet for the treatment of obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23, 1202–1206.
38 J Mann (2007) Dietary carbohydrate: relationship to cardiovascular disease and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, Suppl. 1, S100–S111.
39 LA Te Morenga , MT Levers , SM Williams , et al. (2011) Comparison of high protein and high fiber weight-loss diets in women with risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. Nutr J 10, 40.
40 PM Piatti , F Monti , I Fermo , et al. (1994) Hypocaloric high-protein diet improves glucose oxidation and spares lean body mass: comparison to hypocaloric high-carbohydrate diet. Metabolism 43, 1481–1487.
42 HJ Leidy , NS Carnell , RD Mattes , et al. (2007) Higher Protein Intake Preserves Lean Mass and Satiety with Weight Loss in Pre-obese and Obese Women. Obesity 15, 421–429.
43 DK Layman , EM Evans , D Erickson , et al. (2009) A moderate-protein diet produces sustained weight loss and long-term changes in body composition and blood lipids in obese adults. J Nutr 139, 514–521.
44 DS Weigle , DE Cummings , PD Newby , et al. (2003) Roles of leptin and ghrelin in the loss of body weight caused by a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 1577–1586.
46 PH Dessein , EA Shipton , AE Stanwix , et al. (2000) Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis 59, 539–543.
48 JI Mann (2006) Nutrition recommendations for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: an evidenced-based review. Nutr Rev 64, 422–427.
49 B Parker , M Noakes , N Luscombe , et al. (2002) Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 25, 425–430.
50 KR Sargrad , C Homko , M Mozzoli , et al. (2005) Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 573–580.
51 F Tremblay , C Lavigne , H Jacques , et al. (2007) Role of dietary proteins and amino acids in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Annu Rev Nutr 27, 293–310.
52 T Linn , B Santosa , D Gronemeyer , et al. (2000) Effect of long-term dietary protein intake on glucose metabolism in humans. Diabetologia 43, 1257–1265.
53 L Te Morenga , S Williams , R Brown , et al. (2010) Effect of a relatively high-protein, high-fiber diet on body composition and metabolic risk factors in overweight women. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 1323–1331.
54 TF Lotz , JG Chase , KA McAuley , et al. (2006) Transient and steady-state euglycemic clamp validation of a model for glycemic control and insulin sensitivity testing. Diabetes Technol Ther 8, 338–346.
56 EG Siegel , VE Trapp , CB Wollheim , et al. (1980) Beneficial effects of low-carbohydrate–high-protein diets in long-term diabetic rats. Metabolism 29, 421–428.
59 J Stamler , P Elliott , H Kesteloot , et al. (1996) Inverse relation of dietary protein markers with blood pressure. Findings for 10,020 men and women in the INTERSALT Study. INTERSALT Cooperative Research Group. INTERnational study of SALT and blood pressure. Circulation 94, 1629–1634.
60 LJ Appel , FM Sacks , VJ Carey , et al. (2005) Effects of protein, monounsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmniHeart randomized trial. JAMA 294, 2455–2464.
65 JC Witteman , WC Willett , MJ Stampfer , et al. (1989) A prospective study of nutritional factors and hypertension among US women. Circulation 80, 1320–1327.
70 HS Kahn , LM Tatham & CW Heath Jr (1997) Contrasting factors associated with abdominal and peripheral weight gain among adult women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 21, 903–911.
71 HS Kahn , LM Tatham , C Rodriguez , et al. (1997) Stable behaviors associated with adults' 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist. Am J Public Health 87, 747–754.
74 M Rosell , P Appleby , E Spencer , et al. (2006) Weight gain over 5 years in 21,966 meat-eating, fish-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 1389–1396.
75 AC Vergnaud , T Norat , D Romaguera , et al. (2010) Meat consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 398–407.
76 MS Westerterp-Plantenga , A Nieuwenhuizen , D Tome , et al. (2009) Dietary protein, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr 29, 21–41.
77 MA Veldhorst , AG Nieuwenhuizen , A Hochstenbach-Waelen , et al. (2009) Effects of high and normal soyprotein breakfasts on satiety and subsequent energy intake, including amino acid and ‘satiety’ hormone responses. Eur J Nutr 48, 92–100.
81 J Bowen , M Noakes , C Trenerry , et al. (2006) Energy Intake, Ghrelin, and Cholecystokinin after Different Carbohydrate and Protein Preloads in Overweight Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 1477–1483.
82 MS Westerterp-Plantenga , V Rolland , SA Wilson , et al. (1999) Satiety related to 24 h diet-induced thermogenesis during high protein/carbohydrate vs high fat diets measured in a respiration chamber. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 495–502.
85 M Veldhorst , A Smeets , S Soenen , et al. (2008) Protein-induced satiety: effects and mechanisms of different proteins. Physiol Behav 94, 300–307.
88 MS Koren , JQ Purnell , PA Breen , et al. (2007) Changes in plasma amino Acid levels do not predict satiety and weight loss on diets with modified macronutrient composition. Ann Nutr Metab 51, 182–187.
91 JD Militante & JB Lombardini (2002) Treatment of hypertension with oral taurine: experimental and clinical studies. Amino Acids 23, 381–393.
92 JP Lekakis , S Papathanassiou , TG Papaioannou , et al. (2002) Oral L-arginine improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension. Int J Cardiol 86, 317–323.