Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Rumen development process in goats as affected by supplemental feeding v. grazing: age-related anatomic development, functional achievement and microbial colonisation

  • Jinzhen Jiao (a1) (a2), Xiaopeng Li (a1) (a2), Karen A. Beauchemin (a3), Zhiliang Tan (a1), Shaoxun Tang (a1) and Chuanshe Zhou (a1)...

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to describe age-related changes in anatomic, functional and microbial variables during the rumen development process, as affected by the feeding system (supplemental feeding v. grazing), in goats. Goats were slaughtered at seven time points that were selected to reflect the non-rumination (0, 7 and 14 d), transition (28 and 42 d) and rumination (56 and 70 d) phases of rumen development. Total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration (P= 0·002), liquid-associated bacterial and archaeal copy numbers (P< 0·01) were greater for supplemental feeding v. grazing, while rumen pH (P< 0·001), acetate molar proportion (P= 0·003) and solid-associated microbial copy numbers (P< 0·05) were less. Rumen papillae length (P= 0·097) and extracellular (P= 0·093) and total (P= 0·073) protease activity potentials in supplemented goats tended to be greater than those in grazing goats. Furthermore, from 0 to 70 d, irrespective of the feeding system, rumen weight, rumen wall thickness, rumen papillae length and area, TVFA concentration, xylanase, carboxymethylcellulase activity potentials, and microbial copy numbers increased (P< 0·01) with age, while the greatest amylase and protease activity potentials occurred at 28 d. Most anatomic and functional variables evolved progressively from 14 to 42 d, while microbial colonisation was fastest from birth to 28 d. These outcomes suggest that the supplemental feeding system is more effective in promoting rumen development than the grazing system; in addition, for both the feeding systems, microbial colonisation in the rumen is achieved at 1 month, functional achievement at 2 months, and anatomic development after 2 months.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Rumen development process in goats as affected by supplemental feeding v. grazing: age-related anatomic development, functional achievement and microbial colonisation
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Rumen development process in goats as affected by supplemental feeding v. grazing: age-related anatomic development, functional achievement and microbial colonisation
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Rumen development process in goats as affected by supplemental feeding v. grazing: age-related anatomic development, functional achievement and microbial colonisation
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Z. Tan, fax +86 731 4612685, email zltan@isa.ac.cn

References

Hide All
1 Baldwin, RLVI, McLeod, KR, Klotz, JL, et al. (2004) Rumen development, intestinal growth and hepatic metabolism in the pre-and postweaning ruminant. J Dairy Sci 87, E55E65.
2 Wang, YH, Xu, M, Wang, FN, et al. (2009) Effect of dietary starch on rumen and small intestine morphology and digesta pH in goats. Livest Sci 122, 4852.
3 Reynolds, C, Dürst, B, Lupoli, B, et al. (2004) Visceral tissue mass and rumen volume in dairy cows during the transition from late gestation to early lactation. J Dairy Sci 87, 961971.
4 Faubladier, C, Julliand, V, Danel, J, et al. (2013) Bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity in foal faeces: changes from birth to pre-weaning and the impact of maternal supplementation with fermented feed products. Br J Nutr 110, 10401052.
5 Rey, M, Enjalbert, F & Monteils, V (2012) Establishment of ruminal enzyme activities and fermentation capacity in dairy calves from birth through weaning. J Dairy Sci 95, 15001512.
6 Fouts, DE, Szpakowski, S, Purushe, J, et al. (2012) Next generation sequencing to define prokaryotic and fungal diversity in the bovine rumen. PLOS ONE 7, e48289.
7 Fonty, G, Gouet, P, Jouany, J-P, et al. (1987) Establishment of the microflora and anaerobic fungi in the rumen of lambs. J Gen Microbiol 133, 18351843.
8 Lane, M, Baldwin, R & Jesse, B (2002) Developmental changes in ketogenic enzyme gene expression during sheep rumen development. J Anim Sci 80, 15381544.
9 Wardrop, I & Coombe, J (1960) The post-natal growth of the visceral organs of the lamb I. The growth of the visceral organs of the grazing lamb from birth to sixteen weeks of age. J Agric Sci 54, 140143.
10 Siddons, RC (1968) Carbohydrase activities in the bovine digestive tract. Biochem J 108, 839844.
11 Anderson, K, Nagaraja, T & Morrill, J (1987) Ruminal metabolic development in calves weaned conventionally or early. J Dairy Sci 70, 10001005.
12 Li, RW, Connor, EE, Li, C, et al. (2012) Characterization of the rumen microbiota of pre-ruminant calves using metagenomic tools. Environ Microbiol 14, 129139.
13 Jami, E, Israel, A, Kotser, A, et al. (2013) Exploring the bovine rumen bacterial community from birth to adulthood. ISME J 7, 10691079.
14 Belanche, A, Balcells, J, De La Fuente, G, et al. (2010) Description of development of rumen ecosystem by PCR assay in milk-fed, weaned and finished lambs in an intensive fattening system. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 94, 648658.
15 Owens, FN, Dubeski, P & Hanson, C (1993) Factors that alter the growth and development of ruminants. J Anim Sci 71, 31383150.
16 Coverdale, J, Tyler, H, Quigley, JD III, et al. (2004) Effect of various levels of forage and form of diet on rumen development and growth in calves. J Dairy Sci 87, 25542562.
17 Khan, MA, Weary, DM & von Keyserlingk, MA (2011) Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk. J Dairy Sci 94, 35473553.
18 Cozzi, G, Gottardo, F, Mattiello, S, et al. (2002) The provision of solid feeds to veal calves: I. Growth performance, forestomach development, and carcass and meat quality. J Anim Sci 80, 357366.
19 Suárez, B, Van Reenen, C, Stockhofe, N, et al. (2007) Effect of roughage source and roughage to concentrate ratio on animal performance and rumen development in veal calves. J Dairy Sci 90, 23902403.
20 Liu, SM, Cai, YB, Zhu, HY, et al. (2012) Potential and constraints in the development of animal industries in China. J Sci Food Agric 92, 10251030.
21 Haenlein, GF (2001) Past, present, and future perspectives of small ruminant dairy research. J Dairy Sci 84, 20972115.
22 Abecia, L, Ramos-Morales, E, Martinez-Fernandez, G, et al. (2014) Feeding management in early life influences microbial colonisation and fermentation in the rumen of newborn goat kids. Anim Prod Sci 54, 14491454.
23 Yang, WZ, Beauchemin, KA & Rode, LM (2001) Effect of dietary factors on distribution and chemical composition of liquid- or solid-associated bacterial populations in the rumen of dairy cows. J Anim Sci 79, 27362746.
24 Chen, XL, Wang, JK, Wu, YM, et al. (2008) Effects of chemical treatments of rice straw on rumen fermentation characteristics, fibrolytic enzyme activities and populations of liquid-and solid-associated ruminal microbes in vitro . Anim Feed Sci Technol 141, 114.
25 Ha, JK, Lee, SS, Ahn, BH, et al. (2003) Effects of non-ionic surfactants on enzyme distributions of rumen contents, anaerobic growth of rumen microbes, rumen fermentation characteristics and performances of lactating cows. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 16, 104115.
26 Lesmeister, K, Tozer, P & Heinrichs, A (2004) Development and analysis of a rumen tissue sampling procedure. J Dairy Sci 87, 13361344.
27 Jiao, JZ, Wang, PP, He, ZX, et al. (2014) In vitro evaluation on neutral detergent fibre and cellulose digestion by post-ruminal microorganisms in goats. J Sci Food Agric 94, 17451752.
28 Eun, J-S & Beauchemin, K (2005) Effects of a proteolytic feed enzyme on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production. J Dairy Sci 88, 21402153.
29 Denman, SE & McSweeney, CS (2006) Development of a real-time PCR assay for monitoring anaerobic fungal and cellulolytic bacterial populations within the rumen. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 58, 572582.
30 Hook, SE, Northwood, KS, Wright, A-D, et al. (2009) Long-term monensin supplementation does not significantly affect the quantity or diversity of methanogens in the rumen of the lactating dairy cow. Appl Environ Microbiol 75, 374380.
31 Sylvester, JT, Karnati, SK, Yu, Z, et al. (2004) Development of an assay to quantify rumen ciliate protozoal biomass in cows using real-time PCR. J Nutr 134, 33783384.
32 Chen, YH, Penner, GB, Li, MJ, et al. (2011) Changes in bacterial diversity associated with epithelial tissue in the beef cow rumen during the transition to a high-grain diet. Appl Environ Microbiol 77, 57705781.
33 Krause, D, Nagaraja, T, Wright, A, et al. (2013) Board-invited review: rumen microbiology: leading the way in microbial ecology. J Anim Sci 91, 331341.
34 Bergman, E (1990) Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species. Physiol Rev 70, 567590.
35 Malmuthuge, N, Li, MJ, Fries, P, et al. (2012) Regional and age dependent changes in gene expression of Toll-like receptors and key antimicrobial defence molecules throughout the gastrointestinal tract of dairy calves. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 146, 1826.
36 Petri, RM, Schwaiger, T, Penner, GB, et al. (2013) Characterization of the core rumen microbiome in cattle during transition from forage to concentrate as well as during and after an acidotic challenge. PLOS ONE 8, e83424.
37 de Menezes, AB, Lewis, E, O'Donovan, M, et al. (2011) Microbiome analysis of dairy cows fed pasture or total mixed ration diets. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 78, 256265.
38 Suárez, B, Van Reenen, C, Beldman, G, et al. (2006) Effects of supplementing concentrates differing in carbohydrate composition in veal calf diets: I. Animal performance and rumen fermentation characteristics. J Dairy Sci 89, 43654375.
39 Montoro, C, Miller-Cushon, EK, DeVries, TJ, et al. (2013) Effect of physical form of forage on performance, feeding behavior, and digestibility of Holstein calves. J Dairy Sci 96, 11171124.
40 Castells, L, Bach, A, Aris, A, et al. (2013) Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract. J Dairy Sci 96, 52265236.
41 Rey, M, Enjalbert, F, Combes, S, et al. (2014) Establishment of ruminal bacterial community in dairy calves from birth to weaning is sequential. J Appl Microbiol 116, 245257.
42 Skillman, LC, Evans, PN, Naylor, GE, et al. (2004) 16S ribosomal DNA-directed PCR primers for ruminal methanogens and identification of methanogens colonising young lambs. Anaerobe 10, 277285.
43 Mändar, R & Mikelsaar, M (1996) Transmission of mother's microflora to the newborn at birth. Neonatology 69, 3035.
44 Hunt, KM, Foster, JA, Forney, LJ, et al. (2011) Characterization of the diversity and temporal stability of bacterial communities in human milk. PLoS ONE 6, e21313.
45 Wise, GH & Anderson, GW (1939) Factors affecting the passage of liquids into the rumen of the dairy calf. I. Method of administering liquids: drinking from open pail versus sucking through a rubber nipple. J Dairy Sci 22, 697705.
46 Tamate, H, McGilliard, A, Jacobson, N, et al. (1962) Effect of various dietaries on the anatomical development of the stomach in the calf. J Dairy Sci 45, 408420.
47 Shimomura, Y & Sato, H (2006) Fecal d-and l-lactate, succinate, and volatile fatty acid levels in young dairy calves. J Vet Med Sci 68, 973977.
48 Zeng, B, Tan, ZL, Tang, SX, et al. (2011) Effects of alkyl polyglycoside, a nonionic surfactant, and forage-to-concentrate ratio on rumen fermentation, amino acid composition of rumen content, bacteria and plasma in goats. Arch Anim Nutr 65, 229241.
49 Sahoo, A, Kamra, D & Pathak, N (2005) Pre- and postweaning attributes in faunated and ciliate-free calves fed calf starter with or without fish meal. J Dairy Sci 88, 20272036.
50 Bernalier-Donadille, A (2010) Fermentative metabolism by the human gut microbiota. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 34, S16S22.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed