Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Selenium and iodine intakes and status in New Zealand and Australia

  • Christine D. Thomson (a1)

Abstract

Most New Zealand soils contain relatively low concentrations of the anionic trace elements F, I and Se. Some areas of Australia also have a history of I deficiency. In view of current interest in establishing nutrient reference intakes for Se and I in New Zealand and Australia, it is timely to review current understanding of the intakes and status of these two elements. In spite of a recent increase in Se status, the status of New Zealanders remains low compared with populations of many other countries and may still be considered marginal, although the clinical consequences of the marginal Se status are unclear. There are no recent reports of blood Se levels in Australia, but earlier reports indicate that they were generally greater than those of New Zealanders. Similarly, the consequences of decreasing I status in Australia and New Zealand are unclear. Mild I deficiency in New Zealand has resulted in enlarged thyroid glands indicating an increased risk of goitre. Currently there is little evidence, however, of any associated clinical disease. Public health recommendations to reduce salt intake, together with the reduction in I content of dairy products, are likely to result in further decreases in the I status of New Zealand and Australian residents. Some action is needed to prevent this decline and it may be necessary to consider other means of fortification than iodized salt. The consequences of possible interactions between Se and I in human nutrition are also unclear and no practical recommendations can be made.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Selenium and iodine intakes and status in New Zealand and Australia
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Selenium and iodine intakes and status in New Zealand and Australia
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Selenium and iodine intakes and status in New Zealand and Australia
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Professor C. D. Thomson, fax +64 3 479 7958, email christine.thomson@stonebow.otago.ac.nz

References

Hide All
Arthur, JR (1999) Functional indicators of iodine and selenium status. Proc Nutr Soc 58, 507512.
Arthur, JR, Nicol, F, Rae, PWH & Beckett, GJ (1990) Effects of combined selenium and iodine deficiencies on the thyroid gland of the rat. J Endocrinol 124, Suppl.240.
Barceloux, DG (1999) Selenium. Clin Toxicol 37, 145172.
Beckett, GJ, Nicol, F, Rae, PWH, Beech, S, Guo, Y & Arthur, JR (1993) Effects of combined iodine deficiency and selenium deficiency on thyroid hormone metabolism in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 57, 240S243S.
Bull, NL & Buss, DH (1980) Contributions of food to sodium intakes. Proc Nutr Soc 39, 30A.
Burk, RF & Levander, OA (1999) Selenium. In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, pp. 265276 [Shils, ME, Olson, JA, Shike, M and Ross, AC, editors]. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.
Clements, FW & Wishart, JW (1956) A thyroid-blocking agent in the etiology of endemic goiter. Metabolism 5, 623639.
Colls, AJ (1996) Iodine and selenium status of Dunedin blood donors, MSc Thesis, University of Otago.
Combs, GF Jr (2001) Selenium in global food systems. Br J Nutr 85, 517547.
Connolly, RJ (1971) The changing iodine environment of Tasmania. Med J Aust 2, 11911193.
Contempré, B, Dumont, JE, Ngo, B, Thilly, CH, Diplock, AT & Vanderpas, J (1991a) Effect of selenium supplementation in hypothyroid subjects of an iodine and selenium deficient area: the possible danger of indiscriminate supplementation of iodine-deficient subjects with selenium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 73, 213215.
Contempré, B, Vanderpas, J & Dumont, J (1991b) Cretinism, thyroid hormones and selenium. Mol Cell Endocrinol 81, C193C195.
Cooper, GJS, Croxson, MS & Ibbertson, HK (1984) Iodine intake in an urban environment: a study of urine iodide excretion in Auckland. NZ Med J 97, 142145.
Corvilain, B, Contempré, B, Longombé, A, Goyens, P, Gervy-Decoster, C, Lamy, F, Vanderpas, J & Dumont, J (1993) Selenium and the thyroid: how the relationship was established. Am J Clin Nutr 57, 244S248S.
Cressey, PJ & Vannoort, RW (1998) Iodine Content of New Zealand Dairy Products. Wellington: ESR.
Daniels, LA, Gibson, RA & Simmer, KM (2000) Indicators of selenium status in Australian infants. J Paediatr Child Health 36, 370374.
Darlow, BA, Inder, TE, Graham, PJ, Sluis, KB, Malpas, TJ, Taylor, BJ & Winterbourne, CC (1995) The relationship of selenium status to respiratory outcome in the very low birth weight infant. Pediatrics 96, 314319.
de Jong, N, Gibson, RS, Thomson, CD, Ferguson, EF, McKenzie, JE, Green, TJ & Horwath, CC (2001) Selenium and zinc status are suboptimal in a sample of older New Zealand women in a community-based study. J Nutr 131, 26772684.
Department of Health (1991) Food For Health. Report of the New Zealand Nutrition Task Force. Wellington: Department of Health.
Department of Health and Human Services (2001) Iodine Monitoring Program DHHS-4137. Tasmania: Public and Environmental Health Service.
Derumeaux, H, Valeix, P, Castetbon, K, Bensimon, M, Boutron-Ruault, M-C, Arnaud, J & Hercberg, S (2003) Association of selenium with thyroid volume and echostructure in 35–60-year-old French adults. Eur J Endocrinol 148, 309315.
Duffield, AJ & Thomson, CD (1999) A comparison of methods of assessment of dietary selenium intakes in Otago, New Zealand. Br J Nutr 82, 131138.
Duffield, AJ, Thomson, CD, Hill, KE & Williams, S (1999) An estimation of selenium requirements for New Zealanders. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 896903.
Dunn, JT, Crutchfield, HE, Gutekunst, R & Dunn, AD (1993) Methods for Measuring Iodine in Urine. The Netherlands: ICCIDD/UNICEF/WHO.
Eastman, CJ (1993) The status of iodine nutrition in Australia. In Iodine Deficiency in Europe – A Continuing Concern, [Delange, F, Dunn, JT and Glinoer, D, editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
Eastman, CJ (1999) Where has all our iodine gone?. Med J Aust 171, 455456.
Fardy, JJMcOrist, GDFarrar, YJ (1989) The determination of selenium in the Australian diet using neutron activation analysis. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 133, 391396.
Fardy, JJ, McOrist, GD, Farrar, YJ, Bowles, CJ, Warnder, IM & Mingguang, T (1994) Application of neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to the determination of toxic and essential elements in Australian Foods. In Nuclear Techniques for Toxic Elements in Foodstuffs, Report on an IAEA Co-ordination Research Programme, pp. 1970Vienna: IAEA.
Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine (2001) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Frey, HMM, Rosenlund, B & Torgersen, JP (1978) Value of single urine specimens in estimation of 24 hour iodine excretion. Acta Endocrinol 72, 287292.
Furnée, CA, van der Haar, F, West, CE & Hautvast, JGAJ (1994) A critical appraisal of goiter assessment and the ratio of urinary iodine to creatinine for evaluating iodine status. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 14151417.
Gibson, HB (1995) Surveillance of iodine deficiency disorders in Tasmania 1949–1984 Department of Health Sciences Hobart.
Gibson, R (1990) Assessment of iodine status Principles of Nutritional Assessmen, pp. 527532New York: Oxford University Press.
Goindi, G, Karmarkar, MG, Kapil, U & Jagannathan, J (1995) Estimation of losses of iodine during different cooking procedures. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 4, 225227.
Goyens, P, Golstein, J, Nsombola, B, Vis, H & Dumont, JE (1987) Selenium deficiency as a possible factor in the pathogenesis of myxoedematous endemic cretinism. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 114, 497502.
Griffiths, NM & Thomson, CD (1974) Selenium in whole blood of New Zealand residents. NZ Med J 80, 199202.
Gunton, JE, Hams, G, Fiegert, M & McElduff, A (1999) Iodine deficiency in ambulatory patients at a Sydney teaching hospital: is Australia truly iodine replete? Med J Aust 171, 467470.
Guttikonda, K, Burgess, JR, Hynes, K, Boyages, S, Byth, K & Parameswaran, V (2002) Recurrent iodine deficiency in Tasmania, Australia: A salutory lesson in sustainable iodine prophylaxis and its monitoring. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, 28092815.
Hercus, CE, Benson, WN & Carter, CL (1925) Endemic goitre in New Zealand and its relation to the soil-iodine. J Hyg 24, 321402.
Hetzel, BS & Dunn, JT (1989) The iodine deficiency disorders: their nature and prevention. Annu Rev Nutr 9, 2138.
Hynes, K (2001) Urinary Iodine Status of Tasmanian Primary School Children, pp. 44. Tasmania: Department of Health and Human Services, Tasmanian State Government.
Joerin, MM & Bowering, A (1972) The total iodine content of cow's milk. NZ Dairy Sci Tech 7, 155158.
Judson, GJ (19871988) Report of the Central Veterinary Laboratories p. 7 Adelaide, SA, Australia: Department of Agriculture.
Kay, RG & Knight, GS (1979) Blood selenium in an adult Auckland population group. NZ Med J 90, 1113.
Kidd, PS, Trowbridge, GL, Goldsby, JB & Nichman, MZ (1974) Sources of dietary iodine. J Am Diet Ass 65, 420422.
Knowles, SO, Lee, J & Grace, ND (1997) Metabolism of trace element in lactating cows: Perspectives of selenium and iodine in animal health and human nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc NZ 22, 174183.
Kvícala, J, Zamrazil, V, Soutorová, M & Tomíska, F (1995) Correlations between parameters of body selenium status and peripheral thyroid parameters in the low selenium region. Analyst 120, 959965.
Li, M, Ma, G, Guttikonda, K, Boyages, SC & Eastman, CJ (2001) Re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Australia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 10, 200203.
Lyons, G, Stangoulis, J & Graham, R (2003) High-selenium wheat: biofortification for better health. Nutr Res Rev 16, 4560.
McElduff, A, McElduff, P, Gunton, JE, Hams, G, Wiley, V & Wicken, BM (2002) Neonatal thyroid-stimulatting hormone conentrations in northern Sydney: further indications of mild iodine deficiency. Med J Aust 176, 317322.
McLachlan, SK (2003) Selenium status of New Zealanders, MSc Thesis, University of Otago.
Marro, N (1996) The 1994 Australian Market Basket Survey. Canberra: Australia New Zealand Food Authority.
Melse-Boonstra, A, Rozendaal, M, Rexwinkel, H, Gerichhausen, JW, van den Briel, T, Bulux, J, Solomons, NW & West, CE (1998) Determination of discretionary salt intake in rural Guatemala and Benin to determine the iodine fortification of salt required to control iodine deficiency disorders: studies using lithium-labeled salt. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 636641.
Nève, J (1991) Methods in determination of selenium states. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 5, 117.
Nève, J (1995) Human selenium supplementation as assessed by changes in blood selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. J Trace Elem Med Biol 9, 6573.
Nicolau, GY, Haus, E, Dumitriu, L, Plinga, L, Lakatua, DJ, Ehresman, D, Adderly, J, Sackett-Lundeen, L & Petrescu, E (1989) Circadian and seasonal variations in iodine excretion in children with and without endemic goiter. Roum Med Endocrinol 27, 7386.
North, KAK & Fraser, S (1965) Iodine intake as revealed by urinary iodide excretion. NZ Med J 65, 512513.
Olivieri, O, Girelli, D, Azzini, M, Stanzila, AM, Russo, C, Ferroni, M & Corrocher, R (1995) Low selenium status in the elderly influences thyroid hormones. Clin Sci 89, 637642.
Parnell, W, Scragg, R, Wilson, N, Schaaf, D & Fitzgerald, E (2003) NZ Food, NZ Children: Key Results of the 2002 National Children's Nutrition Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
Patching, SG & Gardiner, PHE (1999) Recent developments in selenium metabolism and chemical speciation: A review. J Trace Elem Med Biol 13, 193214.
Paterson, E (2000) Selenium, oxidant stress and smoking, PhD Thesis, University of Otago.
Pharoah, PO, Connolly, KJ, Ekins, RD & Harding, AG (1984) Maternal thyroid hormone levels in pregnancy and the subsequent cognitive and motor performance of the children. Clin Endocrinol 21, 265270.
Purves, HD (1974) The aetiology and prophylaxis of endemic goitre and cretinism. The New Zealand experience. NZ Med J 80, 477479.
Rasmussen, LB, Ovesen, L & Christiansen, E (1999) Day-to-day and within-day variation in urinary iodine excretion. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 401407.
Rayman, MP (2000) The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 356, 233241.
Rea, HM, Thomson, CD, Campbell, DR & Robinson, MF (1979) Relation between erythrocyte selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase ( EC 1.11.1.9) activities of New Zealand residents and visitors to New Zealand. Br J Nutr 42, 201208.
Reilly, C (1993) Selenium in health and disease: a review. Aust J Nutr Diet 50, 136144.
Reilly, C, Barrett, JE, Patterson, CM & Tingii, U (1990) Trace element nutrition status and dietary intake of children with phenylketonuria. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 159162.
Reilly, C, Greaves, C, Patterson, C & Tingii, U (1991) Dietary selenium intake of Australian preschool children. In Trace Elements in Man and Animals – 7, [Momcilovic, B, editor]. Zagreb: Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, University of Zagreb.
Remer, T & Manz, F (1994) The inadequacy of the urinary iodine–creatinine ratio for the assessment of iodine status during infancy, childhood and adolescence. J Trace Elem Electr Health Dis 8, 217219.
Robinson, MF (1989) Selenium in human nutrition in New Zealand. Nutr Rev 47, 99107.
Robinson, MF (1992) Recent investigations on trace elements, particularly selenium. In The Contribution of Nutrition to Human and Animal Health, pp. 174183 [Widdowson, E and Mathews, J, editors]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, MF & Thomson, CD (1987) Status of the food supply and residents of New Zealand. In Selenium in Biology and Medicine, pp. 631644 [Combs, GK, Spallholz, JE, Levander, OA and Oldfield, JE, editors]. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
Russell, D, Parnell, W & Wilson, N (1999) NZ Food: NZ People. Key Results of the 1997 National Nutrition Survey, Wellington: Ministry of Health.
Sanchez-Castillo, CP, Warrender, S, Whitehead, TP & James, WPT (1987) An assessment of the sources of dietary salt in a British population. Clin Sci 72, 95102.
Scragg, R & Metcalf, P (2001) Pre-testing of Methodologies for the Children's Nutrition Survey, Report Four. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
Sheehan, TMT & Halls, DJ (1999) Measurement of selenium in clinical specimens. Ann Clin Biochem 36, 301315.
Simpson, FO, Thaler, BI, Paulin, JM, Phelan, EL & Cooper, GJS (1984) Iodide excretion in a salt-restriction trial. NZ Med J 97, 890893.
Skeaff, SA, Ferguson, ELMcKenzie, JEValeix, P, Gibson, RS & Thomson, CD (2004) Are breast-fed infants and toddlers in New Zealand at risk of iodine deficiency? Nutrition (In the Press).
Skeaff, S, Thomson, CD & Gibson, R (1999) Iodine Status in Schoolchildren. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
Skeaff, SA, Thomson, CD & Gibson, RS (2002) Mild iodine deficiency in a sample of New Zealand schoolchildren. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 11691175.
Standing Committee on the Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes of the Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine, the National Academies and Health Canada (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Stewart, JC, Vidor, GI, Buttfield, IH & Hetzel, BS (1971) Epidemic thyrotoxicosis in northern Tasmania. Aust NZ J Med 1, 203211.
Sumar, S & Ismail, H (1997) Iodine in food and health. Nutr Food Sci 5, September/October 177183.
Sutcliffe, E (1990) Iodine in New Zealand milk. Food Tech NZ 7, 3238.
Tasmanian Thyroid Advisory Committee (1981) Study in disease surveillance. Med J Aust 2, 234238.
Thomson, CD (2002) Dietary recommendations for iodine around the world. In IDD Newsletter pp. 4560.
Thomson, CD, Colls, AJ, Conaglen, JV, Macormake, M, Stiles, M & Mann, J (1997a) Iodine status of New Zealand residents as assessed by urinary iodide excretion and thyroid hormones. Br J Nutr 78, 901912.
Thomson, CD, Colls, AJ, Styles, M & Conaglen, J (1997b) Urinary iodide excretion in New Zealand residents. In Trace Elements in Man and Animals – 9, pp. 118119 [Fischer, PWF, L'Abbé, MR, Cockell, KA and Gibson, RS, editors]. Ottawa: NRC Research Press.
Thomson, CD, Ong, LK & Robinson, MF (1985) Effects of supplementation with high-selenium wheat bread on selenium glutathione peroxidase and related enzymes in blood components of New Zealand residents. Am J Clin Nutr 41, 10151022.
Thomson, CD, Packer, MA, Butler, JA, Duffield, AJ, O'Donaglue, KL & Whanger, PD (2001a) Urinary selenium and iodine during pregnancy and lactation. J Trace Elem Med Biol 14, 210217.
Thomson, CD & Paterson, E (2001) Australian and New Zealand Nutrient Reference Values for Selenium. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
Thomson, CD & Robinson, MF (1988) Food concentrations and dietary intakes of selenium in Otago, New Zealand. In Trace Elements in New Zealand: Environmental, Human and Animal, pp. 113117 [McLaren, RG, Haynes, RJ and Savage, GP, editors]. Canterbury, NZ: Lincoln College.
Thomson, CD & Robinson, MF (1990) Selenium content of foods in Otago, New Zealand. NZ Med J 103, 130135.
Thomson, CD & Robinson, MF (1996) The changing selenium status of New Zealand residents. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, 107114.
Thomson, CD, Robinson, MF, Butler, JA & Whanger, PD (1993) Long-term supplementation with selenate and selenomethionine: selenium and glutathione peroxidase ( EC 1.11.1.19) in blood components of New Zealand women. Br J Nutr 69, 577588.
Thomson, CD, Robinson, MF, Campbell, DR & Rea, HM (1982) Effect of prolonged supplementation with daily supplements of selenomethionine and sodium selenite on glutathione peroxidase activity in blood of New Zealand residents. Am J Clin Nutr 36, 2431.
Thomson, CD, Smith, TE, Butler, KA & Packer, MA (1996) An evaluation of urinary measures of iodine and selenium status. J Trace Elem Med Biol 10, 214222.
Thomson, CD, Steven, SM, Van Rij, AM, Wade, CR & Robinson, MF (1988) The effect of supplementation with selenium and α-tocopherol on activities of glutathione peroxidase and related enzymes in human tissues. Am J Clin Nutr 48, 316323.
Thomson, CD, Woodruffe, S, Colls, AJ, Joseph, J & Doyle, TC (2001b) Urinary iodine and thyroid status of New Zealand residents. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 387392.
Tinggi, U (1999) Determination of selenium in meat products by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. JAOC Int 82, 364367.
Tinggi, U (2003) Essentiality and toxicity of selenium and its status in Australia: a review. Toxicol Rev 137, 103110.
Tinggi, U, Reilly, C & Patterson, CM (1992) Determination of selenium in foodstuffs using spectroflurometry and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. J Food Comp Anal 5, 269282.
Twomey, A (1968) Iodophors: their physical, chemical and bactericidal properties and use in the dairy industry a review. Aust J Dairy Tech 23, 162165.
Van Rij, AM, Thomson, CD, McKenzie, JM & Robinson, MF (1979) Selenium deficiency in total parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 32, 20762085.
Vanderpas, JB, Contempré, B, Duale, NL, Deckx, NL, Bebe, N, Longombé, AO, Thilly, C-H, Diplock, A & Dumont, JE (1993) Selenium deficiency mitigates hypothyroxinemia in iodine-deficient subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 57, 271S275S.
Vannoort, R, Cressey, P & Silvers, K (2000) 1997/1998 New Zealand Total Diet Survey. Part 2: Elements. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
Wang, GY, Zhou, RH, Wang, Z, Shi, L & Sun, M (1999) Effects of storage and cooking on the iodine content in iodized salt and study on monitoring iodine content in iodized salt. Biomed Environ Sci 12, 19.
Wenlock, RW, Buss, DH, Moxon, RE & Bunton, NG (1982) Trace elements 4: Iodine in British foods. Br J Nutr 7, 381390.
World Health Organization/United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund/Centre for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (1994) Indicators for Assessing Iodine Deficiency Disorders and their Control Through Salt Iodization. Geneva: WHO.
Winterbourne, CC, Saville, DJ, George, PM & Walmsley, TA (1992) Increase in selenium status of Christchurch adults associated with deregulation of the wheat market. NZ Med J 105, 466468.
Yang, G-Q, Wang, S-Z, Zhou, R-H & Sun, S-Z (1983) Endemic selenium intoxication of humans in China. Am J Clin Nutr 37, 872881.
Zimmerman, MB, Molinari, L, Spehl, M, Weidinger-Toth, J, Podoba, J, Hess, S & Delange, F (2001) Toward a consensus on reference values for thyroid volume in iodine-replete school-children: Results of a workshop in sonographic measurement of thyroid volume. Eur J Endocrinol 144, 213220.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed