American Cancer Society (2000) Cancer Facts and Figures, Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society.
Behne, D, Kyriakopoulos, A & Kalchlosch, M (1997) Two new selenoproteins found in the prostatic glandular epithelium and in the spermatid nuclei. Biomed Environ Sci 10, 340–345.
Beilstein, MA & Whanger, PD (1986) Chemical forms of selenium in rat tissues after administration of selenite or selenomethionine. J Nutr 116, 1711–1719.
Beilstein, MA & Whanger, PD (1988) Glutathione peroxidase activity and chemical forms of selenium in tissues of rats given selenite or selenomethionine. J Inorgan Biochem 33, 31–46.
Beilstein, MA, Whanger, PD & Yang, GQ (1991) Chemical forms of selenium in corn and rice grown in a high selenium area of China. Biomed Environ Sci 4, 392–398.
Blot, WJ (1997) Vitamin/mineral supplementation and cancer risk: international chemoprevention trials. PSEBM 216, 291–296.
Blot, WJ, Li, J-Y & Taylor, JR (1993) Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: Supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Nat Cancer Inst 85, 1483–1490.
Blot, WJ, Li, J-Y, Taylor, PR, Guo, W, Dawsey, SM & Li, B (1995) Linxian trials: mortality rates by vitamin–mineral intervention group. Am J Clin Nutr 62, 1424S–1426S.
Bonelli, L, Camoriano, A, Ravelli, P, Missale, G, Bruzzi, P & Aste, H (1998) Reduction of the incidence of metachronous adenomas of the large bowel by means of antioxidants. Proceedings of International Selenium Tellurium Development Association, pp. 91–94[Palmieri, Y, editors]. Brussels, Belgium: Se-Te Press.
Brooks, JD, Metter, BEJ & Chan, DW (2001) Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development. J Urol 166, 2034–2038.
Brown, T & Shrift, A (1981) Exclusion of selenium from proteins of selenium-tolerant Astragalus species. Plant Physiol 67, 1051–1059.
Burke, KE, Burford, RG, Combs, GF, French, IW & Skeffington, DR (1992 a) The effect of topical l -selenomethionine on minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet irradiation in humans. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 9, 52–57.
Burke, KE, Combs, GF, Gross, EG, Bhuyan, KC & Abu-Libdeh, H (1992 b) The effects of topical and oral l -selenomethionine on pigmentation and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet irradiation. Nutr Cancer 17, 123–137.
Burnell, JN & Shrift, A (1977) Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Phaseolus aureus. Purification and properties. Plant Physiol 60, 670–678.
Cai, X-J, Block, E, Uden, PC, Zhang, X, Quimby, BD & Sullivan, JJ (1995) Allium chemistry: Identification of selenoamino acids in ordinary and selenium-enriched garlic, onion and broccoli using gas chromatography with atomic emission detection. J Agric Food Chem 43, 1754–1757.
Chen, DM, Nigam, SN & McConnell, WB (1970) Biosynthesis of Se-methylselenocysteine and S-methylcysteine in Astragalus bisulcatus. Can J Biochem 48, 1278–1284.
Chen, J, Goetchius, MP, Campbell, TC & Combs, GF (1982 a) Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on hepatic mixed-function oxidase activities and in vivo covalent binding of aflatoxin B1 in rats. J Nutr 112, 324–349.
Chen, J, Goetchius, MP, Combs, GF & Campbell, TC (1982 b) Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on covalent binding of aflatoxin to chick liver cell macromolecules. J Nutr 112, 350–355.
Chow, CK & Gairola, GC (1984) Influence of dietary vitamin E and selenium on metabolic activation of chemicals to mutagens. J Agric Food Chem 32, 43–447.
Clark, LC, Cantor, KP & Allaway, WH (1981) Selenium in forage crops and cancer mortality in U.S. counties. Arch Environ Health 46, 37–42.
Clark, LC, Combs, GF & Turnbull, BW (1996) The nutritional prevention of cancer with selenium 1983–1993; a randomized clinical trial. J Am Med Assoc 276, 1957–1963.
Clark, LC, Dalkin, B, Krongrad, A, Combs, GF & Turnbull, W (1998) Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial. Br J Urol 81, 730–734.
Clark, L, Hixson, LJ, Combs, GF, Reid, ME, Turnabull, BW & Sampliner, RE (1993) Plasma selenium concentration predicts the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous polyps. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2, 41–46.
Clayton, CC & Bauman, CA (1949) Diet and azo dye tumors: effect of diet during a period when the dye is not fed. Cancer Res 9, 575–580.
Coates, RJ, Weiss, NS, Daling, JR, Morris, JS & Labbe, RF (1988) Serum levels of selenium and retinol and the subsequent risk of cancer. Am J Epidemiol 128, 515–523.
Cohen, LA (editor) (2001) Larry Clark, in memoriam. In Nutr Cancer, 40, 1–77.
Combs, GF Jr (2001) Selenium in global food systems. Br J Nutr 85, 517–547.
Combs, GF & Combs, SB (1986 a) Chemical aspects of selenium. In The Role of Selenium in Nutrition, chapter 1, pp. 1–8. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Combs, GF & Combs, SB (1986 b) Selenium and cancer. In The Role of Selenium in Nutrition, chapter 10, pp. 413–462. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Combs, GF & Gray, WP (1998) Chemopreventive agents: selenium. Pharmacol Ther 79, 179–192.
Davis, C, Zeng, H & Finley, JW (2002) Selenium-enriched broccoli decreases intestinal tumorigenesis in multiple intestinal neoplasia mice. J Nutr 132, 307–309.
Davis, CD, Feng, Y, Hein, DW & Finley, JW (1999) The chemical form of selenium influences 3, 2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-DNA adduct formation in rat colon. J Nutr 29, 63–69.
Diamond, AM, Hu, YJ & Mansur, DB (2001) Glutathione peroxidase and viral replications: implications for viral evolution and chemoprevention. Biofactors 14, 205–210.
Donaldson, WE (1977) Selenium inhibition of avian fatty acid synthase complex. Chem Biol Interact 17, 313–320.
Dong, L, Wang, W, Wang, F, Stoner, M & Reed, JC (1999) Mechanism of transcriptional activation of bcl-2 gene expression by 17β-estradiol in breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem 274, 32099–32107.
Dong, Y, Lisk, DJ, Block, E & Ip, C (2001) Characterization of the biological activity of γ-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine: A novel, naturally occurring anticancer agent from garlic. Cancer Res 61, 2923–2928.
Duffield-Lillico, AJ, Reid, ME & Turnbull, BW (2002) Baseline characteristics and the effect of selenium supplementation on cancer incidence in a randomized clinical trial: a summary report of the nutritional prevention of cancer trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 630–639.
El-Bayoumy, K (1985) Effects of organoselenium compounds on induction of mouse forestomach tumors by benzo(a)pyrene. Cancer Res 45, 3631–3635.
El-Bayoumy, K (2001) The protective role of selenium on genetic damage and on cancer. Mutat Res 475, 123–139.
El-Bayoumy, K, Chen, YH, Upadhyaya, P, Mescher, C, Cohen, LA & Reddy, BS (1992) Selenium in chemoprevention of carcinogensis II. Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene-induced tumors and DNA adduct formation in the mammary glands of female Sprague-Dawley rats by the synthetic organoselenium compound 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene) selenocyanate. Cancer Res 52, 2402–2407.
Feng, Y, Finley, JW, Davis, CD, Becker, WK, Fretland, AJ & Hein, DW (1999) Dietary selenium reduces the formation of aberrant crypts in rats administered 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 157, 36–42.
Fiala, ES, Joseph, C, Sohn, OS, El-Bayoumy, K & Reddy, BS (1991) Mechanism of benzylselenocyanate inhibition of azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats. Cancer Res 54, 2826–2830.
Finley, JW & Davis, CD (2001) Selenium (Se) from high-selenium broccoli is utilized differently than selenite, selenate and selenomethionine, but is more effective in inhibiting colon carcinogenesis. Biofactors 14, 191–196.
Finley, JW, Davis, C & Feng, Y (2000) Selenium from high-selenium broccoli is protective against colon cancer in rats. J Nutr 130, 2384–2389.
Finley, JW, Ip, C, Lisk, DJ, Davis, CD, Hintze, K & Whanger, PD (2001) Investigations on the cancer protective properties of high selenium broccoli. J Agric Food Chem 49, 2679–2683.
Fleming, J, Ghose, A & Harrison, PR (2001) Molecular mechanisms of cancer prevention by selenium compounds. Nutr Cancer 40, 42–49.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (2002) Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Bangkok: FAO/WHO.
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2000) Selenium. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids, pp. 284–324. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Foster, HD (2002) What Really Causes AIDS, pp. 198. Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing Co.
Galter, D, Mihm, S & Droge, W (1994) Distinct effect of glutathione disulfide on the nuclear transcription factor κB and the activator protein-1. Eur J Biochem 221, 639–648.
Ganther, HE (1999) Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase. Carcinogenesis 20, 1657–1666.
Ganther, HE & Corcoran, C (1969) Selenotrisulfides II. Cross-linking of reduced pancreatic ribonuclease with selenium. Biochemistry 8, 2557–2563.
Ganther, HE & Ip, C (2001) Thioredoxin reductase activity in rat liver is not affected by supranutritional levels of monomethylated selenium in vivo and is inhibited only by high levels of selenium in vitro. J Nutr 131, 301–304.
Garland, M, Morris, JS, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA & Spate, VL (1995) Prospective study of toenail selenium levels and cancer among women. J Natl Cancer Inst 87, 497–505.
Ghose, A, Fleming, J, El-Bayoumy, K & Harrison, PR (2001) Enhance sensitivity of human oral carcinomas to induction of apoptosis by selenium compounds: involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Fas pathways. Cancer Res 61, 7479–7487.
Gladyshev, VN (2001) Identity, evolution and function of selenoproteins and selenoprotein genes. In Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health, pp. 99–114[Hatfield, DL, editor]. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Gladyshev, VN, Stadtman, TC, Hatfield, DL & Jeang, KT (1999) Levels of major selenoproteins in T cells decrease during HIV infection and low molecular mass selenium compounds increase. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96, 835–839.
Glattre, EY, Thomassen, SO, Thoresen, T, Haldorsen, PG & Lund-Larsen, PG (1989) Prediagnostic serum selenium in a case–control study of thyroid cancer. Int J Epidemiol 18, 45–49.
Gopalakrishna, R & Gundimeda, U (2002 a) Protein kinase C as a molecular target for cancer prevention by selenocompounds. Nutr Cancer 40, 55–63.
Gopalakrishna, R & Gundimeda, U (2002 b) Antioxidant regulation of protein kinase C in cancer prevention. J Nutr 132, 3819S–3823S.
Guo, W-D, Hsing, AW, Li, J-Y, Chen, J-S, Chow, W-H & Blot, WJ (1994) Correlation of cervical cancer mortality with reproductive and dietary factors, and serum markers in China. Int J Epidemiol 23, 1127–1132.
Harrison, PR, Lanfear, J, Wu, L, Fleming, J & Blower, L (1996) Mechanisms of chemoprevention and growth inhibition by selenium compounds. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Selenium in Biology and Medicine, pp. 74–82. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Helzlsouer, KJ, Comstock, WG & Morris, JS (1989) Selenium, lycopene, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, retinol and subsequent bladder cancer. Cancer Res 49, 6144–6148.
Holmgren, A (2001) Selenoproteins of the thioredoxin system Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health, pp. 179–189[Hatfield, DL, editor]. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Horvath, PM & Ip, C (1983) Synergistic effect of vitamin E and selenium in the chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Cancer Res 43, 5335–5341.
Hu, YJ, Korothov, KV & Mehta, R (2001) Distribution and functional consequences of nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' untranslated region of the human Sep 15 gene. Cancer Res 61, 2307–2310.
Hunter, DJ, Morris, JS, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Speizer, FE & Willet, WC (1990) A prospective study of selenium status and breast cancer risk. J Am Med Assoc 264, 1128–1131.
Imam, SZ & Ali, SF (2000) Selenium, an antioxidant, attenuates methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity and peroxynitrite generation. Brain Res 855, 186–191.
Ip, C (1988) Differential effects of dietary methionine on the biopotency of selenomethionine and selenite in cancer chemoprevention. J Natl Cancer Inst 80, 258–262.
Ip, C (1998) Lessons from basic research in selenium and cancer prevention. J Nutr 128, 1845–1854.
Ip, C, Birringer, M & Block, E (2000 a) Chemical speciation influences comparative activity of selenium-enriched garlic and yeast in mammary cancer prevention. J Agric Food Chem 48, 2062–2070.
Ip, C & Dong, Y (2001) Methylselenocysteine modulates proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in premalignant lesions of the rat mammary gland. Anticancer Res 21, 863–867.
Ip, C, El-Bayoumy, K, Upadhyaya, P, Ganther, HE, Vadhanavikit, S & Thompson, H (1994 a) Comparative effect of inorganic and organic selenocyanate derivatives in mammary cancer chemoprevention. Carcinogenesis 15, 187–192.
Ip, C & Ganther, HE (1990) Activity of methylated forms of selenium in cancer prevention. Cancer Res 50, 1206–1211.
Ip, C & Ganther, HE (1992 a) Comparison of selenium and sulfur analogs in cancer prevention. Carcinogenesis 13, 1167–1170.
Ip, C & Ganther, HE (1992 b) Biological activities of trimethylselenonium as influenced by arsenite. J Inorg Biochem 46, 215–222.
Ip, C & Ganther, HE (1993) Novel strategies in selenium cancer chemoprevention research. Selenium in Biology and Human Health, pp. 170–180[Burk, RF, editor]. New York: Springer-Verlag, New York.
Ip, C & Lisk, DJ (1994) Characterization of tissue selenium profiles and anticarcinogenic responses in rats fed natural sources of selenium-rich products. Carcinogenesis 15, 573–576.
Ip, C, Lisk, DJ & Stoewsand, GS (1992) Mammary cancer prevention by regular garlic and selenium-enriched garlic. Nutr Cancer 17, 279–286.
Ip, C & Medina, D (1987) Current concepts of selenium and mammary tumorigenesis. In Cellular and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer, pp. 479–494[Medina, D, Kidwell, W, Heppner, G, Anderson, EP, editors]. New York: Plenum Press.
Ip, C, Thompson, HJ & Ganther, HE (1994 b) Activity of triphenylselenonium chloride in mammary cancer prevention. Carcinogenesis 15, 2879–2882.
Ip, C, Thompson, HJ, Zhu, Z & Ganther, HE (2000 b) In vitro and in vivo studies of methylseleninic acid: evidence that a monomethylated selenium metabolite is critical for cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Res 60, 2882–2886.
Jacobs, MM, Matney, JA & Griffin, AC (1977) Inhibitory effects of selenium on the mutagenicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and AAF derivatives. Cancer Lett 2, 319–322.
Jornot, I & Junod, AF (1997) Hyperoxia, unlike phorbol ester, induces glutathione peroxidase through a protein kinase C-independent mechanism. Biochem J 326, 117–123.
Kabuto, M, Imai, H & Yonezawa, C (1994) Prediagnostic serum selenium and zinc levels and subsequent risk of lung and stomach cancer in Japan. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 465–469.
Kaeck, M, Lu, J, Strange, R, Ip, C & Ganther, HE (1997) Differential induction of growth arrest inducible genes by selenium compounds. Biochem Pharmacol 53, 921–926.
Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L, Roy, M, Wishe, HI, Cohen, MW & Stotzky, G (1994) Supplementation of selenium and human immune cell functions II. Effect on cytoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Biol Trace Elem Res 41, 115–126.
Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L, Roy, M, Wishe, HI, Cohen, MW & Stotzky, G (1996) Supplementation with selenium augments the functions of natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cells. Biol Trace Elem Res 52, 227–239.
Klein, EA, Thompson, LM & Lippman, SM (2001) SELECT: The next prostate cancer prevention trial. J Urol 166, 1311–1315.
Kok, FJ, de Bruijn, AM, Hofman, A, Vermeeren, R & Valkenburg, HA (1987) Is serum selenium a risk factor for cancer in men only?. Am J Epidemiol 125, 12–16.
Koller, LD, Exon, JH, Talcott, PA, Osborne, CA & Henningsen, GM (1986) Immune responses in rats supplemented with selenium. Clin Exp Immunol 63, 570–576.
Kryukov, GV, Castellano, S & Novoselov, SV (2003) Characterization of mammalian selenoproteins. Science 300, 1439–1443.
Kumar, S & Holmgren, A (1999) Induction of thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase and glutaredoxin activity in mouse skin by TPA, a calcium ionophore and other tumor promoters. Carcinogenesis 20, 1761–1767.
Kumaraswamy, E, Malykh, A & Korothov, KV (2000) Structure-expression relationships of the 15-kDa selenoprotein gene. Possible role of the protein in cancer etiology. J Biol Chem 275, 35540–35547.
Kumaraswamy, E, Carlson, BA & Morgan, F (2003) Selective removal of the selenocysteine tRNA [Ser] Sec gene (Trsp) in mouse mammary epithelium. Mol Cell Biol 23, 1477–1488.
Lane, HW & Medina, D (1985) Mode of action of selenium inhibition of 7,12-demethylobenz(a)-induced mouse mammary tumorigenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst 75, 675–679.
Lanfear, J, Flemming, JJ, Wu, L, Webster, G & Harrison, PR (1994) The selenium metabolite selenodiglutathione induces p53 and apoptosis: relevance to the chemopreventive effects of selenium?. Carcinogenesis 15, 1387–1392.
Le Boeuf, RA & Hoekstra, WG (1983) Adaptive changes in hepatic glutathione metabolism in response to excess dietary selenium. J Nutr 113, 845–854.
Li, JY, Taylor, PR & Li, B (1993) Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China. J Natl Cancer Inst 85, 1492–1498.
Liu, J, Gilbert, K, Parker, H, Haschek, W & Milner, JA (1991) Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors and DNA adducts by dietary selenite. Cancer Res 51, 4613–4617.
Lu, J (2000) Apoptosis and angiogenesis in cancer prevention by selenium. In Nutrition and Cancer Prevention, pp. 131–145New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. [edited under the auspices of AICR]
Lu, J & Jiang, C (2001) Antiangiogenic activity of selenium in cancer chemoprevention: metabolite-specific effects. Nutr Cancer 40, 64–73.
Lu, J, Jiang, C, Kaech, M, Ganther, HE, Ip, C & Thompson, H (1995) Cellular and metabolic effects of triphenylselenonium chloride in a mammary cell cultured model. Carcinogenesis 16, 513–516.
Mansell, JB & Berry, MJ (2001) Towards a mechanism for selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotes. In Selenium: Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health, pp. 69–81[Hatfield, DL, editor]. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Mark, SD, Qiao, Y-L & Dawsey, SM (2000) Prospective study of serum selenium levels and incident of esophageal and gastric cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst 92, 1753–1763.
Martin, SE & Schillaci, M (1984) Inhibitory effects of selenium on mutagenicity. J Agric Food Chem 32, 426–433.
Medina, D & Morrison, DG (1998) Current ideas on selenium as a chemopreventive agent. Pathol Immunopathol Res 7, 187–199.
Milner, JA (1985) Effect of selenium on virally induced and transplanted tumor models. Fed Proc 44, 2568–2572.
Mitchell, AD & Benevenga, NJ (1978) The role of transamination in methionine oxidation in the rat. J Nutr 108, 67–78.
Navarrete, M, Gaudry, A, Revel, G, Martinez, T & Cabrera, L (2001) Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer. Biol Trace Elem Res 79, 97–105.
Nayini, J, El-Bayoumy, K, Sugie, S, Cohen, LA & Reddy, BS (1989) Chemoprevention of experimental mammary carcinogenesis by the synthetic organoselenium compound, benzylselenocyanate, in rats. Carcinogenesis 10, 509–512.
Neuhierl, B, Thanbichler, M, Lottspeich, F & Bock, A (1999) A family of S-methylmethionine-dependent thiol/selenol methyltransferases. Role in selenium tolerance and evolutionary relation. J Biol Chem 274, 5407–5414.
Ng, BH & Anderson, JW (1979) Light-dependent incorporation of selenite and sulfite into selenocysteine and cysteine by isolated pea chloroplasts. Phytochemistry 18, 573–581.
Nomura, A, Heilbrun, LK, Morris, JS & Stemmermann, GN (1987) Serum selenium and the risk of cancer by specific sites: case–control analysis of prospective data. J Natl Cancer Inst 79, 103–108.
Noord, PA, Van Collette, HJ, Maas, MJ, de Waard, F (1987) Selenium levels in nails of premenopausal breast cancer patients assessed prediagnostically in a cohort-nested case-referent study among women screened in the DOM project. Int J Epidemol 16, 318–322.
Oldfield, JE (1999) Selenium World Atlas, pp. 83. Grimbergen: Selenium-Tellurium Development Association.
Olson, OE, Novacek, EJ, Whitehead, EI & Palmer, IS (1970) Investigation of selenium in wheat. Phytochemistry 9, 1181–1188.
Olson, OE & Palmer, IS (1976) Selenoamino acids in tissues of rats administered inorganic selenium. Metabolism 25, 299–306.
Olsson, U, Onfelt, A & Beije, B (1984) Dietary selenium deficiency causes decreased N -oxygenation of N, N -diethylaniline and increased mutagenicity of dimethylnitrosamine in the isolated rat liver/cell culture system. Mutat Res 126, 73–80.
Peatrie, HT, Klassen, LW, Klassen, PS, O'Dell, JR & Kay, HD (1989) Selenium and the immune response. 2. Enhancement of murine cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell cytotoxicity in vivo. J Leukoc Biol 45, 215–220.
Pence, BC, Pelier, E & Dunn, CG (1994) Effects of dietary selenium on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis and epidermal antioxidant status. J Invest Dermatol 102, 759–761.
Pence, BC, Stewart, M, Walsh, L & Cameron, G (1996) Modulation of oxidative damage in DNA by sodium selenite via the mechanism of apoptosis. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Selenium in Biology and Medicine, pp. 82–88. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Perchellet, JP, Abney, NL, Thomas, RM, Guislan, YL & Perchellet, EM (1987) Effects of combined treatments with selenium, glutathione and vitamin E on glutathione peroxidase activity, ornithine decarboxylase induction and complete and multistage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Cancer Res 47, 477–485.
Poirier, KA & Milner, JA (1983) Factors influencing the antitumorigenic properties of selenium in mice. J Nutr 113, 2147–2154.
Prasad, MP, Mukunda, MA & Krishnaswamy, K (1995) Micronuclei and carcinogen DNA adducts as intermediate end points in nutrient intervention trial of precancerous lesions in the oral cavity. Eur J Cancer 31B, 155–159.
Rao, L, Puschner, B & Prolla, TA (2001) Gene expression profiling of low selenium status in the mouse intestine: Transcriptional activation of genes linked to DNA damage, cell cycle control and oxidative stress. J Nutr 131, 3175–3181.
Rayman, MP (2000) The importance of selenium in human health. Lancet 356, 233–241.
Rogers, MA, Thomas, DB, Davis, S, Weiss, NS, Vaughan, TL & Nevissi, AL (1991) A case–control study of oral cancer and pre-diagnostic concentrations of selenium and zinc in nail tissue. Int J Cancer Res 48, 182–188.
Roy, M, Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L, Wishe, HI, Cohen, MW & Stotzky, G (1994) Supplementation with selenium and human immune cell functions. 1. Effect of lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 receptor expression. Biol Trace Elem Res 41, 103–113.
Russo, MW, Murray, SC, Wurzelmann, JI, Woosley, JT & Sandler, SR (1997) Plasma selenium and the risk of colorectal adenomas. Nutr Cancer 28, 125–129.
Safer, B, Jagaus, B & Crouch, D (1980) Indirect inactivation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 in reticulocyte lysates by selenite. J Biol Chem 2545, 6913–6917.
Salonen, JT, Alfthan, G, Huttunen, JK & Puska, P (1984) Association between serum selenium and the risk of cancer. Am J Epidemiol 120, 342–349.
Schrauzer, GN (2000) Anticarcinogenic effects of selenium. Cell Mol Life Sci 57, 1864–1874.
Schrauzer, GN, White, DA & Schneider, CJ (1977) Mortality correlation studies. III. Statistical association with dietary selenium intakes. Bioinorg Chem 7, 23–31.
Schwarz, K & Foltz, CM (1957) Selenium as an integral part of factor 3 against dietary necrotic liver degeneration. J Am Chem Soc 79, 3292–3293.
Seo, YR, Kelley, MR, Smith, ML, (2002 a) Selenomethionine regulation of p53 by a ref1-dependent redox mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99, 14548–14553.
Seo, YR, Sweeney, C & Smith, ML (2002 b) Selenomethione induction of DNA repair response in human fibroblasts. Oncogene 21, 3663–3669.
Shamberger, RJ (1970) Relationship of selenium to cancer. I. Inhibitory effect of selenium on carcinogenesis. J Natl Cancer Inst 44, 931–936.
Shamberger, RJ & Frost, DV (1969) Possible protective effect of selenium against human cancer. Can Med Assoc J 104, 82–84.
Shamberger, RJ & Willis, CE (1971) Selenium distribution of human cancer mortality. CRC Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2, 211–219.
Sinha, R, Kiley, SC & Ju, JX (1999 a) Effects of methylselenocysteine on PKC, edk 2 phosphorylation and gad gene expression in synchronized mouse mammary epithelial tumor cells. Cancer Lett 146, 135–145.
Sinha, RS, Kiley, C & Ju, JX (1999 b) Effects of methylselenocysteine on PKC, cdk2 phosphorylation and gadd gene expression in synchronized mouse mammary epithelial tumor cells. Cancer Lett 146, 135–145.
Smith-Rose, RL (1926) Mr. J. L. Baird. Nature 158, 88–89.
Taylor, EW (1995) Selenium and cellular immunity. Evidence that selenoproteins may be coded in the +1 reading frame overlapping the human CD4, CD8 and HLA-DR genes. Biol Trace Elem Res 49, 85–95.
Taylor, PR, Li, B & Dawsey, SM (1994) Prevention of esophageal cancer: the nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China. Cancer Res 54, 2029s–2031s.
Teel, RW & Kain, RS (1984) Selenium modified mutagenicity and metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in anS9-dependent system. Mutat Res 127, 9–14.
Terry, N, Zayed, AM, deSouza, MP & Tarun, AS (2000) Selenium in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 51, 401–432.
Toma, S, Micheletti, A & Giacchero, A (1991) Selenium therapy in patients with precancerous and malignant oral cavity lesions; preliminary results. Cancer Detect Prev 15, 491–494.
Ujiie, S, Itoh, Y & Kukuchi, H (1988) Serum selenium contents and the risk of cancer. Gan To Kogaku Ryoho 12, 1891–1897, (translated from Japanese).
Unni, E, Singh, U, Ganther, HE & Sinha, R (2001) Se-methylselenocysteine activates caspase-3 in mouse mammary epithelial tumor cells in vitro. Biofactors 14, 169–177.
van den Brandt, PA, Goldbohm, RA, van't Veer, P, Bode, P & Dorant, E (1993a) A prospective cohort study on selenium status and risk of lung cancer. Cancer Res 53, 4860–4869.
van den Brandt, PA, Goldbohm, RA, van't Veer, P (1993 b) A prospective cohort study of toenail selenium levels and risk of gastrointestinal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 85, 224–229.
Van't Veer, P, van der Wielen, RP, Kok, FJ, Hermus, RJ & Sturmans, F (1990) Selenium in diet, blood, and toenails in relation to breast cancer: a case control study. Am J Epidemiol 131, 987–994.
Vernie, LN, Hamburg, CJ & Bont, WS (1981) Inhibition of the growth of malignant mouse lymphoid cells by selenodiglutathione and selenocystine. Cancer Lett 14, 303–308.
Wang, Z, Jiang, C, Ganther, HE & Lu, J (2001) Antimitogenic and proapoptotic activities of methylseleninic acid in vascular endothelial cells and associated effects on PI3K-AKT, ERK, JNK and P 38 MAPK signaling. Cancer Res 61, 7171–7178.
Waschulewski, IH & Sunde, RA (1988) Effect of dietary methionine on utilization of tissue selenium from dietary selenomethionine for glutathione peroxidase in the rat. J Nutr 118, 367–374.
Whanger, PD (1989) Selenocompounds in plants and their effects on animals. In Toxicants of Plant Origin, Vol. III, Proteins and Amino Acids, pp. 141–167[Cheeke, PR, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Whanger, PD (1992) Selenium in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning and chemical carcinogenesis. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 6, 209–221.
Whanger, PD (2002) Selenocompounds in plants and animals and their biological significance. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 223–232.
Whanger, PD (2003) Metabolic pathways of selenium in plants and animals and their nutritional significance. In Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries, pp. 51–58[Lyons, TP, Jacques, KA, editors]. Proceedings of Allteck's 19th Annual Symposium Nottingham: Nottingham University Press.
Whanger, PD & Butler, JA (1988) Effects of various dietary levels of selenium as selenite or selenomethionine on tissue selenium levels and glutathione peroxidase activity in rats. J Nutr 118, 846–852.
Whanger, PD, Ip, C, Polan, CE, Uden, PC & Wilbaum, G (2000) Tumorigenesis, metabolism, speciation, bioavailability and tissue deposition of selenium in selenium-enriched ramps ( Allium tricoccum ). J Agric Food Chem 48, 5723–5730.
Willett, WC, Polk, BF & Morris, JS (1983) Prediagnostic serum selenium and risk of cancer. Lancet 2, 130–134.
Yang, G & Zhou, R (1994) Further observations on the human maximum safe dietary selenium intake in a seleniferous area of China. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 8, 159–165.
Yang, GQ, Yin, S & Zhou, R (1989 a) Studies on safe maximal daily dietary Se-intake in a seleniferous area in China, Part I Relationship between selenium intake and tissue levels. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 3, 77–87.
Yang, GQ, Yin, S & Zhou, R (1989 b) Studies of safe maximal daily dietary intake in a seleniferous area in China. Part II Relation between selenium intake and manifestations of clinical signs and certain biological altercations. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 3, 123–130.
Yasumoto, K, Iwami, K & Yoshida, M (1984) Nutritional efficiency and chemical form of selenium, an essential trace element, contained in soybean protein. Se-Te Abstr 25, 73150.
Yoshizawa, K, Willett, WC & Morris, SJ (1998) Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 90, 219–1224.
Youn, BW, Fiala, ES & Sohn, OS (2001) Mechanisms of organoselenium compounds in chemoprevention: Effects of transcription factor-DNA binding. Nutr Cancer 40, 28–33.
Yu, Sh-Y, Li, W-G, Zhu, Y-J, Yu, WP & Hou, C (1989) Chemoprevention trial of human hepatitis with selenium supplementation in China. Biol Trace Elem Res 20, 15–22.
Yu, Sh-Y, Zhu, Y-J, Huang, Q-S, Zhi-Huang, C & Zhang, QN (1991) A preliminary report of the intervention trials of primary liver cancer in high risk populations with nutritional supplementation of selenium in China. Biol Trace Elem Res 29, 289–294.
Yu, Sh-Y, Zhu, YJ & Li, WG (1997) Protective role of selenium against hepatitis B virus and primary liver cancer in Qidong. Biol Trace Elem Res 56, 117–124.
Yu, SY, Chu, YJ & Gong, XL (1985) Regional variation of cancer mortality incidence and its relation to selenium levels in China. Biol Trace Elem Res 7, 21–29.
Zhong, W & Oberley, TD (2001) Redox-mediated effects of selenium on apoptosis and cell cycle in the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line. Cancer Res 61, 7071–7078.