1Gunnell D, Whitley E, Upton MN, et al. (2003) Associations of height, leg length, and lung function with cardiovascular risk factors in the Midspan Family Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 57, 141–146.
2Guerrero-Igea FJ, Lepe-Jimenez JA, Garrido-Serrano A, et al. (2001) Association among hyperinsulinemia, family history of diabetes, and diminutive stature in normoglycemic premenopausal women (Letter). Diabetes Care 24, 602–603.
3Lawlor DA, Ebrahim S & Davey SG (2002) The association between components of adult height and type II diabetes and insulin resistance: British Women's Heart and Health Study. Diabetologia 45, 1097–1106.
4Hermanussen M, Sunder M, Voigt M, et al. (2005) Morbid obesity is associated with short stature. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 18, 647–650.
5Hebert PR, Rich-Edwards JW, Manson JE, et al. (1993) Height and incidence of cardiovascular disease in male physicians. Circulation 88, 1437–1443.
6Parker DR, Lapane KL, Lasater TM, et al. (1998) Short stature and cardiovascular disease among men and women from two southeastern New England communities. Int J Epidemiol 27, 970–975.
7Forsen T, Eriksson J, Qiao Q, et al. (2000) Short stature and coronary heart disease: a 35-year follow-up of the Finnish cohorts of The Seven Countries Study. J Intern Med 248, 326–332.
8Henriksson KM, Lindblad U, Agren B, et al. (2001) Associations between body height, body composition and cholesterol levels in middle-aged men. The Coronary Risk Factor Study in Southern Sweden (CRISS). Eur J Epidemiol 17, 521–526.
9Smith GD, Greenwood R, Gunnell D, et al. (2001) Leg length, insulin resistance, and coronary heart disease risk: the Caerphilly Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 55, 867–872.
10McCarron P, Okasha M, McEwen J, et al. (2002) Height in young adulthood and risk of death from cardiorespiratory disease: a prospective study of male former students of Glasgow University, Scotland. Am J Epidemiol 155, 683–687.
11Lawlor DA, Taylor M, Davey Smith G, et al. (2004) Associations of components of adult height with coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women: the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Heart 90, 745–749.
12Asao K, Kao L, Baptiste-Roberts K, et al. (2006) Short stature and the risk of adiposity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes in middle age: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994. Diabetes Care 29, 1632–1637.
13Jang HC, Min HK, Lee HK, et al. (1998) Short stature in Korean women: a contribution to the multifactorial predisposition to gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 41, 778–783.
14Njolstad I, Arnesen E & Lund-Larsen PG (1998) Sex differences in risk factors for clinical diabetes mellitus in a general population: a 12-year follow-up of the Finnmark Study. Am J Epidemiol 147, 49–58.
15Anastasiou E, Alevizaki M, Grigorakis SJ, et al. (1998) Decreased stature in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia 41, 997–1001.
16Brown DC, Byrne CD, Clark PM, et al. (1991) Height and glucose tolerance in adult subjects. Diabetologia 34, 531–533.
17Jarrett RJ & Fitzgerald AP (1992) Height and glucose tolerance (Letter). Diabetologia 35, 191–192.
18Branchtein L, Schmidt MI, Matos MC, et al. (2000) Short stature and gestational diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Gestational Diabetes Study Group. Diabetologia 43, 848–851.
19Olatunbosun ST & Bella AF (2000) Relationship between height, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in an urban African black adult population: a case for the “thrifty phenotype” hypothesis? J Natl Med Assoc 92, 265–268.
20Kousta E, Lawrence NJ, Penny A, et al. (2000) Women with a history of gestational diabetes of European and South Asian origin are shorter than women with normal glucose tolerance in pregnancy. Diabet Med 17, 792–797.
21Pan WH, Yeh WT, Hwu CM, et al. (2001) Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese subjects with impaired fasting glycemia: impact of female sex, central obesity, and short stature. Chin J Physiol 44, 44–51.
22Moses RG & Mackay MT (2004) Gestational diabetes: is there a relationship between leg length and glucose tolerance? Diabetes Care 27, 1033–1035.
23Lara-Esqueda A, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Velazquez-Monroy O, et al. (2004) The body mass index is a less-sensitive tool for detecting cases with obesity-associated co-morbidities in short stature subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 1443–1450.
24Allison DB, Zhu SK, Plankey M, et al. (2002) Differential associations of body mass index and adiposity with all-cause mortality among men in the first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES I and NHANES II) follow-up studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 410–416.
25Bigaard J, Frederiksen K, Tjønneland A, et al. (2004) Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality. Obes Res 12, 1042–1049.
26Lopez-Alvarenga JC, Montesinos-Cabrera RA, Velazquez-Alva C, et al. (2003) Short stature is related to high body fat composition despite body mass index in a Mexican population. Arch Med Res 34, 137–140.
27Fung KP, Lee J, Lau SP, et al. (1990) Properties and clinical implications of body mass indices. Arch Dis Child 65, 516–519.
28Franklin MF (1999) Comparison of weight and height relations in boys from 4 countries. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 157S–162S.
29Hattori K & Hirohara T (2002) Age change of power in weight/height(p) indices used as measures of adiposity in Japanese. Am J Hum Biol 14, 275–279.
30Himes JH & Roche AF (1986) Subcutaneous fatness and stature: relationship from infancy to adulthood. Hum Biol 58, 737–750.
31Lazarus R, Baur L, Webb K, et al. (1996) Adiposity and body mass indices in children: Benn's index and other weight for height indices as measures of relative adiposity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20, 406–412.
32Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, et al. (2004) Inter-relationships among childhood BMI, childhood height, and adult obesity: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 10–16.
33Kain J, Uauy R, Lera L, et al. (2005) Trends in height and BMI of 6-year-old children during the nutrition transition in Chile. Obes Res 13, 2178–2186.
34Buchan IE, Bundred PE, Kitchiner DJ, et al. (2007) Body mass index has risen more steeply in tall than in short 3-year olds: serial cross-sectional surveys 1988-2003. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 31, 23–29.
35Bosy-Westpahl A, Danielzik S, Dörhöfer RP, et al. (2005) Patterns of bioelectrical impedance vector distribution by body mass index and age: implications for body-composition analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 60–68, .
36Bosy-Westpahl A, Danielzik S, Dörhöfer RP, et al. (2006) Phase angle from bioelectrical impedance analysis: population reference values by age, sex, and body mass index. JPEN 30, 309–316.
37Danielzik S, Pust S, Landsberg B, et al. (2005) First lessons from the Kiel Obesity Prevetion Study (KOPS). Int J Obes Relat Disord 29, Suppl. 2, S78–S83.
38World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. WHO Technical Report Series . Geneva: WHO.
39Kromeyer-Hauschild K, Wabitsch M, Kunze D, et al. (2001) Perzentile für den Body-mass-Index für das Kindes- und Jugendalter unter Heranziehung verschiedener deutscher Stichproben (Percentiles for body mass index in childhood and adolescence using various German samples). Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 149, 807–818.
40Sun SS, Chumlea WC, Heymsfield SB, et al. (2003) Development of bioelectrical impedance analysis prediction equations for body composition with the use of a multicomponent model for use in epidemiologic surveys. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 331–340.
41Bosy-Westphal A, Becker C, Geisler C, et al. (2005) Need for optimal body composition data analysis using air-displacement plethysmography in children and adolescents. J Nutr 135, 2257–2262, .
42Velasquez-Melendez G, Martins IS, Cervato AM, et al. (1999) Relationship between stature, overweight and central obesity in the adult population in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Int J Obes Relat Disord 32, 639–644.
43Beunen GP, Malina RM, Lefevre JA, et al. (1994) Adiposity and biological maturity in girls 6–16 years of age. Int J Obes 18, 542–546.
44Hauspie RC, Vercauteren M & Susanne C (1997) Secular changes in growth and maturation: an update. Acta Paediatr Suppl 423, 20–27.
45Garcia J & Quintana-Domeque C (2007) The evolution of adult height in Europe: a brief note. Econ Hum Biol 5, 340–349.
46Flood JE, Roe LS & Rolls BJ (2006) The effect of increased beverage portion size on energy intake at a meal. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 1984–1990.
47Müller MJ, Bosy-Westphal A, Klaus S, et al. (2004) World Health Organization equations have shortcomings for predicting resting energy expenditure in persons from a modern, affluent population: generation of a new reference standard from a retrospective analysis of a German database of resting energy expenditure. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1379–1390.
48Wegner L, Andersen G, Sparsö T, et al. (2007) Common variation in LMNA increases susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and associates with elevated fasting glycemia of body fat and height in the general population. Diabetes 56, 694–698.
49Weedon MN, Lettre G, Freathy RM, et al. (2007) A common variant of HMGA2 is associated with adult and childhood height in the general population. Nat Genet 39, 1245–1250.
50Bosy-Westphal A, Geisler C, Onur S, et al. (2006) Value of body fat mass vs. anthropometric obesity indices in the assessment of metabolic risk factors. Int J Obes Metab Disord 30, 475–483.
51Shen W, Punyanitya M, Chen J, et al. (2006) Waist circumference correlates with metabolic syndrome indicators better than percentage fat. Obesity 14, 727–736.