Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults

  • Yong Zhu (a1) and James H. Hollis (a2)
Abstract

Epidemiological studies have revealed that soup consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity. Moreover, intervention studies have reported that soup consumption aids in body-weight management. However, little is known about mechanisms that can explain these findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate associations between soup consumption and daily energy intake, dietary energy density (ED), nutrient intake and diet quality. Adults aged 19–64 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 2003–8 were included in the study. Soup consumers were identified from the first dietary recall using the United States Department of Agriculture food codes and combination food type from the dietary data. Compared with non-consumers (n 9307), soup consumers (n 1291) had a lower body weight (P= 0·002), a lower waist circumference (P= 0·001) and a trend towards a lower total energy intake (P= 0·087). Soup consumption was associated with a lower dietary ED (P< 0·001); this was independent of whether data on beverage or water consumption were included. Diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2005, was significantly better in soup consumers (P= 0·008). Soup consumption was also associated with a reduced intake of total fat and an increased intake of protein, carbohydrate and dietary fibre, as well as several vitamins and minerals (P< 0·05 for all). However, it was also associated with a higher intake of Na (P< 0·001). The relationship between soup consumption and body weight could be due to a reduced dietary ED and an improved diet quality. Consumers need to pay attention to their Na intake and choose low-Na products for a healthier diet.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Soup consumption is associated with a lower dietary energy density and a better diet quality in US adults
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: J. H. Hollis, fax +1 515 294 8181, email jhollis@iastate.edu
References
Hide All
1 Flegal, KM, Carroll, MD, Kit, BK, et al. (2012) Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. J Am Med Assoc 307, 491497.
2 Swinburn, BA, Caterson, I, Seidell, JC, et al. (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Public Health Nutr 7, 123146.
3 Zhu, Y & Hollis, JH (2013) Appetite control and regulation of food intake: a review of proposed mechanism. Nutr Ther Metab 31, 5868.
4 Bessa, M, Valente, H, Cordeiro, T, et al. (2008) Fluid intake and overweight risk in children (in Portuguese). Acta Medica Port 21, 161169.
5 Giacosa, A & Filiberti, R (1997) Determination of behavior of food consumption in the local area (in Italian). Med Doctor 8, 4045.
6 Kuroda, M, Ohta, M, Okufuji, T, et al. (2011) Frequency of soup intake is inversely associated with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, but not with other metabolic risk factors in Japanese men. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 137142.
7 Bertrais, S, Galan, P, Renault, N, et al. (2001) Consumption of soup and nutritional intake in French adults: consequences for nutritional status. J Hum Nutr Diet 14, 121128.
8 Moreira, P & Padrao, P (2006) Educational, economic and dietary determinants of obesity in Portuguese adults: a cross-sectional study. Eat Behav 7, 220228.
9 Jordan, HA, Levitz, LS, Utgoff, KL, et al. (1981) Role of food characteristics in behavioral change and weight loss. J Am Diet Assoc 79, 2429.
10 Foreyt, JP, Reeves, RS, Darnell, LS, et al. (1986) Soup consumption as a behavioral weight loss strategy. J Am Diet Assoc 86, 524526.
11 Mattes, R (2005) Soup and satiety. Physiol Behav 83, 739747.
12 Flood, JE & Rolls, BJ (2007) Soup preloads in a variety of forms reduce meal energy intake. Appetite 49, 626634.
13 Clegg, ME, Ranawana, V, Shafat, A, et al. (2013) Soups increase satiety through delayed gastric emptying yet increased glycaemic response. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, 811.
14 Bell, EA, Castellanos, VH, Pelkman, CL, et al. (1998) Energy density of foods affects energy intake in normal-weight women. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 412420.
15 Latner, JD, Rosewall, JK & Chisholm, AM (2008) Energy density effects on food intake, appetite ratings, and loss of control in women with binge eating disorder and weight-matched controls. Eat Behav 9, 257266.
16 Ello-Martin, JA, Ledikwe, JH & Rolls, BJ (2005) The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 236S241S.
17 Vernarelli, JA, Mitchell, DC, Hartman, TJ, et al. (2011) Dietary energy density is associated with body weight status and vegetable intake in US children. J Nutr 141, 22042210.
18 Kant, AK & Graubard, BI (2005) Energy density of diets reported by American adults: association with food group intake, nutrient intake, and body weight. Int J Obes 29, 950956.
19 Bes-Rastrollo, M, van Dam, RM, Martinez-Gonzalez, MA, et al. (2008) Prospective study of dietary energy density and weight gain in women. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 769777.
20 Galan, P, Renault, N, Aissa, M, et al. (2003) Relationship between soup consumption, folate, beta-carotene, and vitamin C status in a French adult population. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 73, 315321.
21 Low, S, Chin, MC & Deurenberg-Yap, M (2009) Review on epidemic of obesity. Ann Acad Med Singapore 38, 5765.
22 Guenther, PM, Reedy, J & Krebs-Smith, SM (2008) Development of the Healthy Eating Index-2005. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 18961901.
23 Guenther, PM, Reedy, J, Krebs-Smith, SM, et al. (2008) Evaluation of the Healthy Eating Index-2005. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 18541864.
24 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm (accessed accessed January 2013).
25 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) What we eat in America. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/wweia.htm (accessed accessed September 2013).
26 Wurtman, JJ, Lieberman, H, Tsay, R, et al. (1988) Calorie and nutrient intakes of elderly and young subjects measured under identical conditions. J Gerontol 43, B174B180.
27 Briefel, RR & Johnson, CL (2004) Secular trends in dietary intake in the United States. Annu Rev Nutr 24, 401431.
28 United States Department of Agriculture (2013) Food Coding Scheme. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid = 12074 (accessed accessed January 2013).
29 Vernarelli, JA, Mitchell, DC, Rolls, BJ, et al. (2013) Methods for calculating dietary energy density in a nationally representative sample. Procedia Food Sci 2, 6874.
30 US Department of Agriculture (2007) Healthy Eating Index-2005 development and evaluation technical report support files. http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/HealthyEatingIndex-2005report.htm (accessed accessed January 2013).
31 Wang, Y & Beydoun, MA (2009) Meat consumption is associated with obesity and central obesity among US adults. Int J Obes 33, 621628.
32 Papanikolaou, Y & Fulgoni, VL (2008) Bean consumption is associated with greater nutrient intake, reduced systolic blood pressure, lower body weight, and a smaller waist circumference in adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 569576.
33 O'Neil, CE, Keast, DR, Nicklas, TA, et al. (2011) Nut consumption is associated with decreased health risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome in U.S. adults: NHANES 1999–2004. J Am Coll Nutr 30, 502510.
34 Brauchla, M, Juan, W, Story, J, et al. (2012) Sources of dietary fiber and the association of fiber intake with childhood obesity risk (in 2–18 year olds) and diabetes risk of adolescents 12–18 year olds: NHANES 2003–2006. J Nutr Metab 2012, 736258.
35 Zhu, Y, Hsu, WH & Hollis, JH (2013) Increasing the number of masticatory cycles is associated with reduced appetite and altered postprandial plasma concentrations of gut hormones, insulin and glucose. Br J Nutr 110, 384390.
36 Zhu, Y, Hsu, WH & Hollis, JH (2013) The effect of food form on satiety. Int J Food Sci Nutr 64, 385391.
37 O'Neil, CE, Nicklas, TA, Zanovec, M, et al. (2011) Diet quality is positively associated with 100 % fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003–2006. Nutr J 10, 17.
38 Keast, DR, O'Neil, CE & Jones, JM (2011) Dried fruit consumption is associated with improved diet quality and reduced obesity in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004. Nutr Res 31, 460467.
39 Vioque, J, Weinbrenner, T, Castello, A, et al. (2008) Intake of fruits and vegetables in relation to 10-year weight gain among Spanish adults. Obesity 16, 664670.
40 Buijsse, B, Feskens, EJM, Schulze, MB, et al. (2009) Fruit and vegetable intakes and subsequent changes in body weight in European populations: results from the project on Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes). Am J Clin Nutr 90, 202209.
41 Zhu, Y & Hollis, JH (2013) The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate. PLoS One 8, e67482.
42 Panahi, S, Ezatagha, A, Temelli, F, et al. (2007) Beta-glucan from two sources of oat concentrates affect postprandial glycemia in relation to the level of viscosity. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 639644.
43 Tantamango, YM, Knutsen, SF, Beeson, L, et al. (2011) Association between dietary fiber and incident cases of colon polyps: the adventist health study. Gastrointest Cancer Res 4, 161167.
44 Anderson, JW, Baird, P, Davis, RH, et al. (2009) Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutr Rev 67, 188205.
45 Pereira, MA & Ludwig, DS (2001) Dietary fiber and body-weight weight regulation: observations and mechanisms. Pediatr Clin North Am 48, 969980.
46 Martinez-Tomas, R, Larque, E, Gonzalez-Silvera, D, et al. (2012) Effect of the consumption of a fruit and vegetable soup with high in vitro carotenoid bioaccessibility on serum carotenoid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress in young men. Eur J Nutr 51, 231239.
47 Sanchez-Moreno, C, Cano, MP, de Ancos, B, et al. (2006) Mediterranean vegetable soup consumption increases plasma vitamin C and decreases F-2-isoprostanes, prostaglandin E-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in healthy humans. J Nutr Biochem 17, 183189.
48 He, JA, Ogden, LG, Vupputuri, S, et al. (1999) Dietary sodium intake and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults. J Am Med Assoc 282, 20272034.
49 Alderman, MH, Cohen, H & Madhavan, S (1998) Dietary sodium intake and mortality: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Lancet 351, 781785.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed